Enteric-Coated and Highly Standardized Cranberry Extract Reduces Antibiotic and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use for Urinary Tract Infections During Radiotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma.
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapy is a major concern for the medical community. Antibiotic resistance mainly affects Gram-negative bacteria that are an important cause of lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs). Pelvic irradiation for prostate cancer is a risk factor for LUTIs. Cranberry extract is reported to reduce the incidence of LUTIs. The prophylactic role of an enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract (VO370) in reducing LUTI episodes, urinary discomfort, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and antibiotic use during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma was evaluated.METHODS: A total of 924 patients with prostate carcinoma treated by radiotherapy to the prostatic and pelvic areas were randomized to receive (n=489) or not (n=435) the enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract for 6-7 weeks concurrently with irradiation. Outcomes were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson's chi2 test. Primary endpoint was the number of patients with LUTI; secondary endpoints were incidence of recurrence, days of treatment with antibiotics and number of subjects treated with NSAIDs, and incidence of dysuria.RESULTS: The treatment was very well tolerated, and there were no serious side effects. All enrolled patients completed the study. Urinary infections were detected in 53 of the 489 patients (10.8%) treated with enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract, while 107 of the 435 patients (24.6%) in the control group developed LUTIs (p=0.0001). A clear and significant reduction in urinary discomfort of ~50% was seen in treated subjects. The treatment also resulted in ~50% reduction in the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics. CONCLUSION: The enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract could be used as a prophylactic to reduce the incidence of LUTIs and decrease antibiotic therapy in patients receiving pelvic irradiation for prostate cancer.