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Effect of glycated albumin and cranberry components on interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 production by human gingival fibroblasts

Tipton DA; Hatten AA; Babu JP; Dabbous MKh.
Journal of Periodontal Research. 51(2):228-36

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gingival fibroblasts have the potential to participate in periodontal inflammation and breakdown, producing interleukin (IL)-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed during diabetic hyperglycemia, might aggravate periodontal inflammation. The cranberry contains anti-inflammatory polyphenols, which inhibit proinflammatory activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and IL-1beta-stimulated human cells. Little is known of its effects on gingival fibroblast IL-6 or MMP-3 production stimulated by AGEs. The objectives were to determine cranberry effects on IL-6 and MMP-3 production by gingival fibroblasts exposed to the representative AGE, glycated human serum albumin (G-HSA), or LPS +/- G-HSA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), was derived from cranberry juice. Normal human gingival fibroblasts were incubated with G-HSA or normal HSA or Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS (1 mug/mL) +/- G-HSA, in the presence or absence of preincubation with NDM. IL-6 and MMP-3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's F procedure. RESULTS: IL-6 production was stimulated by G-HSA or LPS (p 0.01), which was inhibited in both cases by NDM (p 0.002). [G-HSA+LPS] synergistically stimulated IL-6 production (p 0.0001), which was inhibited by NDM. MMP-3 levels were not stimulated by G-HSA but were decreased by LPS (p 0.02). [G-HSA+LPS] increased MMP-3 production significantly, vs. LPS (p = 0.0005). NDM inhibited MMP-3 levels in the presence of G-HSA or LPS, and in the presence of [G-HSA+LPS] (p 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: G-HSA +/- LPS may have differential effects on IL-6 and MMP-3 production by human gingival fibroblasts, but both are inhibited by NDM. The study suggests that cranberry phenols may be useful in regulating the host response and perhaps treating periodontitis in patients with poorly controlled diabetes.