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Cranberry and Grape Juices Affect Tight Junction Function and Structural Integrity of Rotavirus-Infected Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cell Monolayers

January 14, 2012
Lipson SM, Gordon RE, Ozen FS, Karthikeyan L, Kirov N, Stotzky G
Food Environ Virol 3:46–54

Cranberry juice (CJ) and grape juice (GJ) from Vaccinium macrocarpon and Vitis labrusca, respectively, and purified proanthocyanidins (PACs) from these species are recognized to possess antiviral activity. The effects of CJ and GJ on tight junction (TJ) structure and function among rotavirus-infected monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA-104) in monolayer cultures were evaluated. Antiviral activity by cranberry PACs of rotavirus in cell-free suspension was investigated by a rotavirus antigen [i.e., viral capsid protein 6 (VP6)] capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MA-104 monolayers were treated with CJ, GJ, or cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) drink before inoculation with rotavirus. TJ function and structural integrity were measured by changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and by reduction of signal intensity of the TJ α-claudin 1 by immunofluorescence. The inhibitory activity of CJ and GJ on viral RNA synthesis, as a function of viral concentration, was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). After 4 days, virus-infected monolayers pretreated with GJ (Concord and Niagara GJs) had TEER readings similar to uninfected controls. CJ and CJC also had a significant protective effect (P