Direct adhesion force measurements between E. coli and human uroepithelial cells in cranberry juice cocktail
Scope: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to directly measure the nanoscale adhesion forces between P-fimbriated Escherichia coli (E. coli) and human uroepithelial cells exposed to cranberry juice, in order to reveal the molecular mechanisms by which cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) affects bacterial adhesion.Methods and results: Bacterial cell probes were created by attaching P-fimbriated E. coli HB101pDC1 or non-fimbriated E. coli HB101 to AFM tips, and the cellular probes were used to directly measure the adhesion forces between E. coli and uroepithelial cells in solutions containing: 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 27 wt% CJC. Macroscale attachment of E. coli to uroepithelial cells was measured and correlated to nanoscale adhesion force measurements. The adhesion forces between E. coli HB101pDC1 and uroepithelial cells were dose-dependent, and decreased from 9.32+/-2.37 nN in the absence of CJC to 0.75+/-0.19 nN in 27 wt% CJC. Adhesion forces between E. coli HB101 and uroepithelial cells were low in buffer (0.74+/-0.18 nN), and did not change significantly in CJC (0.78+/-0.18 nN in 27 wt% CJC; P=0.794).Conclusion: Our study shows that CJC significantly decreases nanoscale adhesion forces between P-fimbriated E. coli and uroepithelial cells.