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Anticancer Activity of Chlorhexidine and Cranberry Extract: an In-Vitro Study.

Posted: September 4, 2018
Authors: Khairnar MR; Wadgave U; Jadhav H; Naik R.
Journal: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology. 12(3):201-205

Abstract: Introduction: Oral cancer is considered to be a global pandemic. The study was conducted to assess the anti-cancer activities of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Cranberry against oral cancer cell lines. Material and Methods: Anticancer activity of CHX and Cranberry extract (CE) was assessed against AW13516 (poorly to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of tongue) and KB (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma) using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC) Mumbai, India. Three dose related parameters GI50, TGI and LC50 were calculated for each drug. Results: CE (80micro g/ml) showed no anti-cancer property against AW13516 cell line; however it showed 70.6% growth inhibition against KB cell line. CHX demonstrated 80.15% & 95.7% of growth inhibition against AW13516 & KB cell line respectively. Both the drugs were less potential than positive control drug Adriamycin, as reflected by their GI50, TGI and LC50 values. Conclusion: CHX exhibited better anti-cancer properties than CE for both the oral cancer cell lines.

Metabolism and Growth Inhibitory Activity of Cranberry Derived Flavonoids in Bladder Cancer Cells

Posted: March 1, 2017
Authors: Prasain JK, Rajbhandari R, Keeton AB, Piazza GA, Barnes S
Journal: Food Funct 7(9):4012-4019

Abstract: In the present study, anti-proliferative activities of cranberry derived flavonoids and some of their in vivo metabolites were evaluated using a panel of human bladder tumor cell lines (RT4, SCABER, and SW-780) and non-tumorigenic immortalized human uroepithelial cells (SV-HUC). Among the compounds tested, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin (3'-O-methylquercetin), myricetin and quercetin showed strong concentration-dependent cell growth inhibitory activities in bladder cancer cells with IC50 values in a range of 8-92 micro M. Furthermore, isorhamnetin and myricetin had very low inhibitory activity against SV-HUC even at very high concentrations (>200 micro M) compared to bladder cancer cells, indicating that their cytotoxicity is selective for cancer cells. To determine whether the differential cell growth inhibitory effects of isomeric flavonoids quercetin 3-O-glucoside (active) and hyperoside (quercetin 3-O-galactoside) (inactive) are related to their metabolism by the cancer cells, SW-780 cells were incubated with these compounds and their metabolism was examined by LC-MS/MS. Compared to quercetin 3-O-glucoside, hyperoside undergoes relatively less metabolic biotransformation (methylation, glucuronidation and quinone formation). These data suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin 3-O-glucoside may be the active forms of quercetin in prevention of bladder cancer in vivo and emphasize the importance of metabolism for the prevention of bladder cancer by diets rich in cranberries.

Cranberry extract suppresses interleukin-8 secretion from stomach cells stimulated by Helicobacter pylori in every clinically separated strain but inhibits growth in part of the strains.

Posted: February 15, 2014
Authors: Matsushima M, Suzuki T, Masui A, Mine T, Takagi A
Journal: J Funct Foods 5(2):729-735

Abstract: It is known that cranberry inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori (HP). In human stomach, HP basically induces chronic inflammation by stimulating stomach cells to secrete interleukin (IL)-8 and other inflammatory cytokines, and causes stomach cancer, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibiting effects of cranberry on HP growth and IL-8 secretion from stomach cells induced by HP, using clinically separated HP strains. HP growth in liquid culture and on-plate culture was evaluated by titration after 2-day incubation and by agar dilution technique, respectively. For IL-8 experiments, MKN-45, a stomach cancer cell line, was incubated with HP for 24 h and IL-8 in the medium was assayed by ELISA. Cranberry suppressed growth of the bacteria only in six of the 27 strains. Meanwhile, it suppressed IL-8 secretion in all the strains. The results may suggest a possible role of cranberry in prevention of stomach cancer by reducing gastric inflammation.

Cranberry extract suppresses interleukin-8 secretion from stomach cells stimulated by Helicobacter pylori in every clinically separated strain but inhibits growth in part of the strains

Posted: September 15, 2013
Authors: Matsushima M, Suzuki T, Masui A, Mine T, Takagi A
Journal: J Funct Food 5(2):729–35

Abstract: It is known that cranberry inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori (HP). In human stomach, HP basically induces chronic inflammation by stimulating stomach cells to secrete interleukin (IL)-8 and other inflammatory cytokines, and causes stomach cancer, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibiting effects of cranberry on HP growth and IL-8 secretion from stomach cells induced by HP, using clinically separated HP strains. HP growth in liquid culture and on-plate culture was evaluated by titration after 2-day incubation and by agar dilution technique, respectively. For IL-8 experiments, MKN-45, a stomach cancer cell line, was incubated with HP for 24 h and IL-8 in the medium was assayed by ELISA. Cranberry suppressed growth of the bacteria only in six of the 27 strains. Meanwhile, it suppressed IL-8 secretion in all the strains. The results may suggest a possible role of cranberry in prevention of stomach cancer by reducing gastric inflammation.

American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract affects human prostate cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest by modulating expression of cell cycle regulators

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Deziel B, MacPhee J, Patel K, Catalli A, Kulka M, Neto C,
Journal: Food Funct DOI: 10.1039/c2fo10145a

Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and its prevalence is expected to increase appreciably in the coming decades. As such, more research is necessary to understand the etiology, progression and possible preventative measures to delay or to stop the development of this disease. Recently, there has been interest in examining the effects of whole extracts from commonly harvested crops on the behaviour and progression of cancer. Here, we describe the effects of whole cranberry extract (WCE) on the behaviour of DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Following treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells with 10, 25 and 50 mg ml 1 of WCE, respectively for 6 h, WCE significantly decreased the cellular viability of DU145 cells. WCE also decreased the
proportion of cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle and increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle following treatment of cells with 25 and 50 mg ml 1 treatment of WCE for 6 h. These alterations in cell cycle were associated with changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins and other cell cycle associated proteins. WCE decreased the expression of CDK4, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and increased the expression of p27. Changes in p16INK4a and pRBp107 protein expression
levels also were evident, however, the changes noted in p16INK4a and pRBp107 protein expression levels
were not statistically significant. These findings demonstrate that phytochemical extracts from the
American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can affect the behaviour of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and further support the potential health benefits associated with cranberries.

Cancer chemopreventive effect of fractions from cranberry products

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Caillet S, Lorenzo G, Côté J, Doyon G, Sylvain JF, Lacroix M
Journal: Food Res Int 45;320–330

Abstract: "Cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated in HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two
cranberry juices and three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace containing anthocyanins,
water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds, respectively. Compounds with close polarities were collected in order to obtain between three and four fractions from each juice or extract. Cranberry fractions were screened for their ability to induce the phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR).
The results showed that there was no cytotoxicity against the cells used in the test. All samples stimulated
the quinone reductase activity except the highest concentrations of the less polar fraction of anthocyaninrich extract from pomace, which inhibited the QR activity. The QR induction for all samples varied with the concentration and there was an optimal concentration for which the QR induction was maximal. The technological process to manufacture cranberry juice had little influence on the overall QR inducer potencies of
cranberry fractions, whereas the ability of phenols in fractions to stimulate the QR activity has been reduced
significantly (P≤0.05) during the technological process. Among all samples, phenolic compounds of eight
fractions presented a maximum QR induction greater than 100 II(QR)/mg phenol. The phenolic compounds
of the most polar fraction (rich in phenolic acids) and those of the less polar fraction (rich in proanthocyanidins)
showed stronger induction than those observed with phenols from intermediate fractions."

Cranberry Juice Extract, A Mild Prooxidant with Cytotoxic Properties Independent of Reactive Oxygen Species

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Babich H, Ickow IM, Weisburg JH, Zuckerbraun HL, Schuck AG
Journal: Phytother Res DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3735

Abstract: A cranberry juice extract (CJE), rich in proanthocyanidins, had weak prooxidant properties, generating low
levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide. Generation of H2O2 was pH dependent, increasing at
alkaline pH, and was lowered in the presence of catalase and, to a lesser extent, of superoxide dismutase
(SOD). Growth inhibition and cytotoxicity were noted towards human oral carcinoma HSC-2 cells, with midpoint
cytotoxicity at 200mg/mL CJE, but not towards human gingival HF-1 fibroblasts. Being a mild prooxidant,
CJE toxicity was unaffected by exogenous catalase and pyruvate, scavengers of H2O2, but triggered intracellular
synthesis of reduced glutathione, as confirmed by cell staining with Cell Tracker™ Green. The presence of
exogenous SOD potentiated the toxicity of CJE, possibly by stabilizing the CJE phenols and hindering their
degradative autooxidation. Conversely, ‘spent’ CJE, i.e. CJE added to cell culture medium and incubated for
24 h at 37 C prior to use, was much less toxic to HSC-2 cells than was freshly prepared CJE. These differences
in toxicity between SOD-stabilized CJE, freshly prepared CJE, and ‘spent’ CJE were confirmed in HSC-2 cells
stained with aceto-orcein, which also indicated that the mode of cell death was by the induction of apoptosis.

MicroRNA alterations in Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines following cranberry extract treatment: Insights for chemoprevention

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Kresty LA, Clarke J, Ezell K, Exum A, Howell AB, Guettouche T
Journal: J Carcinog 10:34. Epub 2011 Dec 22

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of small noncoding endogenous RNA molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) is documented to occur in multiple cancer types including
esophageal adencarcinoma (EAC) and its only known precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). Recent studies have linked dysregulation of specific miRNAs to histological
grade, neoplastic progression and metastatic potential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we present a summary of previously reported dysregulated miRNAs in BE and EAC tissues as well as EAC cell lines and evaluate a cranberry proanthocyanidin rich extract's (C-PAC) ability to modulate miRNA expression patterns of three human EAC cell lines (JHEso-Ad-1, OE33 and OE19).
RESULTS: A review of 13 published studies revealed dysregulation of 87 miRNAs in BE and EAC tissues, whereas 52 miRNAs have been reported to be altered in BE or
EAC cell lines, with 48% overlap with miRNA changes reported in tissues. We report for the first time C-PAC-induced modulation of five miRNAs in three EAC
cell lines resulting in 26 validated gene targets and identification of key signaling pathways including p53, angiogenesis, T-cell activation and apoptosis.
Additionally, mutiple cancer related networks were ideintified as modulated by C-PAC utilizing Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER), and MetaCore analysis tools.
CONCLUSIONS: Study results support the cancer inhibitory potential of C-PAC is in part attributable to C-PAC's ability to modify miRNA profiles within EAC cells. A number of C-PAC-modulated miRNAs have been been identified as dysregulated in BE and EAC. Further insights into miRNA dysregulation and modulation by select cancer preventive agents will support improved targeted interventions in
high-risk cohorts.

North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) stimulates apoptotic pathways in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: MacLean MA, Scott BE, Deziel BA, Nunnelley MC, Liberty AM, Gottschall-Pass KT, Neto CC, Hurta RA
Journal: Nutr Cancer. 63(1):109-20

Abstract: Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been shown to improve patient prognosis in a variety of cancers, a benefit partly derived from phytochemicals, many of which target cell death pathways in tumor cells. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a phytochemical-rich fruit containing a variety of polyphenolic compounds. As flavonoids have been shown to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells, this study investigated the hypothesis that cranberry-mediated cytotoxicity in DU145 human prostate adenocarcinoma cells involves apoptosis. The results showed that induction of apoptosis in these cells occurred in response to treatment with whole cranberry extract and occurred through caspase-8 mediated cleavage of Bid protein to truncated Bid resulting in cytochrome-C release from the mitochondria. Subsequent activation of caspase-9 ultimately resulted in cell death as characterized by DNA fragmentation. Increased Par-4 protein expression was observed, and this is suggested to be at least partly responsible for caspase-8 activation. Proanthocyanidin-enriched and flavonol-enriched fractions of cranberry also increased caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity, suggesting that these compounds play a possible role in apoptosis induction. These findings indicate that cranberry phytochemicals can induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro, and these findings further establish the potential value of cranberry phytochemicals as possible agents against prostate cancer.

Ursolic acid and its esters: occurrence in cranberries and other Vaccinium fruit and effects on matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 prostate tumor cells.

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Kondo M, MacKinnon SL, Craft CC, Matchett MD, Hurta RAR, Neto CC
Journal: J Sci Food Agric 91: 5, 789-796

Abstract: Ursolic acid and its cis- and trans-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl esters have been identified as constituents of American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon), which inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Since the compounds may contribute to berry anticancer properties, their content in cranberries, selected cranberry products, and three other Vaccinium species (V. oxycoccus, V. vitis-idaea and V. angustifolium) was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The ability of these compounds to inhibit growth in a panel of tumor cell lines and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity associated with tumor invasion and metastasis was determined in DU145 prostate tumor cells. RESULTS: The highest content of ursolic acid and esters was found in V. macrocarpon berries (0.460-1.090 g ursolic acid and 0.040-0.160 g each ester kg-1 fresh weight). V. vitis-idaea and V. angustifolium contained ursolic acid (0.230-0.260 g kg-1), but the esters were not detected. V. oxycoccus was lowest (0.129 g ursolic acid and esters per kg). Ursolic acid content was highest in cranberry products prepared from whole fruit. Ursolic acid and its esters inhibited tumor cell growth at micromolar concentrations, and inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at concentrations below those previously reported for cranberry polyphenolics. CONCLUSION: Cranberries (V. macrocarpon) were the best source of ursolic acid and its esters among the fruit and products tested. These compounds may limit prostate carcinogenesis through matrix metalloproteinase inhibition.

Effect of juice processing on the cancer chemopreventive effect of cranberry.

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Caillet, S. Cote, J. Doyon, G. Sylvain, J. F. Lacroix, M
Journal: Food Res Int 44: 4, 902-910

Abstract: Cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated in cranberries and cranberry products (mash, depectinized mash, pomace, raw juice, clarified juice and juice concentrate). Three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and cranberry solids (mash, depectinized mash and pomace) containing anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds were tested. Cranberry juices and extracts were screened for their ability to induce the phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR). The results showed that there was no cytotoxicity against the cells used in the test. All samples stimulated quinone reductase activity except the highest concentrations of the anthocyanin-rich extract of pomace, which inhibited QR activity. Also, the results showed that the QR induction for all samples varied with concentration and that there was an optimal concentration for which the QR induction was maximal. Although the three cranberry extracts were good QR inducers, our results indicated that the phenols present in aqueous extract showed QR inductions which were more important than those obtained with phenols present in solvent extracts. Also, the ability of phenols to stimulate the QR activity has been reduced continuously and significantly (P<=0.05) during the technological process. Especially, it appears that conditions of the evaporation to obtain a juice concentrate exerted a significant effect (P<=0.05) on inducer potencies of bioactive molecules.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins mediate growth arrest of lung cancer cells through modulation of gene expression and rapid induction of apoptosis.

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Kresty LA, Howell AB, Baird M
Journal: Molecules 16(3):2375-90

Abstract: Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents purported to enhance immune function, improve urinary tract health, reduce cardiovascular disease and more recently, inhibit cancer in preclinical models. However, identification of the cranberry constituents with the strongest cancer inhibitory potential and the mechanism associated with cancer inhibition by cranberries remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the ability of a proanthocyanidin rich cranberry fraction (PAC) to alter gene expression, induce apoptosis and impact the cell cycle machinery of human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and five year survival rates remain poor at 16%. Thus, assessing potential inhibitors of lung cancer-linked signaling pathways is an active area of investigation.

Effect of different cranberry extracts and juices during cranberry juice processing

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Vu KD, Carlettini H, Bouvet J, Côté J, Doyon G, Sylvain J-F, Lacroix M
Journal: Food Chemistry 132 (2):959-967

Abstract: The effect of cranberry extracts and juices during cranberry juice processing on the antiproliferative properties against colon cancer cells was investigated. Two colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and LS-513 were treated with different concentrations of cranberry phenolic extracts from fruits, puree, depectinised puree and pomace and different concentration of three juices (raw, filtered and concentrated juices). The phenolic extracts consisted of water-soluble phenolic compounds, apolar phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. These phenolic extracts and juices were tested against two cell lines at pH 2.5 (natural
juice pH) and at pH 7.0 (physiological pH). All cranberry extracts and juices could inhibit the growth of both cell lines with the IC50 values (the concentration of phenolic content required to inhibit 50% the growth of cancer cells) varied from 3.8 to 179.2 lg gallic acid equivalent/ml. It was found that three types of extracts from fruit at pH 7.0 were the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HT-29 cell line. Extracts containing anthocyanins from fruit and from pomace were the most and the least efficient, respectively, in inhibiting the growth of both cancer cell lines. Further, three juices at natural pH (pH 2.5) were more effective at inhibiting the growth of two cell lines as compared to juices at pH 7.0. Concentrated juice at both pH values was the most effective at growth inhibition of two cancer cell lines compared to two other juices.

Anti-angiogenic activity of cranberry proanthocyanidins and cytotoxic properties in ovarian cancer cells

Posted: January 14, 2012
Authors: Kim KK, Singh AP, Singh RK, Demartino A, Brard L, Vorsa N, Lange TS, Moore RG
Journal: Int J Oncol 40(1):227-35.

Abstract: Cranberry extracts may provide beneficial health effects in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of antineoplastic properties are not understood. We report the effect of a proanthocyanidin (PAC)-rich isolate from cranberry (PAC-1) as a therapeutic agent with dual activity to target both ovarian cancer viability and angiogenesis in vitro. PAC-1 treatment of chemotherapy-resistant SKOV-3 cells blocked cell cycle progression through the G2/M phase, increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induced apoptosis through activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway components. Cytotoxicity of PAC-1 was partially based on ROS generation and could be blocked by co-treatment with antioxidant glutathione. PAC-1 reduced the cell viability of both SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells and HUVEC endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and blocked the activation of the pro-survival factor AKT. Furthermore, PAC-1 blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated receptor phosphorylation in endothelial cells, which correlated with the inhibition of endothelial tube formation in vitro. Our findings suggest that PAC-1 exerts potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic properties and that highly purified PAC from cranberry can be further developed to treat ovarian cancer in combinational or single-agent therapy.

Purified cranberry proanthocyanidines (PAC-1A) cause pro-apoptotic signaling, ROS generation, cyclophosphamide retention and cytotoxicity in high-risk neuroblastoma cells

Posted: January 14, 2012
Authors: Singh AP, Lange TS, Kim KK, Brard L, Horan T, Moore RG, Vorsa N, Singh RK.
Journal: Int J Oncol 40(1):99-108

Abstract: Optimized purification of oligomeric proanthocyanidines (PAC) from cranberry generated PAC-1A which selectively affected the viability of various neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines representing a spectrum of high-risk NB features. PAC-1A caused a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization potential (&#8710;&#936;m) and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which was directly correlated to the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins in SMS-KCNR cells. PAC-1A reduced the expression of pro-survival (Bcl-2, MCL-1, Bcl-xL) and increased levels of pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bad, Bid) Bcl family proteins, upregulated the activity of SAPK/JNK MAPK and downregulated expression or activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway components. PAC-1A increased the cellular uptake/retention of cyclophosphamide (CP). PAC-1A and CP synergistically increased cytotoxicity and expression of pro-apoptotic markers, reduced cellular glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Additional features of PAC-1A as an anticancer drug as shown in SMS-KCNR NB cells include delay of cell cycle progression and induction of cell death via TNF-family death receptor activity, thus, targeting both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PAC-1A partially blocked the cell cycle in G2/M phase which correlated with a decrease of the G0/G1 subpopulation, upregulation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of CDK6 and p27 expression. In summary, PAC-1A has demonstrated chemotherapeutic potential to treat a broad spectrum of NBs including highly malignant tumors that show resistance to standard chemotherapeutics and apoptotic stimuli.

MALDI-TOF MS characterization of proanthocyanidins from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon) that inhibit tumor cell growth and matrix metalloproteinase expression in vitro.

Posted: January 11, 2011
Authors: Neto CC, Krueger CG, Lamoureaux TL, Kondo M, Vaisberg AJ, Hurta RAR, Curtis S, et al
Journal: J Sci Food Agr 86(1):18-25

Abstract: Abstract:Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts were prepared by fractionation of the fruit of theNorthAmerican
cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). In vitro growth inhibition assays in eight tumor cell lines showed
that selected fractions inhibited the growth of H460 lung tumors, HT-29 colon and K562 leukemia cells at
GI50 values ranging from 20 to 80 &#956;gml&#8722;1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass
spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of one of these fractions found it to be composed of polyflavan-3-ols,
which are primarily tetramers through heptamers of epicatechin containing one or two A-type linkages.
Whole cranberry extract and the proanthocyanidin fractions were screened for effect on the expression of
matrix metalloproteinases in DU 145 prostate carcinoma cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was
inhibited in response to whole cranberry extract and to a lesser degree by the proanthocyanidin fractions

Cranberry extract and quercetin modulate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and I kappa B alpha in human colon cancer cells

Posted: December 16, 2010
Authors: Narayansingh R, Hurta RAR
Journal: J Sci Food Agr 89(3):542-547

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cranberry (Vaccinium marcocarpon) fruit and quercetin, a major flavonoid found in cranberries, are likely contributors to chemoprevention, and their anti-inflammatory activities may play a potential role in colon cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cranberry extract and quercetin on basal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and I&#954;B&#945; as well as the effect on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced COX-2 expression in colon cancer cells.
RESULTS: HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of cranberry extract or quercetin and/or PMA, and the protein expression of COX-2 and I&#954;B&#945; was determined. The results indicated that cranberry extract and quercetin decreased COX-2 expression and suppressed degradation of I&#954;B&#945; in unstimulated cells. In PMA-stimulated cells, cranberry extract was also able to decrease COX-2 expression and suppress degradation of I&#954;B&#945;.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that a possible mechanism involved in the anti-cancer activity of cranberry and quercetin is partly mediated through its anti-inflammatory action. These findings indicate that cranberry and quercetin may reduce the risk of colon cancer possibly by suppressing inflammatory responses.

Cranberry PACs and triterpenoids: anti-cancer activities in colon tumor cell lines

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Liberty AM, Amoroso JW, Neto CC, Hart PE, Patil B, Murano P, Amiot-Carlin MJ
Journal: Acta Hort 841:61-66

Abstract: Phytochemicals from North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruit may be expected to influence the development of colon cancer. Tissue-culture models were used to assess effects of cranberry components on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the formation of tumor cell colonies. Several phytochemicals and fractions isolated from whole cranberry fruit were previously reported to inhibit growth and proliferation of breast, colon, prostate, and other tumor cell lines. In HT-29 and HCT116 colon tumor cell lines, cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) and ursolic acid inhibited the formation of tumor colonies over a two week period in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis is likely to play a role in limiting tumor cell proliferation. In HT-29 and HCT116 colon tumor cell lines treated with either ursolic acid or a cranberry proanthocyanidin fraction, the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis increased in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, cranberry phytochemicals have the potential to limit carcinogenesis.

In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Bomser J, Madhavi DL, Singletary K, Smith MA
Journal: Planta Med 62(3):212-6

Abstract: Fruit extracts of four Vaccinium species (lowbush blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, and lingonberry) were screened for anticarcinogenic compounds by a combination of fractionation and in vitro testing of their ability to induce the Phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR) and to inhibit the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, by the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA). The crude extracts, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin fractions were not highly active in QR induction whereas the ethyl acetate extracts were active QR inducers. The concentrations required to double QR activity (designated CDqr) for the ethyl acetate extracts of lowbush blueberry, cranberry, lingonberry, and bilberry were 4.2, 3.7, 1.3, and 1.0 microgram tannic acid equivalents (TAE), respectively, Further fractionation of the bilberry ethyl acetate extract revealed that the majority of inducer potency was contained in a hexane/chloroform subfraction (CDqr = 0.07 microgram TAE). In contrast to their effects on QR, crude extracts of lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry were active inhibitors of ODC activity. The concentrations of these crude extracts needed to inhibit ODC activity by 50% (designated IC50) were 8.0, 7.0, and 9.0 micrograms TAE, respectively. The greatest activity in these extracts appeared to be contained in the polymeric proanthocyanidin fractions of the lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry fruits (IC50 = 3.0, 6.0, and 5.0 micrograms TAE, respectively). The anthocyanidin and ethyl acetate extracts of the four Vaccinium species were either inactive or relatively weak inhibitors of ODC activity. Thus, components of the hexane/chloroform fraction of bilberry and of the proanthocyanidin fraction of lowbush blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry exhibit potential anticarcinogenic activity as evaluated by in vitro screening tests.

Proanthocyanidins from the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in human prostate cancer cells via alterations in multiple cellular signalling pathways.

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Déziel BA, Patel K, Neto C, Gottschall-Pass K, Hurta RA
Journal: J Cell Biochem 111(3):742-54

Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the Western world, and it is believed that an individual's diet affects his risk of developing cancer. There has been an interest in examining phytochemicals, the secondary metabolites of plants, in order to determine their potential anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. In this study we document the effects of proanthocyanidins (PACs) from the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Cranberry PACs decreased cellular viability of DU145 cells at a concentration of 25&#8201;µg/ml by 30% after 6&#8201;h of treatment. Treatment of DU145 cells with PACs resulted in an inhibition of both MMPs 2 and 9 activity. PACs increased the expression of TIMP-2, a known inhibitor of MMP activity, and decreased the expression of EMMPRIN, an inducer of MMP expression. PACs decreased the expression of PI-3 kinase and AKT proteins, and increased the phosphorylation of both p38 and ERK1/2. Cranberry PACs also decreased the translocation of the NF-&#954;B p65 protein to the nucleus. Cranberry PACs increased c-jun and decreased c-fos protein levels. These results suggest that cranberry PACs decreases MMP activity through the induction and/or inhibition of specific temporal MMP regulators, and by affecting either the phosphorylation status and/or expression of MAP kinase, PI-3 kinase, NF-&#954;B and AP-1 pathway proteins. This study further demonstrates that cranberry PACs are a strong candidate for further research as novel anti-cancer agents.

In vivo inhibition of growth of human tumor lines by flavonoid fractions from cranberry extract.

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Ferguson PJ, Kurowska EM, Freeman DJ, Chambers AF and Koropatnick J
Journal: Nutr Cancer 56(1):86-94

Abstract: Edible fruits and berries may serve as sources for novel anticancer agents, given that extracts of these foods have demonstrated cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines. Semipurified, flavonoid-rich extracts of cranberry (Vaccinia macrocarpa) were shown previously to arrest proliferation of tumor cells and induce apoptosis. However, the ability of cranberry flavonoids to inhibit tumor growth in vivo has not been reported other than in a preliminary report. As model systems for testing this activity, human tumor cell lines representative of three malignancies were chosen: glioblastoma multiforme (U87), colon carcinoma (HT-29), and androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (DU145). A flavonoid-rich fraction 6 (Fr6) and a more purified proanthocyanidin (PAC)-rich fraction were isolated from cranberry presscake and whole cranberry, respectively, by column chromatography. Fr6 and PAC each significantly slowed the growth of explant tumors of U87 in vivo, and PAC inhibited growth of HT-29 and DU145 explants (P < 0.05), inducing complete regression of two DU145 tumor explants. Flow cytometric analyses of in vitro-treated U87 cells indicated that Fr6 and PAC could arrest cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle (P < 0.05) and also induce cell death within 24 to 48 h of exposure (P < 0.05). These results indicate the presence of a potential anticancer constituent in the flavonoid-containing fractions from cranberry extracts.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis and inhibit acid-induced proliferation of human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.

Posted: November 9, 2010
Authors: Kresty LA, Howell AB, Baird M
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 56(3):676-80

Abstract: The occurrence of esophageal adenocarcinoma and its only recognized precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, has rapidly increased during the past three decades. The precise reason for the rise remains to be elucidated, but increasing rates have been linked to multiple nutritional factors. Plant-based diets have generally been associated with a reduction of risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma and those of animal origin with risk escalation. Moreover, a number of recent in vitro and limited in vivo investigations have reported that cranberry extracts affect multiple cancer-associated processes in breast, colon, prostate, and other cancer cell lines of epithelial origin. Thus, this study sought to investigate the chemopreventive potential of a cranberry proanthocyanidin rich extract (PAC) in SEG-1 human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells. PAC pretreatment significantly inhibited the viability and proliferation of EAC cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PAC (50 microg/mL) significantly inhibited acid-induced cell proliferation of SEG-1 cells. PAC treatment induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint and significantly reduced the percentage of SEG-1 cells in S-phase following 24 and 48 h of exposure. PAC treatment also resulted in significant induction of apoptosis. Thus, PAC modulates cell cycle regulation, aberrant proliferation, and apoptosis, all key biological processes altered during progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. These findings support that further mechanistic studies are warranted to more fully elucidate the inhibitory potential of PAC against esophageal cancer.

Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro

Posted: November 8, 2010
Authors: Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, Lee R, Sand D, Scheuller HS, Heber D
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 54(25):9329-39

Abstract: Berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. Berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry--were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The major classes of berry phenolics were anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL. With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis of the COX-2 expressing colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models.

Total cranberry extract versus its phytochemical constituents: antiproliferative and synergistic effects against human tumor cell lines

Posted: November 6, 2010
Authors: Seeram NP, Adams LS, Hardy ML, Heber D
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 52(9):2512-7

Abstract: Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are an excellent dietary source of phytochemicals that include flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), and organic and phenolic acids. Using C-18 and Sephadex Lipophilic LH-20 column chromatography, HPLC, and tandem LC-ES/MS, the total cranberry extract (TCE) has been analyzed, quantified, and separated into fractions enriched in sugars, organic acids, total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins (39.4, 30.0, 10.6, 5.5, and 1.2% composition, respectively). Using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay, the antiproliferative effects of TCE (200 microg/mL) versus all fractions were evaluated against human oral (KB, CAL27), colon (HT-29, HCT116, SW480, SW620), and prostate (RWPE-1, RWPE-2, 22Rv1) cancer cell lines. The total polyphenol fraction was the most active fraction against all cell lines with 96.1 and 95% inhibition of KB and CAL27 oral cancer cells, respectively. For the colon cancer cells, the antiproliferative activity of this fraction was greater against HCT116 (92.1%) than against HT-29 (61.1%), SW480 (60%), and SW620 (63%). TCE and all fractions showed >/=50% antiproliferative activity against prostate cancer cells with total polyphenols being the most active fraction (RWPE-1, 95%; RWPE-2, 95%; 22Rv1, 99.6%). Cranberry sugars (78.8 microg/mL) did not inhibit the proliferation of any cancer cell lines. The enhanced antiproliferative activity of total polyphenols compared to TCE and its individual phytochemicals suggests synergistic or additive antiproliferative interactions of the anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonol glycosides within the cranberry extract.

Antioxidant activities and antitumor screening of extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

Posted: November 5, 2010
Authors: Yan X, Murphy BT, Hammond GB, Vinson JA, Neto CC
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 50(21):5844-9

Abstract: Polyphenolic compounds in cranberries have been investigated to determine their role in protection against cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Extracts of whole fruit were assayed for radical-scavenging activity and tumor growth inhibition using seven tumor cell lines. Selective inhibition of K562 and HT-29 cells was observed from a methanolic extract in the range of 16-125 microg/mL. Radical-scavenging activity was greatest in an extract composed primarily of flavonol glycosides. Seven flavonol glycosides were isolated and purified from whole fruit for further evaluation; the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-galactoside was also purified for comparison with the flavonoids. Three flavonol monoglycosides were newly identified by (13)C NMR as myricetin 3-alpha-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-xyloside, and 3-methoxyquercetin 3-beta-galactoside (isorhamnetin); the other four isolated were the previously identified myricetin 3-beta-galactoside, quercetin 3-beta-galactoside, quercetin 3-alpha-arabinofuranoside, and quercetin 3-alpha-rhamnopyranoside. These compounds were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. Most of the flavonol glycosides showed antioxidant activity comparable or superior to that of vitamin E; cyanidin 3-galactoside showed activity superior to that of the flavonoids as well as vitamin E or Trolox in both antioxidant assays.

Cranberry phytochemical extracts induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Posted: November 4, 2010
Authors: Sun J, Hai Liu R.
Journal: Cancer Lett 241(1):124-34

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the US and is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer. Epidemiological studies have consistently suggested the inverse association between cancer risk and intake of fruits and vegetables. These health benefits have been linked to the additive and synergistic combination of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables. Cranberries have been shown to possess anti-carcinogenic activities such as inhibition of growth of several cancer cell lines, and inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer properties of cranberry phytochemical extracts have not been completely understood. Our data showed that cranberry phytochemical extracts significantly inhibited human breast cancer MCF-7 cell proliferation at doses of 5 to 30mg/mL (P<0.05). Apoptotic induction in MCF-7 cells was observed in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to cranberry phytochemical extracts for 4h. Cranberry phytochemical extracts at a dose of 50mg/mL resulted in a 25% higher ratio of apoptotic cells to total cells as compared to the control groups (P<0.05). Cranberry phytochemical extracts at doses from 10 to 50mg/mL significantly arrested MCF-7 cells at G0/G1 phase (P<0.05). A constant increasing pattern of the G1/S index was observed in the cranberry extract treatment group while the G1/S ratio of the control group decreased concomitantly between 10 and 24h treatment. After 24-h exposure to cranberry extracts, the G1/S index of MCF-7 cells was approximately 6 times higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). These results suggest that cranberry phytochemical extracts possess the ability to suppress the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and this suppression is at least partly attributed to both the initiation of apoptosis and the G1 phase arrest.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins are cytotoxic to human cancer cells and sensitize platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells to paraplatin

Posted: November 2, 2010
Authors: Singh AP, Singh RK, Kim KK, Satyan KS, Nussbaum R, Torres M, Brard L and Vorsa N
Journal: Phytother Res 23(8):1066-74

Abstract: Polyphenolic extracts of the principal flavonoid classes present in cranberry were screened in vitro for cytotoxicity against solid tumor cells lines, identifying two fractions composed principally of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with potential anticancer activity. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of the proanthocyanidins (PACs) fractions indicated the presence of A-type PACs with 1-4 linkages containing between 2-8 epicatechin units with a maximum of 1 epigallocatechin unit. PACs exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against platinum-resistant human ovarian, neuroblastoma and prostate cancer cell lines (IC50 = 79-479 microg/mL) but were non-cytotoxic to lung fibroblast cells (IC50 > 1000 microg/ml). SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells treated with PACs exhibited classic apoptotic changes. PACs acted synergistically with paraplatin in SKOV-3 cells. Pretreatment of SKOV-3 cells with PACs (106 microg/ml) resulted in a significant reduction of the paraplatin IC50 value. Similarly, in a BrdU incorporation assay, co-treatment of SKOV-3 cells with PACs and paraplatin revealed reduced cell proliferation at lower concentrations than with either individually. In SKOV-3 cell cultures co-treated with PAC-1 and paraplatin, an HPLC analysis indicated differential quantitative presence of various PAC oligomers such as DP-8, -9, -11 and -14 indicating either selective binding or uptake. Cranberry proanthocyanidins exhibit cell-line specific cytotoxicity, induce apoptotic markers and augment cytotoxicity of paraplatin in platinum-resistant SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells.

A Flavonoid Fraction from Cranberry Extract Inhibits Proliferation of Human Tumor Cell Lines

Posted: October 13, 2010
Authors: Ferguson PJ,Kurowska E, Freeman DJ, Chambers AF,
Journal: J Nutr 134:1529-1535

Abstract: In light of the continuing need for effective anticancer agents, and the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with reduced cancer risk, edible plants are increasingly being considered as sources of
anticancer drugs. Cranberry presscake (the material remaining after squeezing juice from the berries), when fed to mice bearing human breast tumor MDA-MB-435 cells, was shown previously to decrease the growth and
metastasis of tumors. Therefore, further studies were undertaken to isolate the components of cranberry that
contributed to this anticancer activity, and determine the mechanisms by which they inhibited proliferation. Using
standard chromatographic techniques, a warm-water extract of cranberry presscake was fractionated, and an
acidified methanol eluate (Fraction 6, or Fr6) containing flavonoids demonstrated antiproliferative activity. The
extract inhibited proliferation of 8 human tumor cell lines of multiple origins. The androgen-dependent prostate cell
line LNCaP was the most sensitive of those tested (10 mg/L Fr6 inhibited its growth by 50%), and the estrogen independent breast line MDA-MB-435 and the androgen-independent prostate line DU145 were the least sensitive
(250 mg/L Fr6 inhibited their growth by 50%). Other human tumor lines originating from breast (MCF-7), skin
(SK-MEL-5), colon (HT-29), lung (DMS114), and brain (U87) had intermediate sensitivity to Fr6. Using flow
cytometric analyses of DNA distribution (cell cycle) and annexin V-positivity (apoptosis), Fr6 was shown in
MDA-MB-435 cells to block cell cycle progression (P 0.05) and induce cells to undergo apoptosis (P 0.05) in
a dose-dependent manner. Fr6 is potentially a source of a novel anticancer agent.