Cranberry components inhibit interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and prostaglandin E production by lipopolysaccharide-activated gingival fibroblasts
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the tooth supporting tissues. Gingival fibroblasts are the most abundant cells in periodontal tissues and participate actively in the host inflammatory response to periodontopathogens, which is known to mediate local tissue destruction in periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a proanthocyanidin-enriched cranberry fraction, prepared from cranberry juice concentrate, on inflammatory mediator production by gingival fibroblasts stimulated by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production by fibroblasts treated with the cranberry fraction and stimulated by A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Changes induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS and the cranberry fraction in the expression and phosphorylation state of fibroblast intracellular signaling proteins were characterized by antibody microarrays. The LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE(2) responses of gingival fibroblasts were inhibited by treatment with the cranberry fraction. This fraction was found to inhibit fibroblast intracellular signaling proteins, a phenomenon that may lead to a down-regulation of activating protein-1 activity. Cranberry components also reduced cyclooxygenase 2 expression. This study suggests that cranberry juice contains molecules with interesting properties for the development of new host-modulating therapeutic strategies in the adjunctive treatment of periodontitis.