Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit MMP production and activity
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by resident and inflammatory cells in response to periodontopathogens play a major role in periodontal tissue destruction. Our aim was to investigate the effects of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on: (i) the production of various MMPs by human monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and (ii) the catalytic activity of recombinant MMP-1 and MMP-9. The effects of AC-PACs on the expression of 5 protein kinases and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 in macrophages stimulated with LPS were also monitored. Our results indicated that AC-PACs inhibited the production of MMPs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of MMP-1 and MMP-9 was also inhibited. The inhibition of MMP production was associated with reduced phosphorylation of key intracellular kinases and the inhibition of NF-kappaB p65 activity. AC-PACs thus show potential for the development of novel host-modulating strategies to inhibit MMP-mediated tissue destruction during periodontitis.