Polyphenol Interactions Mitigate the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Gliadins.
Wheat allergy is an IgE-mediated disorder. Polyphenols, which are known to interact with certain proteins, could be used to reduce allergic reactions. This study screened several polyphenol sources for their ability to interact with gliadins, mask epitopes, and affect basophil degranulation. Polyphenol extracts from artichoke leaves, cranberries, apples, and green tea leaves were examined. Of these extracts, the first three formed insoluble complexes with gliadins. Only the cranberry and apple extracts masked epitopes in dot blot assays using anti-gliadin IgG and IgE antibodies from patients with wheat allergies. The cranberry and artichoke extracts limited cellular degranulation by reducing mouse anti-gliadin IgE recognition. In conclusion, the cranberry extract is the most effective polyphenol source at reducing the immunogenicity and allergenicity of wheat gliadins.