Cranberry Antioxidant Power on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Mitochondrial Damage.
The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is one of the fruits containing antioxidants in great quantity and of high quality. From recent research, it is evident that both cranberry and its products, when consumed chronically or acutely, boost the antioxidant effect. Likewise, most studies revealed the anti-inflammatory potential of the cranberry polyphenols. Both effects exert direct action mechanisms, revealed by the ability of the polyphenols to remove the reactive oxygen species, as well as indirect effects, represented by the action of these phytochemicals on the cell signaling pathways and genetic expression. A limited number of articles that evaluated the effects of cranberry on mitochondrial damages are available. However, an enhancement in the functions of this organelle was confirmed by the increased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, further studies are required to demonstrate the benefits credited to the use of cranberry, as well as to describe the action mechanisms of the polyphenols.