Effect of juice processing on the cancer chemopreventive effect of cranberry.
Cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated in cranberries and cranberry products (mash, depectinized mash, pomace, raw juice, clarified juice and juice concentrate). Three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and cranberry solids (mash, depectinized mash and pomace) containing anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds were tested. Cranberry juices and extracts were screened for their ability to induce the phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR). The results showed that there was no cytotoxicity against the cells used in the test. All samples stimulated quinone reductase activity except the highest concentrations of the anthocyanin-rich extract of pomace, which inhibited QR activity. Also, the results showed that the QR induction for all samples varied with concentration and that there was an optimal concentration for which the QR induction was maximal. Although the three cranberry extracts were good QR inducers, our results indicated that the phenols present in aqueous extract showed QR inductions which were more important than those obtained with phenols present in solvent extracts. Also, the ability of phenols to stimulate the QR activity has been reduced continuously and significantly (P<=0.05) during the technological process. Especially, it appears that conditions of the evaporation to obtain a juice concentrate exerted a significant effect (P<=0.05) on inducer potencies of bioactive molecules.