Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the adherence properties of Candida albicans
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Oral candidiasis is a common fungal disease mainly caused by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on pathogenic properties of C. albicans as well as on the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells induced by this oral pathogen. METHODS: Microplate dilution assays were performed to determine the effect of AC-PACs on C. albicans growth as well as biofilm formation stained with crystal violet. Adhesion of FITC-labeled C. albicans to oral epithelial cells and to acrylic resin disks was monitored by fluorometry. The effects of AC-PACs on C. albicans-induced cytokine secretion, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 activation and kinase phosphorylation in oral
epithelial cells were determined by immunological assays. RESULTS: Although AC-PACs did not affect growth of C. albicans, it prevented biofilm formation and reduced adherence of C. albicans to oral epithelial cells and saliva-coated acrylic resin discs. In addition, AC-PACs significantly decreased the secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 by oral epithelial cells stimulated with C. albicans. This
anti-inflammatory effect was associated with reduced activation of NF-kappaB p65 and phosphorylation of specific signal intracellular kinases. CONCLUSION: AC-PACs by affecting the adherence properties of C. albicans and attenuating the inflammatory response induced by this pathogen represent potential novel therapeutic agents for the prevention/treatment of oral candidiasis.