Influence of Cranberry Extract on Tamm-Horsfall Protein in Human Urine and its AntiadhesiveActivity Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli.
LC-MS characterized cranberry extract from the fruits of Vaccinium macrocarpon inhibited under in vitro conditions the bacterial adhesion of Escherichia coli strain 2980 uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC strains UTI89, NU14) to T24 bladder cells and adhesion of UPEC strain CFT073 to A498 kidney cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Within a biomedical study, urine samples from 16 volunteers (8 male, 8 female) consuming cranberry extract for 7 d (900 mg/d) were analyzed for potential antiadhesive activity against UPEC by ex vivo experiments. Results indicated inhibition of adhesion of UPEC strain UTI89 to human T24 bladder cells. Subgroup analysis proved significant inhibition of bacterial adhesion in case of urine samples obtained from male volunteers while female urine did not influence the bacterial attachment. Differences between antiadhesive capacity of urine samples from male/female volunteers were significant. Protein analysis of the urinesamples indicated increased amounts of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP, syn. uromodulin) in the active samples. Inhibition of bacterial adhesion by the urine samples was correlated to the respective amount of THP. As it is known that THP, a highly mannosylated glycoprotein, strongly interacts with FimH of UPEC, this will lead to a decreased interaction with uroplakin, a FimH-binding transmembrane protein of urothelial lining cells. From these data it can be concluded that the antiadhesive effect of cranberry after oral intake is not only related to the direct inhibition of bacterial adhesins by extract compounds but is additionally due to an induction of antiadhesive THP in the kidney.