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Berry Surprising Cranberry Science

Research Abstracts By Year


Anti-inflammatory and neuroactive properties of selected fruit extracts

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Heim KC, Angers P, Léonhart S, Ritz BW
Journal: J Med Food 15(9):851-4

Abstract: Epidemiological evidence supports inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of
cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Dietary botanicals with salient health benefits include berries and leafy vegetables. Molecular pharmacology research has ascribed these benefits primarily to phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity. The current investigation sought to eluicidate pharmacologic activity of two novel preparations of berry and spinach extracts in vitro. Blueberry and cranberry exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity. In a dose-dependent manner, a proprietary mixture of cranberry and blueberry extracts inhibited inhibitor of jB kinase b, a central node in inflammatory signal transduction. A proprietary mixture of blueberry, strawberry, and spinach extracts inhibited prolyl endopeptidase, a regulator
of central neuropeptide stability and an emerging therapeutic target in neurology and psychiatry. These results indicate specific molecular targets of blended dietary plants with potential relevance to inflammation and neurological health.


Antioxidant activity of polyphenol rich fruits on human erythrocytes

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Widen C, Ekholm A, Piwowar-Zali D, Rumpunen K
Journal: Acta Hort 926, 669-674

Abstract: Diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health and delay the onset of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The benefit, especially of different berries, has been largely attributed to their content of numerous phytochemicals, and their effects in terms of antioxidant capacity are often evaluated chemically by different methods. We have instead used a highly relevant biological model, a modified CAP-e assay (Cell-based Antioxidant Protection in erythrocytes), to evaluate bioefficacy of antioxidants in Swedish berries. Extracts of twelve fruit and berries were analysed both by chemical and biological analyses: apple (Malus domestica, peel), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), purple chokeberry (Aronia x prunifolia), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rose hips (Rosa spp.), sea buckthorn (Hippohae rhamnoides), sloe (Prunus spinosa) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Purple chokeberry, sloe and rose hips showed high antioxidant capacity in the chemical assays. Rose hips showed the highest degree of antioxidant protection also in the biological model, however, chokeberry and sloe showed medium or low protection. Furthermore, strawberry showed overall high protection in the biological assay but low antioxidant capacity in the chemical assays. The chemical and biological models showed different results and future studies of the biological model and in vivo situations are necessary.


Capability of Lactobacillus plantarum IFPL935 To Catabolize Flavan-3-ol Compounds and Complex Phenolic Extracts

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Sanchez-Patan F, Tabasco R, Monagas M, Requena T, Pelaez C, Moreno-Arribas MV, Bartolome B
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 60(29):7142-51

Abstract: Lactobacillus plantarum IFPL935 was incubated with individual monomeric flavan-3-ols and dimeric A- and B-type procyanidins to identify new metabolites and to determine the effect of compound structural features on bacterial growth and catabolism. Complex extracts rich in A-type proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids from cranberry were also tested. The results showed that L. plantarum IFPL935 exhibited higher resistance to nongalloylated monomeric flavan-3-ols, A-type dimeric procyanidins, and cranberry extract than to (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate and B-type dimeric procyanidins. Despite these findings, the strain was capable of rapidly degrading (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, but not A- or B-type dimeric procyanidins. However, it
was able to produce large changes in the phenolic profile of the cranberry extract mainly due to the catabolism of
hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. Of most relevance was the fact that L. plantarum IFPL935 cleaved the heterocyclic ring of monomeric flavan-3-ols, giving rise to 1-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2″,4″,6″-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol, activity exhibited by only a few human intestinal bacteria.


Comparing Procyanidins in Selected Vaccinium Species by UHPLC-MS with Regard to Authenticity and Health Effects

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Jungfer E, Zimmermann BF, Ruttkat A, Galensa R
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 60(38):9688-96

Abstract: Cranberry procyanidins have been associated with an effect against urinary tract infections (UTI) for decades, and
European health claims are requested. This study compares the procyanidin profiles and concentrations of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), European cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus L.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) analyzed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatoraphy coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray interface
(UHPLC-MS2). Concentrations of A-type trimers, procyanidin A2, catechin, epicatechin, and B-type dimers and trimers have been evaluated and compared for the first time in the three berries. The data clearly show remarkable differences in the procyanidin profiles and concentrations, especially the lack of A-type trimers in V. oxycoccus; thus, the effectiveness against UTI may vary among the Vaccinium species. These differences can be used to prove authenticity.


Comparison of Health-Relevant Flavanoids in Commonly Consumed Cranberry Products

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Grace MH, Massey AR, Mbeunkui F, Yousef GG, Lila MA
Journal: J Food Sci 77(8):H176-83

Abstract: The human health benefits from consumption of cranberry products have been associated with the fruits’ unique flavonoid composition, including a complex profile of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. However, when
processed by techniques such as pressing, canning, concentrating, or drying, a number of these natural components may be compromised or inactivated due to physical separation, thermal degradation, or oxidation. Fresh cranberries were compared to freeze-dried berries and individual fruit tissues (skin and peeled fruit). Products examined included cranberry juices (commercial and prepared from concentrate), cranberry sauces (commercial and homemade), and sweetened-dried cranberries (commercial). Freeze-drying resulted in no detectable losses of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins from cranberry
fruits. Anthocyanins were localized in the skin. Proanthocyanins were higher in the skin than in the flesh, with the exception of procyanidin A-2 dimer which was concentrated in the flesh. Anthocyanins were significantly higher in not-from-concentrate juice than in reconstituted juice from concentrate (8.3 mg and 4.2 mg/100 mL, respectively). Similarly, proanthocyanidins were markedly higher in not-from-concentrate juice compared to juice from concentrate (23.0 mg and 8.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Homemade sauce contained far higher anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (15.9 and 87.9 mg/100 g, respectively) than canned sauces processed with whole berries (9.6 and 54.4 mg/100 g, respectively) or jelled-type (1.1 and 16 mg/100 g, respectively). Sweetened-dried cranberries were quite low in anthocyanins
(7.9 mg/100 g), but they still retained considerable proanthocyanidins (64.2 mg/100 g). Commercially processed products contained significantly lower levels of polyphenols as compared to fresh and home-processed preparations. Anthocyanins were more sensitive to degradation than proanthocyanidins.


Cranberry Juice for the Prevention of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection: A Randoomized Controlled Trial

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Afshar K, Stothers L, Scott H, MacNeily AE
Journal: J Urol

Abstract: Purpose: Proanthocyanidins found in cranberry have been reported to have in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity. We determined the effectiveness of cranberry juice for the prevention of urinary tract infections in children.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 children were randomized to receive daily cranberry juice with high concentrations of proanthocyanidin vs cranberry
juice with no proanthocyanidin for a 1-year period. The study was powered to detect a 30% decrease in the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infection with type I and II errors of 0.05 and 0.2, respectively. Toilet trained children up to age 18 years were eligible if they had at least 2 culture
documented nonfebrile urinary tract infections in the calendar year before enrollment. Patients with anatomical abnormalities (except for primary vesicoureteral
reflux) were excluded from study. Subjects were followed for 12 months. The participants, clinicians, outcome assessor and statistician were all blinded to treatment allocation.
Results: Of the children 39 girls and 1 boy were recruited. Mean and median patient age was 9.5 and 7 years, respectively (range 5 to 18). There were 20 patients with comparable baseline characteristics randomized to each group. After 12 months of followup the average incidence of urinary tract infection in the treatment group was 0.4 per patient per year and 1.15 in the placebo group
(p 0.045), representing a 65% reduction in the risk of urinary tract infection.
Conclusions: Cranberry juice with high concentrations of proanthocyanidin appears to be effective in the prevention of pediatric nonfebrile urinary tract infections. Further studies are required to determine the cost-effectiveness of this approach.


Effects of a Variety of Food Extracts and Juices on the Specific Binding Ability of Norovirus GII.4 P Particles

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Li D, Baert L, Xia M, Zhong W, Jiang X, Uyttendaele M
Journal: J Food Prot 75(7): 1350-4

Abstract: The effects of 13 food extracts and juices, including shellfish, fruits, and vegetables, on the binding ability of human norovirus (NoV) were examined, using P particles of human NoV GII.4 as a research surrogate. The enhancements (positive values) or reductions (negative values) of NoV P particle detection (changes in optical density at 450 nm) in the presence of different
food extracts and juices as compared with P particles diluted in phosphate-buffered saline were tested by saliva-binding, enzymelinked immunosorbent assay in triplicate. In the presence of different food extracts and juices at different concentrations, an increase or decrease of the receptor-binding ability of the NoV P particles was observed. Due to a higher specific binding and thus a higher
accumulation of the viral particles, oysters may be contaminated with human NoV more often than other shellfish species (mussel, hard clams, and razor clams). Cranberry and pomegranate juices were shown to reduce the specific binding ability of human NoV P particles. No such binding inhibition effects were observed for the other tested extracts of fresh produce (strawberry, blackberry,
blueberry, cherry tomato, spinach, romaine lettuce) or, notably, for raspberry, which has been associated with human NoV outbreaks.


Effects of cranberry extract in the treatment of urinary tract infections in sows

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Mazutti K, Alberton GC, Ferreira FM, Lunardon I, Zotti E, Weber S
Journal: "Arch Vet Sci

Abstract: The experiment consisted in assessing the effectiveness of a commercial product based on cranberry extracts (pHDReg.-Biomin LTDA) in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in sows. Were used 42 sows, with gestational ages ranging between 50 and 70 days, either suffering from UTI or not. Healthy animals were differentiated from affected animals by urinalysis and urine culture. The experiment was composed of sows with UTI that received the cranberry extract product in the diet for a period of 14 days; sows negative for UTI (negative controls) and sows positive for UTI (positive controls). The former two groups did not receive the cranberry extract product in the diet. Urine samples were collected on days zero, seven and 14 after initiation of treatment. Complete urinalysis of these samples, urine specific gravity, pH, bacterial count and bacterial isolation were performed. E. coli was the most frequent isolated agent (90.62%). The results showed that the commercial product made with cranberry extract was effective in promoting a reduction of urinary pH, but did not interfere in any other parameters observed.


Enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of UTIs and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Bonetta A, Di Pierro F
Journal: Cancer Manag Res

Abstract: Background: Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins can interfere with adhesion of bacteria to uroepithelial cells, potentially preventing lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs). Because LUTIs are a common side effect of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of enteric-coated tablets containing highly standardized V. msacrocarpon (ecVM) in this condition.
Methods: A total of 370 consecutive patients were entered into this study. All patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer; 184 patients were also treated with ecVM while 186 served as controls. Cranberry extract therapy started on the simulation day, at which time a bladder catheterization was performed. During EBRT (over 6–7 weeks), all patients underwent weekly examination for urinary tract symptoms, including regular urine cultures during the treatment period.
Results: Compliance was excellent, with no adverse effects or allergic reactions being observed, apart from gastric pain in two patients. In the cranberry cohort (n = 184), 16 LUTIs (8.7%) were observed, while in the control group (n = 186) 45 LUTIs (24.2%) were recorded. This difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, lower rates of nocturia, urgency, micturition frequency, and dysuria were observed in the group that received cranberry extract.
Conclusion: Cranberry extracts have been reported to reduce the incidence of LUTIs significantly in women and children. Our data extend these results to patients with prostate cancer undergoing irradiation to the pelvis, who had a significant reduction in LUTIs compared with controls. These results were accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency), suggesting a generally protective effect of cranberry extract on the bladder mucosa.


Tannin derived materials can block swarming motility and enhance biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: O'May C, Ciobanu A, Lam H, Tufenkiji N
Journal: Biofouling 28(10):1063-76

Abstract: Surface-associated swarming motility is implicated in enhanced bacterial spreading and virulence, hence it follows
that anti-swarming effectors could have clinical benefits. When investigating potential applications of anti-swarming
materials it is important to consider whether the lack of swarming corresponds with an enhanced sessile biofilm
lifestyle and resistance to antibiotics. In this study, well-defined tannins present in multiple plant materials (tannic
acid (TA) and epigallocathecin gallate (EGCG)) and undefined cranberry powder (CP) were found to block swarming motility and enhance biofilm formation and resistance to tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In contrast, gallic acid (GA) did not completely block swarming motility and did not affect biofilm formation or tobramycin resistance. These data support the theory that nutritional conditions can elicit an inverse relationship between swarming motility and biofilm formation capacities. Although anti-swarmers exhibit the potential to yield clinical benefits, it is important to be aware of possible implications regarding biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance.


The antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity methanol extracts from cranberry plants

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Mustarichie R, Udin Z, Muhtadi A, Surahman E, Subarnas A, Supriyatna
Journal: Int Res J Pharm App Sci

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the total phenol content, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of methanol extracts from cranberry plants. The highest total phenol content of 17.1 mg/100 g, and antioxidant activity with IC50=23.8 mg/100 g. This situation shows that the total content of phenolic plant extracts examined correlated with DPPH activity. IC50 cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of each 75.11 micro g/mL against Calu-6 cells, 177.53 from micro g/mL against MCF-cells and 54.87 micro g/mL against HCT-116 cells. From the data obtained we can conclude that this plant has a quite high of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Correlation between total phenolics increased DPPH free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activities are quite good. The results of this study showed that cranberry plants can be used as the basis for the treatment of some diseases.


Antibacterial effects of plant-derived extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Su XW, Howell AB, D'Souza DH
Journal: Foodborne Pathog Dis 9(6):573-8

Abstract: Natural chemicals have been reported to have antibacterial effects against a variety of bacteria. The present study evaluated the antibacterial effects of commercially available grape-seed extract (GSE), pomegranate polyphenols (PP), and lab-prepared cranberry proanthocyanidins (C-PAC) against two strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). GSE, PP, and C-PAC at concentrations of 2 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, or controls were mixed with equal volumes of overnight cultures of MRSA at ~6 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and incubated for 0, 1, 2, 8, and 24 h at 37 degrees C. Treatments were neutralized/stopped using tryptic soy broth containing 3% beef extract. Serial dilutions of the treated MRSA strains and controls were spread-plated on trypticase soy agar and incubated for 24-48 h at 37 degrees C and colonies were counted. Among the three tested agents, GSE at 1 and 5 mg/mL was found to be most effective against MRSA, resulting in a 2.9-4.0 log10 CFU/mL reduction of both strains after 2 h at 37 degrees C. PP at 1 and 5 mg/mL was found to cause 1.1-2.3 log10 CFU/mL reduction, while C-PAC at 1 mg/mL caused <1 log10 CFU/mL reduction of the two MRSA strains after 2 h at 37 degrees C. All three extracts at the tested concentrations decreased the two MRSA strains to undetectable levels within 24 h, with the exception of 1 mg/mL PP for strain 33591. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA after 2 h of treatment showed that GSE and PP caused bacterial cell wall alteration, with negligible effect observed by C-PAC treatment. However, the in vivo activity and clinical safety applications of GSE, PP, and C-PAC need to be evaluated before suggestion for use as a treatment/control measure.


Berry fruits modulated endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis via phosphoinositide-3 kinase/protein kinase B pathway in vitro in endothelial cells.

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Tulio AZ Jr, Chang C, Edirisinghe I, White KD, Jablonski JE, Banaszewski K, Kangath A, Tadapaneni RK, Burton-Freeman B, Jackson LS
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 60(23):5803-12

Abstract: Polyphenolic-rich berry fruits are known to activate redox-sensitive cellular signaling molecules such as phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 kinase)/kinase B (Akt), resulting in a cascade of downstream signaling pathways. This study investigated the ability of strawberry (SB), wild blueberry (WBB), and cranberry (CB) extracts to induce the activation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling in vitro in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and whether this activation would enhance cell migration and angiogenesis. Anthocyanin profiles of the extracts were characterized using HPLC-ESI/MS, and Akt activation was investigated using the Alpha Screen SureFire assay. The total anthocyanin contents of SB, WBB, and CB extracts were 81.7, 82.5, and 83.0 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. SB, WBB, and CB extracts activated Akt in a dose-dependent manner via PI3 kinase and induced cell migration and angiogenesis in vitro in HUVECs. The results from this study suggest that polyphenolics in berry fruits may play a role in promoting vascular health.


Comparison of isolated cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) proanthocyanidins to catechin and procyanidins A2 and B2 for use as standards in the 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde assay

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Feliciano RP, Shea MP, Shanmuganayagam D, Krueger CG, Howell AB, Reed JD
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 60(18):4578-85

Abstract: The 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay is currently used to quantify proanthocyanidin (PAC) content in cranberry products. However, this method suffers from issues of accuracy and precision in the analysis and comparison of PAC levels across a broad range of cranberry products. Current use of procyanidin A2 as a standard leads to an underestimation of PACs content in certain cranberry products, especially those containing higher molecular weight PACs. To begin to address the issue of accuracy, a method for the production of a cranberry PAC standard, derived from an extraction of cranberry (c-PAC) press cake, was developed and evaluated. Use of the c-PAC standard to quantify PAC content in cranberry samples resulted in values that were 2.2 times higher than those determined by procyanidin A2. Increased accuracy is critical for estimating PAC content in relationship to research on authenticity, efficacy, and bioactivity, especially in designing clinical trials for determination of putative health benefits.


Cranberry proanthocyanidins act in synergy with licochalcone A to reduce Porphyromonas gingivalis growth and virulence properties, and to suppress cytokine secretion by macrophages

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Feldman M, Grenier D
Journal: J Appl Microbiol 113(2):438-47

Abstract: "Aims:&#8194; Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of polymicrobial origin that affects the tooth-supporting tissues. With the spread of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria, alternative strategies are required to better control infectious diseases such as periodontitis. The aim of our study was to investigate whether two natural compounds, A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) and licochalcone A, act in synergy against Porphyromonas gingivalis and the host inflammatory response of a macrophage model.

Methods and Results:&#8194; Using a checkerboard microtitre test, AC-PACs and licochalcone A were found to act in synergy to inhibit P. gingivalis growth and biofilm formation. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled P. gingivalis adhesion to oral epithelial cells was also inhibited by a combination of the two natural compounds in a synergistic manner. Fluorometric assays showed that although AC-PACs and licochalcone A reduced both MMP-9 and P. gingivalis collagenase activities, no synergy was obtained with a combination of the compounds. Lastly, AC-PACs and licochalcone A also acted in synergy to reduce the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1&#946;, TNF-&#945;, IL-6 and IL-8 in a macrophage model.

Conclusions:&#8194; A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins and licochalcone A, natural compounds from cranberry and licorice, respectively, act in synergy on both P. gingivalis and the host immune response, the two principal etiological factors of periodontitis.

Significance and Impact of the Study:&#8194; The combined use of AC-PACs and licochalcone A may be a potential novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease."


Cranberry syrup vs trimethoprim in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections among children: a controlled trial

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Uberos J, Nogueras-Ocana M, Fernandex Puentes V, Rodriguez-Belmonte R, Narbona-Lopez E, Molina-Carballo A, Munoz-Hoyos A
Journal: Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials 2012(4):31–38

Abstract: Objectives: The present study forms part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cranberry syrup in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI).
Design: Phase III randomized clinical trial. Setting: The study was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain). Participants: A total of 192 patients were recruited. The subjects were aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of ecurrent UTI (more than two episodes of infection in the last 6 months), associated or otherwise with vesicoureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with UTI. Criteria for exclusion from recruitment to the study included the co-existence of UTI with other infectious diseases or with metabolic diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and the presence of allergy or intolerance to any of the components of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim.
Primary outcome measures: The primary objective was to determine the risk of UTI associated with each intervention.
Results: Of the 198 patients initially eligible, 192 were finally included in the study to receive either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim. UTI was observed in 47 patients, 17 of whom were males and 30 females. We recruited 95 patients diagnosed with recurrent UTI on entry; during
follow-up, 26 patients had a UTI (27.4%, 95% CI: 18.4%–36.3%). Six patients (6.3%) were male and 20 (21.1%) were female. Eighteen patients (18.9% of the total, 95% CI: 11%–26.3%) receiving trimethoprim had a UTI and eight patients (8.4% of the total, 95% CI: 2.8%–13.9%) were given cranberry. Sixty-six percent of the episodes of UTI recurrence were caused by Escherichia coli, with no significant differences being found between the two
treatment branches. No differences were observed between the two treatment branches in the rate of resistance to antibiotics.Conclusion: Our study confirms that cranberry syrup is a safe treatment for the pediatric population. Cranberry prophylaxis has noninferiority with respect to trimethoprim in recurrent UTI.


Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Wang CH, Fang CC, Chen NC, Liu SS, Yu PH, Wu TY, Chen WT, Lee CC, Chen SC
Journal: Arch Intern Med 172(13):988-96

Abstract: BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most commonly acquired bacterial infections. Cranberry-containing products have long been used as a folk remedy to prevent UTIs. The aims of this study were to evaluate cranberry-containing products for the prevention of UTI and to examine the factors influencing their effectiveness. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were systemically searched from inception to November 2011 for randomized controlled trials that compared prevention of UTIs in users of cranberry-containing products vs placebo or nonplacebo controls. There were no restrictions for language, population, or publication year. RESULTS Thirteen trials, including 1616 subjects, were identified for qualitative synthesis from 414 potentially relevant references; 10 of these trials, including a total of 1494 subjects, were further analyzed in quantitative synthesis. The random-effects pooled risk ratio (RR) for cranberry users vs nonusers was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.49-0.80), with a moderate degree of heterogeneity (I2 = 43%) after the exclusion of 1 outlier study. On subgroup analysis, cranberry-containing products seemed to be more effective in several subgroups, including women with recurrent UTIs (RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83) (I2 = 0%), female populations (RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.34-0.73) (I2 = 34%), children (RR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16-0.69) (I2 = 0%), cranberry juice drinkers (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30-0.72) (I2 = 2%), and subjects using cranberry-containing products more than twice daily (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84) (I2 = 18%). CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that cranberry-containing products are associated with protective effect against UTIs. However, this result should be interpreted in the context of substantial heterogeneity across trials.


Effect of cranberry and pumpkin seed extract combination on urinary system: Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study with determination of adherence of uropathogenic bacteria to urothelial cells [German]

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Hartwich, R
Journal: Ernahrung und Medizin 27(1):24-8

Abstract: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical cross-over study with 18 subjects of both sexes (aged 21-52 years), the effect of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and pumpkin seed extract combination (Cystorenal Cranberry plus) on the urinary tract through inhibition of Escherichia coli adherence to urothelial cells was examined. With the ingestion of Cystorenal Cranberry plus, the bacterial adherence was decreased by 33.4% compared to the placebo. The recommended amount of the preparation is sufficient to protect the healthy bladder. There was no adverse effects observed.


Effects of Cranberry Extracts on Growth and Biofilm Production of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus species

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: LaPlante KL, Sarkisian SA, Woodmansee S, Rowley DC, Seeram NP
Journal: Phytother Res doi: 10.1002/ptr.4592

Abstract: Biofilm producing bacteria such as Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli are the most common cause of catheter related urinary tract infections (UTIs). The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is utilized widely as a prophylaxis for UTIs due to its prevention of microbial adhesion. Cranberry contains proanthocyanidins (PACs), which have been implicated as active constituents responsible for its bacterial antiadhesive properties. Despite overwhelming data supporting cranberry's beneficial effects against human pathogenic bacteria, there is limited information regarding its effects on biofilm formation. This study evaluated the effects of three proprietary PAC-standardized cranberry extracts on the inhibition of bacterial growth and biofilm production against a panel of clinically relevant pathogens: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli. The extracts inhibited the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus spp.) but not the Gram-negative species (E. coli) with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range 0.02–5&#8201;mg/mL. The extracts also inhibited biofilm production by the Gram-positive bacteria but did not eradicate their established biofilm. These results suggest that cranberry may have beneficial effects against the growth and biofilm producing capability of Gram-positive bacteria pathogens.


High molecular weight constituents of cranberry interfere with influenza virus neuraminidase activity

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Oiknine-Djian E, Houri-Haddad Y, Weiss EI, Ofek I, Greenbaum E, Hartshorn K, Zakay-Rones Z
Journal: Planta Med 78(10):962-7

Abstract: Cranberry juice contains high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM) which was found to inhibit hemagglutination induced by the influenza virus (IV) as well as to neutralize the cytotoxicity of IV in cell cultures. Because influenza virus surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are involved in viral replication and in the infectious process, we sought in the present study to examine the effect of NDM on neuraminidases which are the target of most anti-influenza drugs today. NDM inhibited the NA enzymatic activity of influenza A and B strains as well as that of Streptococcus pneumoniae. This finding is of importance considering the emergence of influenza isolates resistant to antiviral drugs, reaching 90 % in some places. The anti-NA activity of NDM, evaluated by the MUNANA method and expressed as the concentration required for 50 % inhibition (IC50), was most potent against N1 (IC50, 192 microg/mL), less active against BN and N2 (IC50, 509 microg/mL and 1128 microg/mL, respectively), and moderately active against Streptococcus pneumoniae NA (IC50, 594 microg/mL). The in vitro findings of the present study suggest that cranberry constituents may have a therapeutic potential against both A and B influenza virus infections and might also interfere with the development of secondary bacterial complications


Impact of cranberry juice on initial adhesion of the EPS producing bacterium Burkholderia cepacia

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Yang X, Teng F, Zeng H, Liu Y
Journal: Biofouling 28(5):417-31

Abstract: The impact of cranberry juice was investigated with respect to the initial adhesion of three isogenic strains of the bacterium Burkholderia cepacia with different extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) producing capacities, viz. a wild-type cepacian EPS producer PC184 and its mutant strains PC184rml with reduced EPS production and PC184bceK with a deficiency in EPS production. Adhesion experiments conducted in a parallel-plate flow chamber demonstrated that, in the absence of cranberry juice, strain PC184 had a significantly higher adhesive capacity compared to the mutant strains. In the presence of cranberry juice, the adhesive capacity of the EPS-producing strain PC184 was largely reduced, while cranberry juice had little impact on the adhesion behavior of either mutant strain. Thermodynamic modeling supported the results from adhesion experiments. Surface force apparatus (SFA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies demonstrated a strong association between cranberry juice components and bacterial EPS. It was concluded that cranberry juice components could impact bacterial initial adhesion by adhering to the EPS and impairing the adhesive capacity of the cells, which provides an insight into the development of novel treatment strategies to block the biofilm formation associated with bacterial infection.


Pilot randomized controlled dosing study of cranberry capsules for reduction of bacteriuria plus pyuria in female nursing home residents

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Bianco L, Perrelli E, Towle V, Van Ness PH, Juthani-Mehta M
Journal: J Am Geriatr Soc 60(6):1180-1

Abstract: Cranberry products are a nonantimicrobial
method for prevention of urinary tract infection
(UTI). Cranberry proanthocyanidin (PAC), a type of condensed tannin, is the active ingredient in cranberry that
inhibits adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to
uroepithelial cells. Previous cranberry studies for UTI
prevention yielded conflicting results, probably because
of variability of PAC dose and clinical populations studied. In a clinical trial of 300 mL of cranberry juice beverage daily (36 mg PAC), older women (mean age 78.5) had 58% lower odds of having bacteriuria and pyuria than controls, but nursing home residents have difficulty ingesting the volume of juice necessary to prevent bacteriuria. Cranberry capsules are feasible to administer to nursing home residents, but their efficacy has not been demonstrated. In vitro, 36–108 mg of PAC is efficacious at inhibiting bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells, but the most efficacious dose for older nursing home residents has not been identified. The goal of this study was to identify the optimal dose of cranberry capsules that reduced the incidence of bacteriuria plus pyuria over 1 month.


Postprandial glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to sucrose ingested with berries in healthy subjects

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Torronen R, Sarkkinen E, Niskanen T, Tapola N, Kilpi K, Niskanen L
Journal:

Abstract: Berries are often consumed with sucrose. They are also rich sources of polyphenols which may modulate glycaemia after carbohydrate ingestion. The present study investigated the postprandial glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses to sucrose ingested with berries, in comparison with a similar sucrose load without berries. A total of twelve healthy subjects were recruited to a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. They participated in two meal tests on separate days. The berry meal was a puree (150 g) made of bilberries, blackcurrants, cranberries and strawberries with 35 g sucrose. The control meal included the same amount of sucrose and available carbohydrates in water. Fingertip capillary and venous blood samples were taken at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after starting to eat the meal. Glucose, insulin and GLP-1 concentrations were determined from the venous samples, and glucose also from the capillary samples. Compared to the control meal, ingestion of the berry meal resulted in lower capillary and venous plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations at 15 min (P = 0.021, P < 0.007 and P = 0.028, respectively), in higher concentrations at 90 min (P = 0.028, P = 0.021 and P = 0.042, respectively), and in a modest effect on the GLP-1 response (P = 0.05). It also reduced the maximum increases of capillary and venous glucose and insulin concentrations (P = 0.009, P = 0.011 and P = 0.005, respectively), and improved the glycaemic profile (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003 for capillary and venous samples, respectively). These results suggest that the glycaemic control after ingestion of sucrose can be improved by simultaneous consumption of berries.


Protective effects of the phenolic extracts of fruits against oxidative stress in human lung cells.

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Boateng J, Verghese M
Journal: Int J Pharmacol 8(3):152-60

Abstract: Consumption of fruits and the other dietary antioxidants are considered beneficial due to the protection they afford in the pathogenesis associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effects of selected fruit extracts (Plums, Apples, Grapes and Cranberries) on human lung fibroblasts (CCD-25LU) exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) oxidative stress. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) was used to assess cytotoxicity (cell integrity) and antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined. Results showed that LDH release by cells pretreated with fruits extracts were significantly (p<0.05) lower compared to cells treated with tBHP alone. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GST and GPx) in cells pretreated with fruit extracts were increased by 2-4 folds compared to cell exposed to tBHP alone. GSH levels which were significantly (p<0.05) reduced after exposure to tBHP were restored by pretreatment with fruit extracts. Fruits extracts used in this study protected CCD-25LU against oxidative stress induced by tBHP and reduced cell damage. Consumption of fruits may therefore play a significant role in protection against oxidative induced lung diseases.


Urinary Tract Infection Prophylaxis in Children with Neurogenic Bladder with Cranberry Capsules: Randomized Controlled Trial

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Mutlu H, Ekinci Z
Journal: ISRN Pediatr doi: 10.5402/2012/317280

Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this randomized controlled prospective study is to evaluate the efficacy of cranberry capsules for prevention of UTI in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele. Patients and Methods. To be eligible for this study, patients had to be diagnosed as neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele, evaluated urodynamically, followed up with clean intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic drugs. Intervention. Six months of treatment with placebo; after a week of wash-out period treatment of cranberry extract tablets (1 capsule/day) for an additional 6 months. Randomization was performed sequentially. Patients and care givers were blinded to drug assignment. Main outcome measure was infection rate. Group comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon test. Results. The study population included 20 (F/M: 13/7) patients with neurogenic bladder with the mean age of 7.25 ± 3.49 (4, 18) years. The median UTI rate was 0.5/year during placebo usage whereas 0/year during cranberry capsule usage. Decrease in infection rate was significant with cranberry capsule usage (P = 0.012). Decrease in the percentage of the pyuria was also recorded as significant (P = 0.000). Any adverse events or side effects were not recorded. Conclusion. We concluded that cranberry capsules could be an encouraging option for the prevention of recurrent UTI in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele.


A Randomised Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial to Determine the Effect of Cranberry Juice on Decreasing the Incidence of Urinary Symptoms and Urinary Tract Infections in Patients Undergoing Radiotheraphy for Cancer of the Bladder or Cervix.

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Cowan CC, Hutchison C, Cole T, Barry SJ, Paul J, Reed NS, Russell JM
Journal: Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 24(2):e31-8

Abstract: AIMS:
Radical pelvic radiotherapy is one of the main treatment modalities for cancers of the bladder and cervix. The side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy include urinary symptoms, such as urinary frequency and cystitis. The therapeutic effects of cranberry juice in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections in general are well documented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cranberry juice on the incidence of urinary tract infections and urinary symptoms in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy for cancer of the bladder or cervix.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Participants were randomised to receive cranberry juice, twice a day (morning and night) for the duration of their radiotherapy treatment and for 2 weeks after treatment (6 weeks in total) or a placebo beverage, for the same duration.
RESULTS:
The incidence of increased urinary symptoms or urinary tract infections was 82.5% on cranberry and 89.3% on placebo (P=0.240, adjusted odds ratio [cranberry/placebo] 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.14-1.63).
CONCLUSIONS:
The power of the study to detect differences was limited by the below target sample size and poor compliance. Further research is recommended, taking cognisance of the factors contributing to the limitations of this study.


American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract affects human prostate cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest by modulating expression of cell cycle regulators

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Deziel B, MacPhee J, Patel K, Catalli A, Kulka M, Neto C,
Journal: Food Funct DOI: 10.1039/c2fo10145a

Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and its prevalence is expected to increase appreciably in the coming decades. As such, more research is necessary to understand the etiology, progression and possible preventative measures to delay or to stop the development of this disease. Recently, there has been interest in examining the effects of whole extracts from commonly harvested crops on the behaviour and progression of cancer. Here, we describe the effects of whole cranberry extract (WCE) on the behaviour of DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Following treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells with 10, 25 and 50 mg ml 1 of WCE, respectively for 6 h, WCE significantly decreased the cellular viability of DU145 cells. WCE also decreased the
proportion of cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle and increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle following treatment of cells with 25 and 50 mg ml 1 treatment of WCE for 6 h. These alterations in cell cycle were associated with changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins and other cell cycle associated proteins. WCE decreased the expression of CDK4, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and increased the expression of p27. Changes in p16INK4a and pRBp107 protein expression
levels also were evident, however, the changes noted in p16INK4a and pRBp107 protein expression levels
were not statistically significant. These findings demonstrate that phytochemical extracts from the
American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can affect the behaviour of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and further support the potential health benefits associated with cranberries.


Antimicrobial effects of fractions from cranberry products on the growth of seven

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Caillet S, Côté J, Sylvain JF, Lacroix M
Journal: Food Control 23;419-428

Abstract: The antimicrobial effect of thirty HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two cranberry juices and three extracts (anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds) isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace was investigated against seven bacterial strains Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442; Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the maximal tolerated concentration (MTC) of each fraction were determined for each pathogen using a 96-well microtiter plate method. The results, reported in mg phenol/mL, indicated that all the bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by the cranberry phenolic compounds. All pathogens were very sensitive to at least seven fractions with MTCs below 2 mg phenol/mL and five fractions with MICs below 10 mg phenol/mL. In addition, four fractions rich in apolar phenolic compounds were very efficient against all bacteria with MICs below 10 mg phenol/mL, and twenty five fractions completely inhibited microbial growth with MICs below100 mg phenol/well. L. monocytogenes exhibited the highest sensitivity with twelve very active fractions (MTCs and MICs below 1 and
10 mg phenol/mL, respectively) while E. coli O157H7 was the least sensitive to twenty seven fractions (with the highest MICs). Also, it appears that the technological process to manufacture cranberry juice can reduce the antimicrobial activity of phenolic fractions.


Biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine after consumption of cranberry-lingonberry juice

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Tapiainen T, Jauhiainen H, Jaakola L, Salo J, Sevander J, Ikäheimo I, Pirttilä AM, Hohtola A, Uhari M
Journal: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31(5):655-62

Abstract: Cranberry-lingonberry juice (CLJ) was effective in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in our earlier randomized clinical trial. We aimed to test whether consumption of CLJ at a similar dose to earlier reduces the biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine. Twenty healthy women drank 100 ml of CLJ daily for two weeks. Urine samples were obtained 2–4 hours after the last dose. Control samples were taken after a one-week period without berry consumption. Biofilm formation of 20 E. coli strains was measured at 72 hours by the polystyrene microtitre plate method. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed for selected genes. Four of the 20 clinical strains produced more biofilm in urine after CLJ consumption (P&#8201;<&#8201;0.05) and one produced less. Expression levels of the pga, cpxA, fimA and papF genes did not differ between bacteria grown in control urine and urine obtained after CLJ consumption, except for pga gene expression, which was reduced in one strain after CLJ (P&#8201;=&#8201;0.04). It appears that the effect of CLJ in preventing UTIs is not explained by mechanisms that reduce biofilm formation or the expression of selected virulence genes of Escherichia coli in urine.


Cancer chemopreventive effect of fractions from cranberry products

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Caillet S, Lorenzo G, Côté J, Doyon G, Sylvain JF, Lacroix M
Journal: Food Res Int 45;320–330

Abstract: "Cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated in HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two
cranberry juices and three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace containing anthocyanins,
water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds, respectively. Compounds with close polarities were collected in order to obtain between three and four fractions from each juice or extract. Cranberry fractions were screened for their ability to induce the phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR).
The results showed that there was no cytotoxicity against the cells used in the test. All samples stimulated
the quinone reductase activity except the highest concentrations of the less polar fraction of anthocyaninrich extract from pomace, which inhibited the QR activity. The QR induction for all samples varied with the concentration and there was an optimal concentration for which the QR induction was maximal. The technological process to manufacture cranberry juice had little influence on the overall QR inducer potencies of
cranberry fractions, whereas the ability of phenols in fractions to stimulate the QR activity has been reduced
significantly (P&#8804;0.05) during the technological process. Among all samples, phenolic compounds of eight
fractions presented a maximum QR induction greater than 100 II(QR)/mg phenol. The phenolic compounds
of the most polar fraction (rich in phenolic acids) and those of the less polar fraction (rich in proanthocyanidins)
showed stronger induction than those observed with phenols from intermediate fractions."


Comprehensive assessment of the quality of commercial cranberry products. Phenolic characterization and in vitro bioactivity

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Sánchez-Patán F, Bartolomé B, Martín-Alvarez PJ, Anderson M, Howell A, Monagas M
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 60(13):3396-408

Abstract: Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) products have been widely recommended in traditional American medicine for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI). A total of 19 different commercial cranberry products from American and European markets have been analyzed by different global phenolic methods and by UPLC-DAD-ESI-TQ MS. In addition, in vitro antioxidant capacity and uropathogenic bacterial antiadhesion activity tests have been performed. Results revealed that products found in the market widely differed in their phenolic content and distribution, including products completely devoid of flavan-3-ols to highly purified ones, either in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) or in anthocyanins. The product presentation form and polyphenolic profile widely affected the antiadhesion activity, ranging from a negative (nulel) effect to a MIC = 0.5 mg/mL for cranberry powders and a MIC=112 mg/mL for gel capsule samples. Only 4 of 19 products would provide the recommended dose of intake of 36 mg total PACs/day. Of most importance was the fact that this dose would actually provide as low as 0.00 and up to 205 &#956;g/g of procyanidin A2, indicating the lack of product standardization and incongruence between global and individual compound analysis.


Cranberry as Promising Natural Source of Potential Anticancer Agents: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Katsargyris A, Tampaki EC, Giaginis C, Theocharis S
Journal: Anticancer Agents Med Chem [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggest that dietary modification can lower the risk for several cancer types' development. Cranberry in particular, has been shown to have anti-oxidative, -inflammatory and -proliferative properties in vitro. To present the latest knowledge regarding the role of cranberry extracts against human cancer several types. A review of the literature documenting both in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of whole cranberry and/or its extracts is conducted; Current data provide evidence for several anti-cancer properties of either whole cranberry and/or its extracts. The discovery of the specific cranberry components and the appropriate concentrations that exert such beneficial effects along with verification of the preliminary in vitro results in in vivo settings could potentially lead to the invention of novel safer and efficient anti-cancer therapeutic agents.


Cranberry components for the therapy of infectious disease

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Shmuely H, Ofek I, Weiss EI, Rones Z, Houri-Haddad Y
Journal: Curr Opin Biotechnol 23(2):148-52

Abstract: Summary of the in vitro data support a beneficial effect of cranberry or its proanthocyanin constituents by blocking adhesion to and biofilm formation on target tissues of pathogens. In vivo data partially support these beneficial effects. Consumption of various cranberry products benefited young and elderly females in preventing urinary tract infections, and in conjunction with antibiotic treatment in eradicating Helicobacter pylori infections in women. Mouthwash supplemented with an isolated cranberry derivative reduced significantly the caryogenic mutans streptococci. None of the mice infected intranasal with lethal dose of influenza virus and treated with cranberry fraction died after two weeks. Further studies should focus on the active cranberry component as supplement for food and other products especially where whole juice or powder cannot be used.


Cranberry Juice Extract, A Mild Prooxidant with Cytotoxic Properties Independent of Reactive Oxygen Species

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Babich H, Ickow IM, Weisburg JH, Zuckerbraun HL, Schuck AG
Journal: Phytother Res DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3735

Abstract: A cranberry juice extract (CJE), rich in proanthocyanidins, had weak prooxidant properties, generating low
levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide. Generation of H2O2 was pH dependent, increasing at
alkaline pH, and was lowered in the presence of catalase and, to a lesser extent, of superoxide dismutase
(SOD). Growth inhibition and cytotoxicity were noted towards human oral carcinoma HSC-2 cells, with midpoint
cytotoxicity at 200mg/mL CJE, but not towards human gingival HF-1 fibroblasts. Being a mild prooxidant,
CJE toxicity was unaffected by exogenous catalase and pyruvate, scavengers of H2O2, but triggered intracellular
synthesis of reduced glutathione, as confirmed by cell staining with Cell Tracker™ Green. The presence of
exogenous SOD potentiated the toxicity of CJE, possibly by stabilizing the CJE phenols and hindering their
degradative autooxidation. Conversely, ‘spent’ CJE, i.e. CJE added to cell culture medium and incubated for
24 h at 37 C prior to use, was much less toxic to HSC-2 cells than was freshly prepared CJE. These differences
in toxicity between SOD-stabilized CJE, freshly prepared CJE, and ‘spent’ CJE were confirmed in HSC-2 cells
stained with aceto-orcein, which also indicated that the mode of cell death was by the induction of apoptosis.


Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the adherence properties of Candida albicans

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Feldman M, Tanabe S, Howell A, Grenier D
Journal: BMC Complement Altern Med 16;12(1):6

Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Oral candidiasis is a common fungal disease mainly caused by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on pathogenic properties of C. albicans as well as on the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells induced by this oral pathogen. METHODS: Microplate dilution assays were performed to determine the effect of AC-PACs on C. albicans growth as well as biofilm formation stained with crystal violet. Adhesion of FITC-labeled C. albicans to oral epithelial cells and to acrylic resin disks was monitored by fluorometry. The effects of AC-PACs on C. albicans-induced cytokine secretion, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 activation and kinase phosphorylation in oral
epithelial cells were determined by immunological assays. RESULTS: Although AC-PACs did not affect growth of C. albicans, it prevented biofilm formation and reduced adherence of C. albicans to oral epithelial cells and saliva-coated acrylic resin discs. In addition, AC-PACs significantly decreased the secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 by oral epithelial cells stimulated with C. albicans. This
anti-inflammatory effect was associated with reduced activation of NF-kappaB p65 and phosphorylation of specific signal intracellular kinases. CONCLUSION: AC-PACs by affecting the adherence properties of C. albicans and attenuating the inflammatory response induced by this pathogen represent potential novel therapeutic agents for the prevention/treatment of oral candidiasis.


Free Radical-Scavenging Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Fractions from Cranberry Products

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Caillet S, Lorenzo G, Côté J, Sylvain JF, Lacroix M
Journal: Food Nutr Sci 3;337-347

Abstract: Lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity and antiradical activity were evaluated in HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two cranberry juices and three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace containing antho- cyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds, respectively. Compounds with close polarities were collected to obtain between three and four fractions from each juice or extract. The cranberry phenols are good free radical-scav- engers, but they were less efficient at inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. Of all the samples tested, the intermediate pola- rity fraction of extract rich in apolar phenolic compounds of fruit presented the highest antiradical activity while the most hydrophobic fractions of the anthocyanin-rich extract from fruit and pomace appeared to be the most efficient at inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant or pro-oxidant activity of fractions increased with the concentration. The phenol polarity and the technological process to manufacture cranberry juice can influence the antioxidant and an- tiradical activities of fractions.


Inhibition of adherence of multi-drug resistant E. coli by proanthocyanidin

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Gupta A, Dwivedi M, Mahdi AA, Nagana Gowda GA, Khetrapal CL, Bhandari M
Journal: Urol Res 40(2):143-50

Abstract: Proanthocyanidin is commonly used for inhibiting urinary tract infection (UTI) of sensitive strains of Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proanthocyanidin on adherence of uropathogenic multi-drug resistant E. coli to uroepithelial cells, which has not yet been investigated so far. Extracts of the purified proanthocyanidin were prepared from dried cranberry juice. Purity and structural assignment of proanthocyanidin was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Subsequently, its affect on multi-drug resistant bacteria as well as quantification of anti-adherence bioactivity on human vaginal and bladder epithelial cells was appraised. Inhibition of adherence to an extent of about 70% with multi-drug resistant E. coli strains was observed on uroepithelial cell. The anti-adherence bioactivity of the proanthocyanidin was detected at concentrations of 10-50 µg/ml with significant bacteriuria. Probable proanthocyanidin through A-type linkages either combines to P-fimbriae of bacterial cells or modifies the structural entity of P-fimbriae and inhibits bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells. The proanthocyanidin exhibited anti-adherence property with multi-drug resistant strains of uropathogenic P-fimbriated E. coli with in vitro study. Hence proanthocyanidin may be considered as an inhibitory agent for multi-drug resistant strains of E. coli adherence to uroepithelial cells.


Inhibition of Streptococcus gordonii metabolic activity in biofilm by cranberry juice high-molecular-weight component

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Babu J, Blair C, Jacob S, Itzhak O.
Journal: J Biomed Biotechnol 2012:590384

Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that a cranberry high-molecular-mass, nondialyzable material (NDM) can inhibit adhesion of numerous species of bacteria and prevents bacterial coaggregation of bacterial pairs. Bacterial coaggregation leads to plaque formation leading to biofilm development on surfaces of oral cavity. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of low concentrations of NDM on Streptococcus gordonii metabolic activity and biofilm formation on restorative dental surfaces. We found that the NDM selectively inhibited metabolic activity of S. gordonii, without affecting bacterial viability. Inhibiting the metabolic activity of bacteria in biofilm may benefit the health of the oral cavity.


Investigation on the Protective Effects of Cranberry Against the DNA Damage Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Madrigal-Santillán E, Fragoso-Antonio S, Valadez-Vega C, Solano-Solano G, Pérez CZ, Sánchez-Gutiérrez M, Izquierdo-Vega JA, Gutiérrez-Salinas J, Esquivel-Soto J, Esquivel-Chirino C, Sumaya-Martínez T, Fregoso-Aguilar T, Mendoza-Pérez J, Morales-González J
Journal: Molecules 17(4):4435-51.

Abstract: There are few reports that demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of cranberries. Although the types of berry fruits consumed worldwide are many, this paper focuses on cranberries that are commonly consumed in Mexico (Vaccinium macrocarpon species). The purpose of the present study is to determine whether cranberry ethanolic extract (CEE) can prevent the DNA damage produced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using an in vivo mouse peripheral blood micronucleus assay. The experimental groups were organized as follows: a negative control group (without treatment), a positive group treated with B[a]P (200 mg/kg), a group administered with 800 mg/kg of CEE, and three groups treated with B[a]P and CEE (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) respectively. The CEE and benzo[a]pyrene were administered orally for a week, on a daily basis. During this period the body weight, the feed intake, and the determination of antigenotoxic potential were quantified. At the end of this period, we continued with the same determinations for one week more (recovery period) but anymore administration of the substances. The animals treated with B[a]P showed a weight increase after the first week of administration. The same phenomenon was observed in the lots combined with B[a]P and CEE (low and medium doses). The dose of 800 mg/kg of CEE showed similar values to the control group at the end of the treatment period. In the second part of the assay, when the substances were not administered, these experimental groups regained their normal weight. The dose of CEE (800 mg/kg) was not genotoxic nor cytotoxic. On the contrary, the B[a]P increases the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNE) and reduces the rate of polychromatic erythrocytes (PE) at the end of the treatment period. With respect to the combined lots, a significant decrease in the MN rate was observed from the sixth to the eighth day of treatment with the two high doses applied; the highest protection (60%) was obtained with 800 mg/kg of CEE. The same dose showed an anticytotoxic effect which corresponded to an improvement of 62.5% in relation to the animals administered with the B[a]P. In the second period, all groups reached values that have been seen in the control group animals. Our results suggest that the inhibition of clastogenicity of the cranberry ethanolic extract against B[a]P is related to the antioxidant capacity of the combination of phytochemicals present in its chemical composition.


Lingonberry, cranberry and blackcurrant juices affect mRNA

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Kivimaki AS, Ehlers PI, Siltari A, Turpeinen AM,
Journal: J Funct Food 4;496-503

Abstract: Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds affect low-grade inflammation related to cardiovascular diseases among other positive health effects. Cardioprotective actions are
mainly due to enhanced endothelial function and production of nitric oxide (NO).We investigated vascular anti-inflammatory effects of cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) juices given as drinking fluid ad
libitum to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a widely used model of human hypertension, in an 8 week ntervention study. The animals were sacrificed, the aortas cleaned and RNA was extracted. cDNA was prepared for real-time PCR and blood was collected for biochemical
analyses. The mRNA expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and P-selectin were
significantly reduced in the cranberry and lingonberry groups. These findings suggest that cranberry and lingonberry cold-compressed juices have anti-inflammatory and antiatherothrombotic actions in long-term treatment of SHR.


Polyphenol-rich cranberry juice has a neutral effect on endothelial function but decreases the fraction of osteocalcin-expressing endothelial progenitor cells

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Flammer AJ, Martin EA, Gössl M,Widmer RJ, Lennon RJ, Sexton JA, Loeffler D, Khosla S,Lerman LO, Lerman A
Journal: Eur J Nutr DOI 10.1007/s00394-012-0334-4

Abstract: Purpose Cranberry juice (CJ) contains a remarkably high
concentration of polyphenols, considered to be beneficial for cardiovascular and bone health. The current double-blind, randomized study was designed to test whether daily consumption of double-strength Ocean Spray light CJ (2 9 230 ml) over 4 months has beneficial effects on vascular
function and on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) carrying the osteoblastic marker osteocalcin in particular.
Methods Atotal of 84 participants (49.5 ± 16.2 years)with
peripheral endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk
factors were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial (69 completed the 4-month protocol—32 in the CJ group and 37 in the placebo group, respectively). Vascular responses to reactive hyperemia were measured non-invasively by peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for EPC markers, as well as osteocalcin, and counted by flow cytometry. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in bothgroups. The effect of CJ on peripheral endothelial function
and on circulating EPC counts (CD34?/CD133?/KDR?)
did not change during the study. A high percentage of
EPCs expressed osteocalcin (59.4 ± 35.7%). CJ, as compared
to placebo, induced a decrease in the fraction of
EPCs expressing osteocalcin (-8.64 ± 48.98 and
19.13 ± 46.11%, respectively, p = 0.019). Systemic levels
of the adhesion marker ICAM correlated significantly with
the number of EPCs expressing osteocalcin.
Conclusions The study demonstrated that long-term
supplementation of polyphenol-rich CJ did not improve
peripheral endothelial function. However, the decrease in
the fraction of osteocalcin? EPCs suggests a potential
beneficial effect of polyphenol-rich CJ.


Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Zou S, Carey JR, Liedo P, Ingram DK, Yu B.
Journal: Age (Dordr) 34(2):269-79

Abstract: Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet supplemented with or without 2% OC. Lifespan and daily egg production of individual flies were recorded. The effect of short-term OC supplementation was evaluated by implementing the supplementation at three age intervals-young, middle, and old age. We found that OC increased lifespan of Mexflies on the full or DR diet when compared to their respective controls. OC increased reproduction of females on the full diet and, to a lesser extent, on the DR diet. Short-term OC supplementation was not sufficient to extend lifespan for males at all three age intervals nor for females at young and old age intervals. However, OC supplementation at the middle age interval was sufficient to extend lifespan in females, while only OC supplementation at the young age interval increased reproduction in females. Our findings suggest that OC extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through DR-independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction. This also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans.


Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Cheshchevik VT, Lapshina EA, Dremza IK, Zabrodskaya SV, Reiter RJ, Prokopchik NI, Zavodnik IB
Journal: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2012.04.007

Abstract: In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage hasmarkedly increased. The aim of the presentworkwas to carry out further research into themechanism(s) of livermitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg bodyweight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate
and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, pb0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxicmitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of livermitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance ofmitochondria. The activities of themitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl4, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of
the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg)
plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of
toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage.


Recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary Escherichia coli in women ingesting cranberry juice daily: a randomized controlled trial

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Stapleton AE, Dziura J, Hooton TM, Cox ME, Yarova-Yarovaya Y, Chen S, Gupta K
Journal: Mayo Clin Proc 87(2):143-50

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To compare the time to urinary tract infection (UTI) and the rates of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary P-fimbriated Escherichia coli during a 6-month period in women ingesting cranberry vs placebo juice daily.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Premenopausal women with a history of recent UTI were enrolled from November 16, 2005, through December 31, 2008, at 2 centers and randomized to 1 of 3 arms: 4 oz of cranberry juice daily, 8 oz of cranberry juice daily, or placebo juice. Time to UTI (symptoms plus pyuria) was the main outcome. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, adherence, and adverse effects were assessed at monthly visits.
RESULTS:
A total of 176 participants were randomized (120 to cranberry juice and 56 to placebo) and followed up for a median of 168 days. The cumulative rate of UTI was 0.29 in the cranberry juice group and 0.37 in the placebo group (P=.82). The adjusted hazard ratio for UTI in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group was 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.39; P=.29). The proportion of women with P-fimbriated urinary E coli isolates during the intervention phase was 10 of 23 (43.5%) in the cranberry juice group and 8 of 10 (80.0%) in the placebo group (P=.07). The mean dose adherence was 91.8% and 90.3% in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group. Minor adverse effects were reported by 24.2% of those in the cranberry juice group and 12.5% in the placebo group (P=.07).
CONCLUSION:
Cranberry juice did not significantly reduce UTI risk compared with placebo. The potential protective effect we observed is consistent with previous studies and warrants confirmation in larger, well-powered studies of women with recurrent UTI. The concurrent reduction in urinary P-fimbriated E coli strains supports the biological plausibility of cranberry activity.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00128128.


Study on the influence of cranberry extract &#379;uravit S·O·S(®) on the properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, their ability to form biofilm and its antioxidant properties.

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Wojnicz D, Sycz Z, Walkowski S, Gabrielska J, Aleksandra W, Alicja K, Anna S&#321;, Hendrich AB
Journal: Phytomedicine 19(6):506-14

Abstract: Consumption of cranberries is known to exert positive health effects, especially against urinary tract infections. For this reason, presumably, they are widely used in folk medicine. Different aspects of cranberry phenolics activity were studied in individual papers but complex study in this matter is missing. The aim of the present study is to provide complex data concerning various aspects of cranberry extract activity. We studied the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of commercially available extract (&#379;uravit S·O·S(®)) against two Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine of patients with pyelonephritis. Additionally the main extract anthocyanins were characterized. The activity of extract against lipid peroxidation and its radical scavenging ability were also assessed. &#379;uravit S·O·S(®) decreased the hydrophobicity of one of the studied E. coli strains, reduced swimming motility and adhesion to epithelial cells of both studied strains, it also limited the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. Expression of curli was not affected by cranberry extract, the assessment of P fimbriae expression was not reliable due to extract-induced agglutination of erythrocytes. Cranberry extract caused filamentation in both studied E. coli strains. It also showed pronounced antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. The properties of the studied cranberry extract show that it could be effectively used in prevention and/or elimination of urinary tract infections, specially the recurrent ones.


The antimicrobial effects of cranberry against Staphylococcus aureus

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Lian PY, Maseko T, Rhee M, Ng K.
Journal: Food Sci Technol Int 18(2):179-86

Abstract: The antimicrobial effects of the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on a major food-borne pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, were investigated using commercially obtained Lakewood® organic cranberry juice and Ocean Spray® cranberry juice cocktail and four other berry fruit extracts (acai berry, strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry). The results showed that cranberry is a potent antimicrobial against S. aureus and the most potent among the berries studied. The order of percentage inhibition of bacterial growth at the same concentration of phenolic materials as gallic acid equivalents was Lakewood cranberry juice&#8201;>&#8201;Ocean Spray cranberry juice&#8201;&#8811;&#8201;blueberry&#8201;>&#8201;acai berry&#8201;&#8811;&#8201;raspberry&#8201;&#8811;&#8201;strawberry. The antimicrobial effect was not due to the acidity of the berries as NaOH-neutralized samples were almost as effective in terms of percentage inhibition of viable cell growth. Solid-phase extraction of cranberry juice using C18 solid phase showed that the antimicrobial effects reside exclusively with the C18-bound materials.


The effects of cranberry juice on serum glucose, apoB, apoA-I, Lp (a), and Paraoxonase-1 activity in type 2 diabetic male patients

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Shidfar F,Heydari I, Hajimiresmaiel SJ, Hosseini S, Shidfar S, Amiri F
Journal: J Res Med Sci 17(6):Epub

Abstract: Background: Type 2 diabetic patients are faced with a higher risk of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disorders. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of consumption of 1 cup cranberry juice by type 2 diabetic patients on serum paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity, apoA-1, apoB, glucose, and Lp(a).
Materials and Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 58 type 2 diabetic male patients were randomly divided to receive 1 cup cranberry juice (CJ) or placebo drink daily for 12 weeks. Fasting blood were obtained at beginning and at the end of study (12th week). Serum glucose and PON-1 activity were measured by enzymatic and colorimetric methods, respectively. ApoB, apoA-I, and Lp(a) were determined immunoturbidimetrically. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16.
Results: There were significant decrease in serum glucose and apoB (P>0.05 and P>0.01, respectively) and significant increase in serum apoA-1 and PON-1 activity (P>0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) at the end of study in CJ group compared with control group. In CJ group at the end of study, there were significant decrease in serum glucose and apoB (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively) and significant increase in serum apo A-1 and PON-1 activity (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively) compared with initial values. In CJ group, there was no significant change in Lp(a) at the end of study compared with initial values and also compared with control group.
Conclusion: 1 cup CJ for 12 weeks is effective in reducing serum glucose and apoB and increasing apoA-1 and PON-1 activity, so may have favorite effects on reducing CVD risk factors in type 2 diabetic male patients.


Transport of Cranberry A-type Procyanidin Dimers, Trimers, and Tetramers across Monolayers of Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells.

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Ou K, Percival SS, Zou T, Khoo C, Gu L
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 15;60(6):1390-6

Abstract: A-type procyanidin oligomers in cranberries are known to inhibit the adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria. B-type procyanidins dimers and trimers are absorbed by humans. The absorption of A-type procyanidins from cranberries in humans has not been demonstrated. This study examined the transport of A-type cranberry procyanidin dimers, trimers, and tetramers on differentiated human intestinal
epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Procyanidins were extracted from cranberries and purified using hromatographic methods. Fraction I contained predominantly A-type procyanidin dimer A2 [epicatechin-(2-O-7, 4-8)-epicatechin]. Fraction II contained primarily A-type trimers and tetramers, with B-type trimers, A-type
pentamers, and A-type hexamers being minor components. Fraction I or II in solution were added onto the apical side of the Caco-2 cell membranes. The media at the basolateral side of the membranes were analyzed using HPLC-MSn after 2 h. Data indicated that procyanidin dimer A2 in fraction I and A-type trimers and tetramers in fraction II traversed across Caco-2 cell monolayers with transport ratio of 0.6%, 0.4%, and 0.2%, respectively. This study demonstrated A-type dimers, trimers, and tetramers were transported across Caco-2 cells at low rates, suggesting they could be absorbed by humans after cranberry consumption.


A Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled, Dose Dependent Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Proanthocyanidin Standardized Whole Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Powder on Infections of the Urinary Tract

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Sengupta K, Alluri K, Golakoti T, Gottumukkala G, Raavi J, Kotchrlakota L, Sigalan S, Dey D, Ghosh S, Chatterjee A
Journal: Curr Bioact Compd 7(1):39-46(8)

Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a recurrent health problem especially for women. More than 50% of women will suffer from a UTI at least once in their lifetime. Cranberries have long been used for their beneficial effects in preventing symptomatic UTIs in several published studies. However, cranberry products used in these clinical studies do not indicate the amount of active ingredients delivered that help to prevent UTIs. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was designed to understand the impact and safety profile of a standardized cranberry product (Proanthocyanidins Standardized Whole Cranberry Powder,PS-WCP) on reducing the recurrences of symptomatic UTI in culture-positive subjects. A 90- day randomized clinical trial including an untreated control group with a total of 60 female subjects between 18-40 years of age was conducted. Study subjects were randomly selected and assigned to three groups including an untreated control group (n=16), a low dose (500 mg daily, n=21) and a high dose (1000 mg daily, n=23) treatment group. The safety of PSWCP was assessed by evaluation of biochemical and hematological parameters on days 10, 30, 60 and 90 during the study, comparing the values with those at the baseline. Occurrence of UTI at baseline and during the follow-up period was characterized by the presence of symptoms and Escherichia coli in the culture of urine samples. The statistical analysis used was ANOVA. At the end of the 90-day treatment period, no significant changes were observed in the hematological and serum biochemical parameters. At the end of the study, change in the presence of E. coli in the untreated control group was not significant (p=0.7234), whereas, there was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the subjects positive for E. coli in both the high dose and low dose treatment groups, compared to baseline evaluation. Symptomatic relief was also reported in the low and high dose treatment groups, while none was reported by subjects in the untreated control group. In conclusion, PS-WCP was effective in safely reducing the number of E. coli positive subjects at both the 500 mg and 1000 mg dose levels and in ameliorating the symptoms of UTI in these subjects. Therefore, a daily dose of 500 mg or 1000 mg of PS-WCP may be considered as an adjunct to antibiotic prophylactic therapy against recurrent UTIs.


Absorption and excretion of cranberry-derived

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Wang C, Zuo Y, Vinson JA, Deng Y
Journal: Food Chem 132(3):1420–1428

Abstract: Absorption and excretion of twenty cranberry-derived phenolics were studied following the consumption of cranberry juice, sauces, and fruits by healthy human volunteers. Plasma and urine samples were collected and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was employed for analysing urinary creatinine, which was used as a normalisation agent. Significant increases in the sum of plasma phenolics were observed with different concentration peaks (between 0.5 and 2 h) for individual subjects. Some of the phenolics, such as trans-cinnamic, vanillic, p-coumaric acids, and catechin showed second plasma concentration peaks. All of cranberry-derived phenolics increased significantly in urine samples after the intake of each cranberry product. The high molecular weight quercetin and myricetin, which were abundant in cranberry foodstuffs, were not found in either plasma or urine samples. This study provided the fundamental information for understanding the absorption and excretion of phenolics in the human gastrointestinal system after dietary intake of cranberry products.


Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrences of urinary tract infections

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Salo J, Uhari M, Helminen M, Korppi M, Nieminen T, Pokka T, Kontiokari T
Journal: Clin Infect Dis 54(3):340-6

Abstract: Background.&#8195;Cranberry juice prevents recurrences of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult women. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cranberry juice is effective in preventing UTI recurrences in children.
Methods. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was performed in 7 hospitals in Finland. A total of 263 children treated for UTI were randomized to receive either cranberry juice (n = 129) or placebo (n = 134) for 6 months. Eight children were omitted because of protocol violations, leaving 255 children for the final analyses. The children were monitored for 1 year, and their recurrent
UTIs were recorded. Results.&#8195;Twenty children (16%) in the cranberry group and 28 (22%) in the placebo group had at least 1 recurrent UTI (difference, -6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -16 to 4%; P = .21). There were no differences in timing between these first recurrences (P = .32). Episodes of UTI totaled 27 and 47 in the cranberry and placebo groups, respectively, and the UTI incidence density per person-year at risk was 0.16 episodes lower in the cranberry group (95% CI, -.31 to -.01; P = .035). The children in the cranberry group had significantly fewer days on antimicrobials (-6 days per patient-year; 95% CI, -7 to -5; P < .001). Conclusions.&#8195;The intervention did not significantly reduce the number of children who experienced a recurrence of UTI, but it was effective in
reducing the actual number of recurrences and related antimicrobial use.


Cranberry Proanthocyanidins: Natural Weapons against Periodontal Diseases

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Feghali K, Feldman M, La VD, Santos J, Grenier D
Journal: J Agric Food Chem Nov 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract: Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) is known to have a beneficial effect on several aspects of human health. Proanthocyanidins (PACs), the most abundant flavonoids extracted from red cranberry fruits, have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antiadhesion, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent in vitro studies have shown that cranberry PACs may be potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and management of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin affecting tooth-supporting tissues. After presenting an overview of cranberry phytochemicals and their potential for human health benefits, this review will focus on the effects of cranberry PACs on connective tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction, as well as their potential for controlling periodontal diseases. Possible mechanisms of action of cranberry PACs include the inhibition of (i) bacterial and host-derived proteolytic enzymes, (ii) host inflammatory response, and (iii) osteoclast differentiation and activity. Given that cranberry PACs have shown interesting properties in in vitro studies, clinical trials are warranted to better evaluate the potential of these molecules for controlling periodontal diseases.


Inhibition of Adhesion of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Bacteria to Uroepithelial Cells by Extracts from Cranberry

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Ermel G, Georgeault S, Inisan C, Besnard M
Journal: J Med Food 15(2):126-34

Abstract: ABSTRACT Cranberry extract has been reported as a therapeutic agent, mainly in urinary tract infections due to its antiadhesive capacity. In order to compare the effects of proanthocyanidin (procyanidin) (PAC)-standardized cranberry extracts and commercial PAC A2, we first investigated the presence of genes encoding known adhesins on 13 strains of uropathogenic strains coming from patients with cystisis. After this characterization, the anti-adhesive effects of PAC A2 were assayed on selected uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains before testing cranberry extracts. Before checking inhibitory effect on bacterial adhesion to cells, we showed that neither PAC A2 or three cranberry extracts (A, B, and C) specifically inhibited the growth and did not supply any potential nutrient to E. coli strains, including the unrelated control strain. PAC A2 exhibited an inhibitory effect on the adhesion of two selected uropathogenic strains of E. coli. This work also showed that a preliminary exposure of bacteria to PAC A2 significantly reduced the adhesion. This phenomenon has been also observed with a lesser impact when uroepithelial cells were pretreated with PAC A2. Moreover, the assays were more robust when bacteria were in fast growing conditions (exponential phase): the adhesion to uroepithelial cells was greater. Significant reduction of adhesion to urepithelial cells was observed: around 80% of inhibition of adhesion with the cranberry extracts at equivalent PAC concentration of 50 µg/mL. The effects of the different assayed extracts were not obviously different except for extract B, which inhibited approximately 55% of adhesion at an equivalent PAC concentration of 5 µg/mL


Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Kim E, Sy-Cordero A, Graf TN, Brantley SJ, Paine MF, Oberlies NH
Journal: Planta Med. 77(3):265-70

Abstract: infections. These individuals are likely to be taking medications concomitantly with cranberry juice, leading to concern about potential drug-dietary substance interactions, particularly in the intestine, which, along with the liver, is rich in expression of the prominent drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). Using a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach, a cranberry juice product was identified recently that elicited a pharmacokinetic interaction with the CYP3A probe substrate midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, cranberry juice inhibited intestinal first-pass midazolam metabolism. In vitro studies were initiated to identify potential enteric CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry via a bioactivity-directed fractionation approach involving dried whole cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae)], midazolam, and human intestinal microsomes (HIM). Three triterpenes (maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid) were isolated. The inhibitory potency (IC(50)) of maslinic acid, corosolic acid, and ursolic acid was 7.4, 8.8, and < 10 microM, respectively, using HIM as the enzyme source and 2.8, 4.3, and < 10 microM, respectively, using recombinant CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. These in vitro inhibitory potencies, which are within the range of those reported for two CYP3A inhibitory components in grapefruit juice, suggest that these triterpenes may have contributed to the midazolam-cranberry juice interaction observed in the clinical study.


Low-energy cranberry juice decreases lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Basu A, Betts NM, Ortiz J, Simmons B, Wu M, Lyons TJ
Journal: Nutr Res 31(3):190-6

Abstract: Cranberries, high in polyphenols, have been associated with several cardiovascular health benefits, although limited clinical trials have been reported to validate these findings. We tested the hypothesis that commercially available low-energy cranberry juice (Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc, Lakeville-Middleboro, Mass) will decrease surrogate risk factors of cardiovascular disease, such as lipid oxidation, inflammation, and dyslipidemia, in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants identified with metabolic syndrome (n = 15-16/group) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: cranberry juice (480 mL/day) or placebo (480 mL/day) for 8 weeks. Anthropometrics, blood pressure measurements, dietary analyses, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screen and 8 weeks of the study. Cranberry juice significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 +/- 0.6 to 2.2 +/- 0.4 mumol/L [means +/- SD], P < .05) and decreased oxidized low-density lipoprotein and malondialdehyde (120.4 +/- 31.0 to 80.4 +/- 34.6 U/L and 3.4 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 0.7 mumol/L, respectively [means +/- SD], P < .05) at 8 weeks vs placebo. However, cranberry juice consumption caused no significant improvements in blood pressure, glucose and lipid profiles, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6. No changes in these parameters were noted in the placebo group. In conclusion, low-energy cranberry juice (2 cups/day) significantly reduces lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


MicroRNA alterations in Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines following cranberry extract treatment: Insights for chemoprevention

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Kresty LA, Clarke J, Ezell K, Exum A, Howell AB, Guettouche T
Journal: J Carcinog 10:34. Epub 2011 Dec 22

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of small noncoding endogenous RNA molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) is documented to occur in multiple cancer types including
esophageal adencarcinoma (EAC) and its only known precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). Recent studies have linked dysregulation of specific miRNAs to histological
grade, neoplastic progression and metastatic potential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we present a summary of previously reported dysregulated miRNAs in BE and EAC tissues as well as EAC cell lines and evaluate a cranberry proanthocyanidin rich extract's (C-PAC) ability to modulate miRNA expression patterns of three human EAC cell lines (JHEso-Ad-1, OE33 and OE19).
RESULTS: A review of 13 published studies revealed dysregulation of 87 miRNAs in BE and EAC tissues, whereas 52 miRNAs have been reported to be altered in BE or
EAC cell lines, with 48% overlap with miRNA changes reported in tissues. We report for the first time C-PAC-induced modulation of five miRNAs in three EAC
cell lines resulting in 26 validated gene targets and identification of key signaling pathways including p53, angiogenesis, T-cell activation and apoptosis.
Additionally, mutiple cancer related networks were ideintified as modulated by C-PAC utilizing Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER), and MetaCore analysis tools.
CONCLUSIONS: Study results support the cancer inhibitory potential of C-PAC is in part attributable to C-PAC's ability to modify miRNA profiles within EAC cells. A number of C-PAC-modulated miRNAs have been been identified as dysregulated in BE and EAC. Further insights into miRNA dysregulation and modulation by select cancer preventive agents will support improved targeted interventions in
high-risk cohorts.


North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) stimulates apoptotic pathways in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: MacLean MA, Scott BE, Deziel BA, Nunnelley MC, Liberty AM, Gottschall-Pass KT, Neto CC, Hurta RA
Journal: Nutr Cancer. 63(1):109-20

Abstract: Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been shown to improve patient prognosis in a variety of cancers, a benefit partly derived from phytochemicals, many of which target cell death pathways in tumor cells. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a phytochemical-rich fruit containing a variety of polyphenolic compounds. As flavonoids have been shown to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells, this study investigated the hypothesis that cranberry-mediated cytotoxicity in DU145 human prostate adenocarcinoma cells involves apoptosis. The results showed that induction of apoptosis in these cells occurred in response to treatment with whole cranberry extract and occurred through caspase-8 mediated cleavage of Bid protein to truncated Bid resulting in cytochrome-C release from the mitochondria. Subsequent activation of caspase-9 ultimately resulted in cell death as characterized by DNA fragmentation. Increased Par-4 protein expression was observed, and this is suggested to be at least partly responsible for caspase-8 activation. Proanthocyanidin-enriched and flavonol-enriched fractions of cranberry also increased caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity, suggesting that these compounds play a possible role in apoptosis induction. These findings indicate that cranberry phytochemicals can induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro, and these findings further establish the potential value of cranberry phytochemicals as possible agents against prostate cancer.


Oral consumption of cranberry juice cocktail inhibits molecular-scale adhesion of clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Tao YY, Pinzon-Arango PA, Howell AB, Camesano TA
Journal: J Med Food 14: 7/8, 739-745

Abstract: Cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) has been shown to inhibit the formation of biofilm by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. In order to investigate whether the anti-adhesive components could reach the urinary tract after oral consumption of CJC, a volunteer was given 16 oz of either water or CJC. Urine samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after consumption of a single dose. The ability of compounds in the urine to influence bacterial adhesion was tested for six clinical uropathogenic E. coli strains, including four P-fimbriated strains (B37, CFT073, BF1023, and J96) and two strains not expressing P-fimbriae but exhibiting mannose-resistant hemagglutination (B73 and B78). A non-fimbriated strain, HB101, was used as a control. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the adhesion force between a silicon nitride probe and bacteria treated with urine samples. Within 2 hours after CJC consumption, bacteria of the clinical strains treated with the corresponding urine sample demonstrated lower adhesion forces than those treated with urine collected before CJC consumption. The adhesion forces continued decreasing with time after CJC consumption over the 8-hour measurement period. The adhesion forces of bacteria after exposure to urine collected following water consumption did not change. HB101 showed low adhesion forces following both water and CJC consumption, and these did not change over time. The AFM adhesion force measurements were consistent with the results of a hemagglutination assay, confirming that oral consumption of CJC could act against adhesion of uropathogenic E. coli.


Proanthocyanidin-rich Extracts from Cranberry Fruit ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Selectively Inhibit the Growth of Human Pathogenic Fungi Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Patel KD. Scarano FJ. Kondo M. Hurta RA. Neto CC.
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 59(24):12864-73

Abstract: Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) has been shown in clinical studies to reduce infections caused by Escherichia coli and other bacteria, and proanthocyanidins are believed to play a role. The ability of cranberry to inhibit the growth of opportunistic human fungal pathogens that cause oral, skin, respiratory, and systemic infections has not been well-studied. Fractions from whole cranberry fruit were screened for inhibition of five Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans , a causative agent of fungal meningitis. Candida glabrata , Candida lusitaniae , Candida krusei , and Cryptococcus neoformans showed significant susceptibility to treatment with cranberry proanthocyanidin fractions in a broth microdilution assay, with minimum inhibitory concentrations as low as 1 mug/mL. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of subfractions detected epicatechin oligomers of up to 12 degrees of polymerization. Those containing larger oligomers caused the strongest inhibition. This study suggests that cranberry has potential as an antifungal agent.


Strawberries, Blueberries, and Cranberries in the Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Basu A, Lyons TJ
Journal: J Agric Food Chem Nov 29. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract: Emerging science supports therapeutic roles of strawberries, blueberries, and
cranberries in metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic state characterized by several
cardiovascular risk factors. Interventional studies reported by our group and
others have demonstrated the following effects: strawberries lowering total and
LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of
atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules); blueberries lowering
systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lipid oxidation and improving insulin
resistance; and low-calorie cranberry juice selectively decreasing biomarkers of
lipid oxidation (oxidized LDL) and inflammation (adhesion molecules) in metabolic
syndrome. Mechanistic studies further explain these observations as up-regulation
of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reduction in renal oxidative
damage, and inhibition of the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes or
angiotensin-converting enzyme by these berries. These findings need confirmation
in future studies with a focus on the effects of strawberry, blueberry, or
cranberry intervention in clinical biomarkers and molecular mechanisms underlying
the metabolic syndrome.


The effect of nondialyzable material (NDM) cranberry extract on formation of contact lens biofilm by Staphylococcus epidermidis

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Leshem R, Maharshak I, Ben Jacob E, Ofek I, Kremer I
Journal: Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(7):4929-34

Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess the effects of NDM from cranberries on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formed on soft contact lenses.

METHODS: Soft contact lenses were incubated in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) together with S. epidermidis (ATCC35984/RP62A) and various concentrations of NDM, and inspected by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The TSB was collected after sonification and monitored turbidometrically.

RESULTS: NDM at >=500 mug/mL concentration caused a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of biofilm. Scanning electron microscopy of biofilm in the presence of 500 to 1000 mug/mL NDM confirmed these results. In control lenses, multilayered mushroom-shaped biofilm and complete coverage of the lens surface were seen, whereas after incubation with 500 mug NDM per mL TSB, the biofilm was thinner with smaller protuberances, and exposed lens surface was partially seen. In samples incubated with 1000 mug NDM per mL TSB, the lens surface was clearly seen between sporadic microcolonies.

CONCLUSIONS: NDM reduces formation of biofilm on soft contact lenses. This has important implications for the prevention of contact lens-related corneal infections caused by S. epidermidis.


The swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is blocked by cranberry proanthocyanidins and other tannin-containing materials

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: O'May C, Tufenkji N
Journal: Appl Environ Microbiol 77(9):3061-7

Abstract: Bacterial motility plays a key role in the colonization of surfaces by bacteria and the subsequent formation of resistant communities of bacteria called biofilms. Derivatives of cranberry fruit, predominantly condensed tannins called proanthocyanidins (PACs) have been reported to interfere with bacterial adhesion, but the effects of PACs and other tannins on bacterial motilities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether cranberry PAC (CPAC) and the hydrolyzable tannin in pomegranate (PG; punicalagin) affected the levels of motilities exhibited by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium utilizes flagellum-mediated swimming motility to approach a surface, attaches, and then further spreads via the surface-associated motilities designated swarming and twitching, mediated by multiple flagella and type IV pili, respectively. Under the conditions tested, both CPAC and PG completely blocked swarming motility but did not block swimming or twitching motilities. Other cranberry-containing materials and extracts of green tea (also rich in tannins) were also able to block or impair swarming motility. Moreover, swarming bacteria were repelled by filter paper discs impregnated with many tannin-containing materials. Growth experiments demonstrated that the majority of these compounds did not impair bacterial growth. When CPAC- or PG-containing medium was supplemented with surfactant (rhamnolipid), swarming motility was partially restored, suggesting that the effective tannins are in part acting by a rhamnolipid-related mechanism. Further support for this theory was provided by demonstrating that the agar surrounding tannin-induced nonswarming bacteria was considerably less hydrophilic than the agar area surrounding swarming bacteria. This is the first study to show that natural compounds containing tannins are able to block P. aeruginosa swarming motility and that swarming bacteria are repelled by such compounds.


Ursolic acid and its esters: occurrence in cranberries and other Vaccinium fruit and effects on matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 prostate tumor cells.

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Kondo M, MacKinnon SL, Craft CC, Matchett MD, Hurta RAR, Neto CC
Journal: J Sci Food Agric 91: 5, 789-796

Abstract: Ursolic acid and its cis- and trans-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl esters have been identified as constituents of American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon), which inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Since the compounds may contribute to berry anticancer properties, their content in cranberries, selected cranberry products, and three other Vaccinium species (V. oxycoccus, V. vitis-idaea and V. angustifolium) was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The ability of these compounds to inhibit growth in a panel of tumor cell lines and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity associated with tumor invasion and metastasis was determined in DU145 prostate tumor cells. RESULTS: The highest content of ursolic acid and esters was found in V. macrocarpon berries (0.460-1.090 g ursolic acid and 0.040-0.160 g each ester kg-1 fresh weight). V. vitis-idaea and V. angustifolium contained ursolic acid (0.230-0.260 g kg-1), but the esters were not detected. V. oxycoccus was lowest (0.129 g ursolic acid and esters per kg). Ursolic acid content was highest in cranberry products prepared from whole fruit. Ursolic acid and its esters inhibited tumor cell growth at micromolar concentrations, and inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at concentrations below those previously reported for cranberry polyphenolics. CONCLUSION: Cranberries (V. macrocarpon) were the best source of ursolic acid and its esters among the fruit and products tested. These compounds may limit prostate carcinogenesis through matrix metalloproteinase inhibition.


Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction.

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Hamann GL, Campbell JD, George CM
Journal: Ann Pharmacother. 45(3):e17

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To report a case of warfarin-cranberry juice interaction, which resulted in an international normalized ratio (INR) elevation on 2 separate occasions.
CASE SUMMARY: A 46-year-old female was receiving a total weekly dose of 56 mg of warfarin. During the 4 months prior to the incident INR, her average INR was 2.0, with a range of 1.6-2.2, while taking the same weekly dose of warfarin. Her INR increased to 4.6 after drinking approximately 1.5 quarts (1420 mL) of cranberry juice cocktail daily for 2 days. Her INR 14 days later without cranberry juice cocktail consumption was 2.3. For the next 3 months, while taking warfarin 56 mg per week, her average INR was 2.1, with a range of 1.4-2.5. At a subsequent visit, after drinking approximately 2 quarts (1893 mL) of cranberry juice cocktail daily for 3-4 days, her INR had increased to 6.5. Her INR after holding warfarin for 3 days was 1.86. Her INR 7 days after resuming the weekly dose of warfarin 56 mg was 3.2. During both of the elevated INR episodes, no other factors were identified that would have resulted in an elevated INR, such as drug, herbal, disease, or other food interactions. An objective causality assessment revealed the interaction was highly probable.
DISCUSSION: Warfarin is the most commonly used anticoagulant for chronic therapy. There have been several case reports of cranberry juice or cranberry sauce potentiating the effects of warfarin by elevating the INR; however, clinical trials evaluating this interaction have failed to demonstrate a significant effect on an INR.
CONCLUSIONS: Our case report describes INR elevations in a patient previously stable on warfarin after ingestion of cranberry juice cocktail daily for several days. This elevation occurred on 2 separate occasions, which distinguishes our case from other published literature.


Do Escherichia coli extract and cranberry exert preventive effects on chronic bacterial prostatitis? Pilot study using an animal model

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Kim SH, Ha US, Lee HR, Sohn DW, Lee SJ, Kim HW, Han CH, Lee CB, Cho YH
Journal: J Infect Chemother 17: 3, 322-326

Abstract: Traditional first-line treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is administration of empirical antibiotics. However, the efficacy rate is low and long-term antibiotic therapy can result in adverse events and bacterial resistance. For these reasons, a new treatment or preventive modality that can replace traditional antibiotic therapy is required. There are several reports that E. coli extract has a preventive effect on recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Cranberries are also known to have beneficial effects in preventing UTI. To evaluate the preventive effect of E. coli extract and cranberries on CBP, 48 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; control, ciprofloxacin, E. coli extract, and cranberry groups. All drug treatments were conducted for 3 weeks, and then we developed a CBP rat model. After 4 weeks, the results of microbiological culture of prostate and urine samples as well as histological findings for the prostate were analyzed for each group. The infection rate in the ciprofloxacin group was significantly lower than that in the control group. The microbiological cultures of the prostate and urine samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Histopathologic examination showed significantly decreased prostatic inflammation in all groups compared with the control group. These results suggest that E. coli extract has a potential preventive effect on the development of CBP, and cranberry also exhibits promising activity in this context


Effect of juice processing on cranberry antibacterial properties

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Cote J, Caillet S, Dussault D, Sylvain JF, Lacroix M
Journal: Food Res Int 44: 9, 2922-2929

Abstract: The effects of the industrial juice process on the ability of neutralized cranberry samples and extracts (polar, apolar and anthocyanins) to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, E. coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 were investigated. The juice process appeared to have a general enhancing effect on the antibacterial properties of cranberry polar and anthocyanin extracts. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (1.80-7.0 micro g phenol/well) were obtained when S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, and ERV were exposed to the juice concentrate. The growth of P. aeruginosa, L. monocytogenes, E. coli ATCC, and E. coli O157:H7 was not inhibited by the juice concentrate, but did show sensitivity (maximal tolerated concentrations of 0.007-0.4 micro g phenol/well). The lowest MICs (22.6-90.5 micro g phenol/well) for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, and ERV were observed when they were exposed to the cranberry anthocyanin extract obtained from cranberry pomace. The results also showed a negative effect of the juice process on the antibacterial properties of the cranberry apolar extracts: the one obtained from frozen cranberries was most efficient against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimirium (MIC of 45.50 micro g phenol/well). The tested bacteria showed the greatest resistance toward the cranberry extracts obtained from the mash and the macerated and depectinized mash


Effect of juice processing on the cancer chemopreventive effect of cranberry.

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Caillet, S. Cote, J. Doyon, G. Sylvain, J. F. Lacroix, M
Journal: Food Res Int 44: 4, 902-910

Abstract: Cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated in cranberries and cranberry products (mash, depectinized mash, pomace, raw juice, clarified juice and juice concentrate). Three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and cranberry solids (mash, depectinized mash and pomace) containing anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds were tested. Cranberry juices and extracts were screened for their ability to induce the phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR). The results showed that there was no cytotoxicity against the cells used in the test. All samples stimulated quinone reductase activity except the highest concentrations of the anthocyanin-rich extract of pomace, which inhibited QR activity. Also, the results showed that the QR induction for all samples varied with concentration and that there was an optimal concentration for which the QR induction was maximal. Although the three cranberry extracts were good QR inducers, our results indicated that the phenols present in aqueous extract showed QR inductions which were more important than those obtained with phenols present in solvent extracts. Also, the ability of phenols to stimulate the QR activity has been reduced continuously and significantly (P<=0.05) during the technological process. Especially, it appears that conditions of the evaporation to obtain a juice concentrate exerted a significant effect (P<=0.05) on inducer potencies of bioactive molecules.


Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Dohadwala MM, Holbrook M, Hamburg NM, Shenouda SM, Chung WB, Titas M, Kluge MA, Wang N, Palmisano J, Milbury PE, Blumberg JB, Vita JA
Journal: Am J Clin Nutr 93(5):934-40

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease.
DESIGN: We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo (n = 15) and a chronic placebo-controlled crossover study (n = 44) that examined the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease.
RESULTS: In the chronic crossover study, subjects with coronary heart disease consumed a research preparation of double-strength cranberry juice (54% juice, 835 mg total polyphenols, and 94 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo beverage (480 mL/d) for 4 wk each with a 2-wk rest period between beverages. Beverage order was randomly assigned, and participants refrained from consuming other flavonoid-containing beverages during the study. Vascular function was measured before and after each beverage, with follow-up testing >=12 h after consumption of the last beverage. Mean (+/-SD) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of central aortic stiffness, decreased after cranberry juice (8.3 +/- 2.3 to 7.8 +/- 2.2 m/s) in contrast with an increase after placebo (8.0 +/- 2.0 to 8.4 +/- 2.8 m/s) (P = 0.003). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, digital pulse amplitude tonometry, blood pressure, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity did not change. In the uncontrolled pilot study, we observed improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (7.7 +/- 2.9% to 8.7 +/- 3.1%, P = 0.01) and digital pulse amplitude tonometry ratio (0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.23 +/- 0.16, P = 0.001) 4 h after consumption of a single 480-mL portion of cranberry juice.
CONCLUSIONS: Chronic cranberry juice consumption reduced carotid femoral pulse wave velocity-a clinically relevant measure of arterial stiffness. The uncontrolled pilot study suggested an acute benefit; however, no chronic effect on measures of endothelial vasodilator function was found. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00553904.


Effects of freeze-dried cranberry powder on serum lipids and inflammatory markers in lipopolysaccharide treated rats fed an atherogenic diet

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Kim MJ, Ohn J, Kim JH, Kwak HK
Journal: Nutr Res Pract 5(5):404-11

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of freeze-dried cranberry powder on anti-inflammation and lipid profiles of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet for 6 weeks. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats (6-weeks-old) were equally divided into the following five groups: 1) normal diet group + saline (NC); 2) atherogenic diet + saline (HFC); 3) atherogenic diet + LPS (HL); 4) atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry power + LPS (C5); 5) atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry power + LPS (C10). LPS (0.5 mg/kg) was injected into the abdominal cavities of rats 18 hours prior to sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, we measured serum lipid profiles as well as levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide (NO), and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-&#945; (TNF-&#945;), interleukin (IL)-1&#946;, IL-6, and IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. The mean serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level in C5 rats was significantly higher than that in NC and HL rats (P < 0.05). The mean serum levels of CRP and IL-1&#946; were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the cranberry powder groups compared to those in HL rats. Additionally, mean serum IL-6 levels tended to be lower in the cranberry groups than that in the HL group, whereas serum IL-10 and NO showed 29% and 88% higher mean values in the C5 group and 49% and 24% higher in the C10 group than those in the HL group, respectively. These results suggest that freeze-dried cranberry powder may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases by modifying serum lipids and the early inflammatory response.


Effects of long-term cranberry supplementation on endocrine pancreas in aging rats

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Zhu M, Hu J, Perez E, Phillips D, Kim W, Ghaedian R, Napora JK, Zou S
Journal: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 66(11):1139-51

Abstract: The effects of long-term cranberry consumption on age-related changes in endocrine pancreas are not fully understood. Here we treated male Fischer 344 rats with either 2% whole cranberry powder supplemented or normal rodent chow from 6 to 22 month old. Both groups displayed an age-related decline in basal plasma insulin concentrations, but this age-related decline was delayed by cranberry. Cranberry supplementation led to increased &#946;-cell glucose responsiveness during the oral glucose tolerance test. Portal insulin concentration was 7.6-fold higher in rats fed cranberry, coupled with improved &#946;-cell function. However, insulin resistance values were similar in both groups. Total &#946;-cell mass and expression of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 and insulin within islets were significantly enhanced in rats fed cranberry relative to controls. Furthermore, cranberry increased insulin release of an insulin-producing &#946;-cell line, revealing its insulinotropic effect. These findings suggest that cranberry is of particular benefit to &#946;-cell function in normal aging rats.


Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Auger C, Kim JH, Trinh S, Chataigneau T, Popken AM, Schini-Kerth VB.
Journal: Food Funct 2(5):245-50

Abstract: Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content.


Induction of a state of iron limitation in uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 by cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins as revealed by microarray analysis

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Hidalgo G, Ponton A, Fatisson J, O'May C, Asadishad B, Schinner T, Tufenkji N.
Journal: Appl Environ Microbiol 77(4):1532-5.

Abstract: Transcriptional profiles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 exposed to cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins (PACs) were determined. Our results indicate that bacteria grown on media supplemented with PACs were iron deprived. To our knowledge, this is the first time that PACs have been shown to induce a state of iron limitation in this bacterium.


Inhibition of Escherichia coli CFT073 fliC expression and motility by cranberry materials.

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Hidalgo G, Chan M, Tufenkji N
Journal: Appl Environ Microbiol 77(19):6852-7

Abstract: In humans, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common etiological agent of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Cranberry extracts have been linked to the prevention of UTIs for over a century; however, a mechanistic understanding of the way in which cranberry derivatives prevent bacterial infection is still lacking. In this study, we used a fliC-lux reporter as well as quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to demonstrate that when UPEC strain CFT073 was grown or exposed to dehydrated, crushed cranberries or to purified cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins (cPACs), expression of the flagellin gene (fliC) was inhibited. In agreement with these results, transmission electron microscopy imaging of bacteria grown in the presence of cranberry materials revealed fewer flagella than those in bacteria grown under control conditions. Furthermore, we showed that swimming and swarming motilities were hindered when bacteria were grown in the presence of the cranberry compounds. Because flagellum-mediated motility has been suggested to enable UPEC to disseminate to the upper urinary tract, we propose that inhibition of flagellum-mediated motility might be a key mechanism by which cPACs prevent UTIs. This is the first report to show that cranberry compounds inhibit UPEC motility via downregulation of the fliC gene. Further studies are required to establish whether these inhibitors play a role in vivo.


Insights into the molecular mechanisms of the anti-atherogenic actions of flavonoids in normal and obese mice.

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Shabrova EV, Tarnopolsky O, Singh AP, Plutzky J, Vorsa N, Quadro L.
Journal: PLoS One 6(10):e24634

Abstract: Obesity is a major and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and it is strongly associated with the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Flavonoids, a diverse group of polyphenol compounds of plant origin widely distributed in human diet, have been reported to have numerous health benefits, although the mechanisms underlying these effects have remained obscure. We analyzed the effects of chronic dietary supplementation with flavonoids extracted from cranberry (FLS) in normal and obese C57/BL6 mice compared to mice maintained on the same diets lacking FLS. Obese mice supplemented with flavonoids showed an amelioration of insulin resistance and plasma lipid profile, and a reduction of visceral fat mass. We provide evidence that the adiponectin-AMPK pathway is the main mediator of the improvement of these metabolic disorders. In contrast, the reduced plasma atherogenic cholesterol observed in normal mice under FLS seems to be due to a downregulation of the hepatic cholesterol synthesis pathway. Overall, we demonstrate for the first time that the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of flavonoids are determined by the metabolic state.


Iron chelation by cranberry juice and its impact on Escherichia coli growth.

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Lin B, Johnson BJ, Rubin RA, Malanoski AP, Ligler FS
Journal: Biofactors 37(2):121-30.

Abstract: The various health benefits of Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well documented and have been attributed mainly to its antioxidant capacity and anti-adhesive activity. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the possible role of cranberries, cranberry juice, and cranberry extracts in inhibiting bacterial growth. These mechanisms of action (i.e., inhibition of the microbial growth) have not been thoroughly studied. Here, we took advantage of current advances in microarray technology and used GeneChip® Escherichia coli genome 2.0 arrays to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the impact of cranberry juice on the properties of E. coli growth. The inclusion of cranberry juice in bacterial growth media was found to significantly impact the doubling time of E. coli. The gene expression results revealed altered expression of genes associated with iron transport and essential metabolic enzymes as well as with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and fumarate hydratase in these cultures. The altered expression of genes associated with iron transport was consistent with the strong iron chelating capability of proanthocyanidins, a major constituent of cranberry juice. The iron depletion effect was confirmed by adding exogenous iron to the growth media. This addition partially reversed the inhibitory effect on bacterial growth observed in the presence of cranberry juice/extracts.


Characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the phenolic fraction in a cranberry syrup used to prevent urinary tract diseases, together with a study of its antibacter

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Iswaldi I, Gomez-Caravaca AM, Arraez-Roman D, Uberos J, Lardon M, Segura-Carretero A, Fernandez-Gutierrez A.
Journal: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 58:34-41

Abstract: The phenolic fraction of a commercial cranberry syrup, which is purported to have good properties for the prevention of urinary diseases, has been thoroughly characterized using HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS. A study of its antibacterial activity has also been carried out. For this purpose a new HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS method using negative and positive ionization modes was developed and it was thus possible to identify 34 different compounds, nine of which have been tentatively characterized for the first time in cranberry syrup. It is also important to highlight that different coumarins in this matrix were also determined, which, to our knowledge, have not been found previously in the cranberry. The phenolic fraction obtained by HPLC-DAD was found to be 5.47 mg/mL. Catechin and procyanidins belonging to flavanols were the family of compounds found at the highest concentrations (2.37 mg/mL); flavonols were at a concentration of 1.91 mg/mL and phenolic-acid derivatives were found at the lowest concentration (0.15 mg/mL). With regard to antibacterial activity, the incubation of Escherichia coli with cranberry syrup was found to reduce surface hydrophobicity as a function of the concentration of the extract.


Cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections. A randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Beerepoot MAJ, Riet G, ter Nys S, Wal WM, van der Borgie CAJM, de Reijke TM, de Prins JM, Koeijers J, Verbon A, Stobberingh E, Geerlings SE
Journal: Arch Intern Med 171(14):1270-1278

Abstract: Background: The increasing prevalence of uropathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents has stimulated interest in cranberries to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods: In a double-blind, double-dummy noninferiority trial, 221 premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs were randomized to 12-month prophylaxis use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 480 mg once daily, or cranberry capsules, 500 mg twice daily. Primary end points were the mean number of symptomatic UTIs over 12 months, the proportion of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI, the median time to first UTI, and development of antibiotic resistance in indigenous Escherichia coli. Results: After 12 months, the mean number of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (4.0 vs 1.8; P=.02), and the proportion of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (78.2% vs 71.1%). Median time to the first symptomatic UTI was 4 months for the cranberry and 8 months for the TMP-SMX group. After 1 month, in the cranberry group, 23.7% of fecal and 28.1% of asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant, whereas in the TMP-SMX group, 86.3% of fecal and 90.5% of asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant. Similarly, we found increased resistance rates for trimethoprim, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin in these E. coli isolates after 1 month in the TMP-SMX group. After discontinuation of TMP-SMX, resistance reached baseline levels after 3 months. Antibiotic resistance did not increase in the cranberry group. Cranberries and TMP-SMX were equally well tolerated. Conclusion: In premenopausal women, TMP-SMX, 480 mg once daily, is more effective than cranberry capsules, 500 mg twice daily, to prevent recurrent UTIs, at the expense of emerging antibiotic resistance.


Cranberries: ripe for more cancer research?

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Neto CC
Journal: J Sci Food Agric 91: 13, 2303-2307

Abstract: Berries have been recognized as a functional food with potential to protect against a variety of health conditions, including some cancers. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) production and consumption have grown in recent years, warranting further evaluation of potential health benefits. Extracts and isolated constituents from cranberry fruit inhibit growth and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro, and recent data from animal studies lend further support to cranberry's reputation as a cancer fighter. Several likely mechanisms of action for cranberry against prostate and other cancers have been identified, including induction of apoptosis and inhibition of events linked to cellular invasion and migration. This article attempts to put into perspective what is known about cranberry's potential chemopreventive properties, what is yet to be determined, and some factors to consider as research moves forward.


Cranberry in children: prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections and review of the literature

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Dessi A, Atzei A, Fanos V
Journal: Rev Bras Farmacogn 21(5):807-813

Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. In 30-50% of children with UTI the infections occur recurrently, especially in those with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), neurogenic bladder (NB), previous cystitis or pyelonephritis and malformative uropathies. To reduce the likelihood of UTI, antibiotic prophylaxis has been regarded as the therapeutic standard for many years. However, the disadvantage of long-term antibiotic therapy is the potential for development of collateral effects and resistant organisms in the host. Such reasons have induced scientists to search for alternative modalities of UTI prevention and have contributed to determining the increasing desire for "naturalness" of the population and preventing excessive medication. The use of cranberry fulfils these needs by potentially replacing or enhancing traditional procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of cranberry in preventing UTI in pediatric populations. We searched Pubmed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Internet. Cranberry in patients with previous UTI was evaluated in three studies, cranberry in patients with VUR in three studies and four studies analyzed the efficacy of cranberry in children with NB. In seven of nine studies cranberry had a significant effect in preventing UTI.


Cranberry phytochemicals inhibit glycation of human hemoglobin and serum albumin by scavenging reactive carbonyls

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Liu H, Liu H, Wang W, Khoo C, Taylor J, Gu L
Journal: Food Funct 2:475-482

Abstract: Protein glycation caused by sugars and reactive carbonyls is a contributing factor to diabetic complications, aging, and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of cranberry phytochemicals on protein glycation. Cranberries, purified to yield sugar-free phytochemical powder, were fractionated into ethyl acetate and water fractions. Water fraction was further separated into water fraction I, II, and III on a Sephadex LH-20 column. Cranberry phytochemical powder and its fractions significantly inhibited the formation of glycated hemoglobin. The concentrations of cranberry phytochemicals required to inhibit 50% of albumin glycation (EC(50)) in albumin-glucose assay were lower than that of aminoguanidine except for water fraction I. Cranberry phytochemicals inhibited glycation of human serum albumin mediated by methylglyoxal, but the EC(50) were higher than that of aminoguanidine. Carbonyl scavenging assay showed that water fraction II scavenged 89.3% of methylglyoxal at 6 h of reaction. Fractions enriched with procyanidins showed higher antiglycation activities, suggesting procyanidins were the major active components. The hypothesis whether cranberry procyanidins scavenged reactive carbonyls by forming adducts was tested. Epicatechin was used as a model compound to react with methylglyoxal and glyoxal at pH 7.4. Five adducts were detected and their structures were tentatively identified using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.


Cranberry proanthocyanidins mediate growth arrest of lung cancer cells through modulation of gene expression and rapid induction of apoptosis.

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Kresty LA, Howell AB, Baird M
Journal: Molecules 16(3):2375-90

Abstract: Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents purported to enhance immune function, improve urinary tract health, reduce cardiovascular disease and more recently, inhibit cancer in preclinical models. However, identification of the cranberry constituents with the strongest cancer inhibitory potential and the mechanism associated with cancer inhibition by cranberries remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the ability of a proanthocyanidin rich cranberry fraction (PAC) to alter gene expression, induce apoptosis and impact the cell cycle machinery of human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and five year survival rates remain poor at 16%. Thus, assessing potential inhibitors of lung cancer-linked signaling pathways is an active area of investigation.


Determination of cranberry phenolic metabolites in rats by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Rajbhandari R, Peng N, Moore R, Arabshahi A, Wyss JM, Barnes S, Prasain JK
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 59(12):6682-8

Abstract: The glycosides of flavonoid, anthocyanins and A type proanthocyanidins in cranberry concentrate were characterized and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Cranberry concentrate (1 g/body weight) was orally gavaged to Fischer-344 rats (n = 6), and blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h periods. Quercetin, 3'-O-methylquercetin (isorhamnetin), myricetin, kaempferol, and proanthocyanidin dimer A2, together with thirteen conjugated metabolites of quercetin and methylquercetin and intact peonidin 3-O-galactoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactoside were identified in the rat urine after cranberry treatment. Very low levels of isorhamnetin (0.48 +/- 0.09 ng/mL) and proanthocyanidin dimer A2 (0.541 +/- 0.10 ng/mL) were found in plasma samples after 1 h of cranberry administration. Although no quercetin was detected in plasma, MRM analysis of the methanolic extract of urinary bladder showed that chronic administration of cranberry concentrate to rats resulted in accumulation of quercetin and isorhamnetin in the bladder. These results demonstrate that cranberry components undergo rapid metabolism and elimination into the urine of rats and are present in the urinary bladder tissue potentially allowing them to inhibit urinary bladder carcinogenesis.


Effect of different cranberry extracts and juices during cranberry juice processing

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Vu KD, Carlettini H, Bouvet J, Côté J, Doyon G, Sylvain J-F, Lacroix M
Journal: Food Chemistry 132 (2):959-967

Abstract: The effect of cranberry extracts and juices during cranberry juice processing on the antiproliferative properties against colon cancer cells was investigated. Two colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and LS-513 were treated with different concentrations of cranberry phenolic extracts from fruits, puree, depectinised puree and pomace and different concentration of three juices (raw, filtered and concentrated juices). The phenolic extracts consisted of water-soluble phenolic compounds, apolar phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. These phenolic extracts and juices were tested against two cell lines at pH 2.5 (natural
juice pH) and at pH 7.0 (physiological pH). All cranberry extracts and juices could inhibit the growth of both cell lines with the IC50 values (the concentration of phenolic content required to inhibit 50% the growth of cancer cells) varied from 3.8 to 179.2 lg gallic acid equivalent/ml. It was found that three types of extracts from fruit at pH 7.0 were the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HT-29 cell line. Extracts containing anthocyanins from fruit and from pomace were the most and the least efficient, respectively, in inhibiting the growth of both cancer cell lines. Further, three juices at natural pH (pH 2.5) were more effective at inhibiting the growth of two cell lines as compared to juices at pH 7.0. Concentrated juice at both pH values was the most effective at growth inhibition of two cancer cell lines compared to two other juices.


A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the RANKL-dependent differentiation and function of human osteoclasts.

Posted: January 14, 2012
Authors: Tanabe S, Santos J, La VD, Howell AB, Grenier D
Journal: Molecules. 16(3):2365-74

Abstract: This study investigated the effect of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity. The differentiation of human pre-osteoclastic cells was assessed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, while the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was measured by ELISA. Bone resorption activity was investigated by using a human bone plate coupled with an immunoassay that detected the release of collagen helical peptides. AC-PACs up to 100 microg/mL were atoxic for osteoclastic cells. TRAP staining evidenced a dose-dependent inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. More specifically, AC-PACs at 50 microg/mL caused a 95% inhibition of RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. This concentration of AC-PACs also significantly increased the secretion of IL-8 (6-fold) and inhibited the secretion of both MMP-2 and MMP-9. Lastly, AC-PACs (10, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml) affected bone degradation mediated by mature osteoclasts by significantly decreasing the release of collagen helical peptides. This study suggests that AC-PACs can interfere with osteoclastic cell maturation and physiology as well as prevent bone resorption. These compounds may be considered as therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.


Anti-angiogenic activity of cranberry proanthocyanidins and cytotoxic properties in ovarian cancer cells

Posted: January 14, 2012
Authors: Kim KK, Singh AP, Singh RK, Demartino A, Brard L, Vorsa N, Lange TS, Moore RG
Journal: Int J Oncol 40(1):227-35.

Abstract: Cranberry extracts may provide beneficial health effects in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of antineoplastic properties are not understood. We report the effect of a proanthocyanidin (PAC)-rich isolate from cranberry (PAC-1) as a therapeutic agent with dual activity to target both ovarian cancer viability and angiogenesis in vitro. PAC-1 treatment of chemotherapy-resistant SKOV-3 cells blocked cell cycle progression through the G2/M phase, increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induced apoptosis through activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway components. Cytotoxicity of PAC-1 was partially based on ROS generation and could be blocked by co-treatment with antioxidant glutathione. PAC-1 reduced the cell viability of both SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells and HUVEC endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and blocked the activation of the pro-survival factor AKT. Furthermore, PAC-1 blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated receptor phosphorylation in endothelial cells, which correlated with the inhibition of endothelial tube formation in vitro. Our findings suggest that PAC-1 exerts potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic properties and that highly purified PAC from cranberry can be further developed to treat ovarian cancer in combinational or single-agent therapy.


Anti-Helicobacter activity of certain food plant extracts and juices and their composition in vitro

Posted: January 14, 2012
Authors: Babarikina A, Nikolajeva V, Babarykin D
Journal: Food Nut Sci 2, 868-877

Abstract: Plant material screening was performed to study anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro using an agar diffusion method on Columbia blood agar. 33 substances, juices and plant extracts and 35 of their combinations were tested. Quince (Cydonia oblonga) juice demonstrated the strongest anti-H. pylori activity followed by cranberry juice. Concentrated apple juice, plum, red currant, black chokeberry, raspberry and bilberry juice also showed significant activity. Green tea and apple pomace extract as well as sweet flag rhizome, ginger and wild bergamot extract, cherry syrup, red beet juice and whey did not exhibit anti-Helicobacter activity. Quince juice in combination with bilberry, black chokeberry, red currant juice, green tea, sweet flag rhizome or apple pomace extract as well as cranberry juice in combination with sweet flag rhizome extract demonstrated a synergistic effect on inhibition of H. pylori. The obtained results offer new perspectives for development of functional anti-Helicobacter food product(s) for dietary management of H. pylori infection. The essential components of these products could be the most active juices and extracts like quince and cranberry juice supplemented with a corresponding synergist. Further studies are required to investigate the mechanism of antibacterial action of plant products and their efficacy in vivo.


Antimicrobial effect of cranberry juice and extracts

Posted: January 14, 2012
Authors: Cote, J. Caillet, S. Doyon, G. Dussault, D. Sylvain, J. F. Lacroix, M
Journal: Food Control 22: 8, 1413-1418.

Abstract: The antimicrobial effect of cranberry juice and of three cranberry extracts (water-soluble (E1) and apolar phenolic compounds (E2), and anthocyanins (E3)) was investigated against seven bacterial strains (Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213). Each cranberry sample was analyzed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the maximal tolerated concentration (MTC) at neutral pH. The results, reported in micro g phenol/mL, indicated that all the bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by the cranberry phenolic compounds. The extract rich in water-soluble phenolic compounds caused the most important growth inhibitions. The bacteria ERV, and to a lesser degree, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli ATCC 25922, were the most sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of extract E1. The growth of P. aeruginosa and E. coli ATCC was also affected by the presence of the anthocyanin-rich cranberry extract E3, although the observed antibacterial effect was not as important as with extract E1. In general, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium were the most resistant to the antibacterial activity of the cranberry extracts. Within 30 min of exposure with pure neutralized cranberry juice, L. monocytogenes and ERV were completely inactivated.


Cranberry and Grape Juices Affect Tight Junction Function and Structural Integrity of Rotavirus-Infected Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cell Monolayers

Posted: January 14, 2012
Authors: Lipson SM, Gordon RE, Ozen FS, Karthikeyan L, Kirov N, Stotzky G
Journal: Food Environ Virol 3:46–54

Abstract: Cranberry juice (CJ) and grape juice (GJ) from Vaccinium macrocarpon and Vitis labrusca, respectively, and purified proanthocyanidins (PACs) from these species are recognized to possess antiviral activity. The effects of CJ and GJ on tight junction (TJ) structure and function among rotavirus-infected monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA-104) in monolayer cultures were evaluated. Antiviral activity by cranberry PACs of rotavirus in cell-free suspension was investigated by a rotavirus antigen [i.e., viral capsid protein 6 (VP6)] capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). MA-104 monolayers were treated with CJ, GJ, or cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) drink before inoculation with rotavirus. TJ function and structural integrity were measured by changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and by reduction of signal intensity of the TJ &#945;-claudin 1 by immunofluorescence. The inhibitory activity of CJ and GJ on viral RNA synthesis, as a function of viral concentration, was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). After 4 days, virus-infected monolayers pretreated with GJ (Concord and Niagara GJs) had TEER readings similar to uninfected controls. CJ and CJC also had a significant protective effect (P < 0.05) on TJ function, but to a lesser extent than GJ. Disorganization of TJ integrity commenced at 24- to 36-h post-viral inoculation, but this effect was reduced by pretreatment with CJ or GP of monolayer cultures. TEM showed aggregation of rotavirus by cranberry PACs. The destruction of rotavirus capsid proteins VP6, in cell-free suspension was inversely related to the concentration of cranberry PACs (C-PAC). Loss of rotavirus RNA by CJ or GJ was inversely related to viral infectivity titers. CJ, GJ, or PAC-associated antiviral activity has been linked to modifications in cellular physiologic events and to physical factors (e.g., PAC-mediated viral aggregation) that probably compromise viral infectivity. Multiple cell physiological and physical events must be considered when determining the mechanisms associated with the antiviral (i.e., rotavirus) activity of CJ, GJ, and PACs.


Impact of cranberry juice and proanthocyanidins on the ability of Escherichia coli to form biofilms

Posted: January 14, 2012
Authors: Pinzón-Arango PA, Holguin K, Camesano TA
Journal: Food Sci Biotechnol 20(5): 1315-1321

Abstract: The effects of cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) and proanthocyanidins (PACs) on biofilm formation were investigated. Escherichia coli strain HB101pDC1 and nonfimbriated strain HB101 were grown in 10 wt% CJC or 120 &#956;g/mL PACs for 12 consecutive cultures. Biofilm formation was investigated by incubating bacteria in 96-well polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates and studying the optical density of the solution using the crystal violet method. We suspect that biofilm formation occurred due to non-specific interactions between the bacteria and the polymer. Both P-fimbriated E. coli HB101pDC1 and the non-fimbriated strain HB101 formed biofilms. E. coli strain HB101pDC1 formed a thicker and more mature biofilm. Cranberry juice inhibited biofilm formation after the first culture; however, for bacteria grown in PACs, a decrease in biofilm formation was observed with increasing number of cultures. The inhibitory effect was reversible. These results demonstrate that CJC is more effective than isolated PACs at preventing biofilm formation, possibly suggesting that other cranberry compounds also play a role in anti-biofilm activity.


Purified cranberry proanthocyanidines (PAC-1A) cause pro-apoptotic signaling, ROS generation, cyclophosphamide retention and cytotoxicity in high-risk neuroblastoma cells

Posted: January 14, 2012
Authors: Singh AP, Lange TS, Kim KK, Brard L, Horan T, Moore RG, Vorsa N, Singh RK.
Journal: Int J Oncol 40(1):99-108

Abstract: Optimized purification of oligomeric proanthocyanidines (PAC) from cranberry generated PAC-1A which selectively affected the viability of various neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines representing a spectrum of high-risk NB features. PAC-1A caused a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization potential (&#8710;&#936;m) and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which was directly correlated to the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins in SMS-KCNR cells. PAC-1A reduced the expression of pro-survival (Bcl-2, MCL-1, Bcl-xL) and increased levels of pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bad, Bid) Bcl family proteins, upregulated the activity of SAPK/JNK MAPK and downregulated expression or activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway components. PAC-1A increased the cellular uptake/retention of cyclophosphamide (CP). PAC-1A and CP synergistically increased cytotoxicity and expression of pro-apoptotic markers, reduced cellular glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Additional features of PAC-1A as an anticancer drug as shown in SMS-KCNR NB cells include delay of cell cycle progression and induction of cell death via TNF-family death receptor activity, thus, targeting both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PAC-1A partially blocked the cell cycle in G2/M phase which correlated with a decrease of the G0/G1 subpopulation, upregulation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of CDK6 and p27 expression. In summary, PAC-1A has demonstrated chemotherapeutic potential to treat a broad spectrum of NBs including highly malignant tumors that show resistance to standard chemotherapeutics and apoptotic stimuli.