Impact of cranberry juice and proanthocyanidins on the ability of Escherichia coli to form biofilms
The effects of cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) and proanthocyanidins (PACs) on biofilm formation were investigated. Escherichia coli strain HB101pDC1 and nonfimbriated strain HB101 were grown in 10 wt% CJC or 120 μg/mL PACs for 12 consecutive cultures. Biofilm formation was investigated by incubating bacteria in 96-well polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates and studying the optical density of the solution using the crystal violet method. We suspect that biofilm formation occurred due to non-specific interactions between the bacteria and the polymer. Both P-fimbriated E. coli HB101pDC1 and the non-fimbriated strain HB101 formed biofilms. E. coli strain HB101pDC1 formed a thicker and more mature biofilm. Cranberry juice inhibited biofilm formation after the first culture; however, for bacteria grown in PACs, a decrease in biofilm formation was observed with increasing number of cultures. The inhibitory effect was reversible. These results demonstrate that CJC is more effective than isolated PACs at preventing biofilm formation, possibly suggesting that other cranberry compounds also play a role in anti-biofilm activity.