Cranberry juice constituents affect influenza virus adhesion and infectivity
Cranberry juice contains high molecular weight materials (NDM) that inhibit bacterial adhesion to host cells as well as the co-aggregation of many oral bacteria. Because of its broad-spectrum activity, we investigated NDM's potential for inhibiting influenza virus adhesion to cells, and subsequent infectivity. Hemagglutination (HA) of red blood cells (RBC) caused by representatives of both influenza virus A subtypes (H1N1)and H3N2) and the B type was inhibited by NDM at concentrations of 125 microg/ml or lower, which is at least 20-fold lower than that usually found in cranberry juice. A dose-response effect of NDM on HA was demonstrated. The infectivity of the A and B types was significantly reduced by preincubation with NDM (250 microg/ml), as reflected by the lack of cytopathic effect on Madine-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the lack of HA activity in the media of infected cells. The effect of NDM was also tested after A or B type viruses were allowed to adsorb to and penetrate the cells. Various levels of reduction in virus tissue culture infective dose TCID50 were observed. The effect was most pronounced when NDM was added several times to the infected MDCK cells. Our cumulative findings indicate that the inhibitory effect of NDM on influenza virus adhesion and infectivity may have a therapeutic potential.