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Miscellaneous: Animal

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Cranberry Extract-Enriched Diets Increase NAD(P)H:quinone Oxidoreductase and Catalase Activities in Obese but not in Nonobese Mice

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Bousova I, Bartikova H, Matouskova P, Lnenickova K, Zappe L, Valentova K, Szotakova B, Martin J, Skalova L
Journal: 
Nutr Res 35(10):901-9
Abstract: 

Consumption of antioxidant-enriched diets is 1 method of addressing obesity, which is associated with chronic oxidative stress and changes in the activity/expression of various enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and redox status through a cranberry extract (CBE)-enriched diet would differ between obese and nonobese mice. The CBE used in this study was obtained from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ericaceae), a popular constituent of dietary supplements that is a particularly rich source of (poly)phenols and has strong antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to test and compare the in vivo effects of 28-day consumption of a CBE-enriched diet (2%) on the antioxidant status of nonobese mice and mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and small intestine were studied concurrently to obtain more complex information. The specific activities, protein, and messenger RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as the levels of malondialdehyde and thiol (SH) groups were analyzed. Cranberry extract treatment increased the SH group content in plasma and the glutathione S-transferase activity in the erythrocytes of the obese and nonobese mice. In addition, in the obese animals, the CBE treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content in erythrocytes and increased
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (liver) and catalase (erythrocytes and small intestine) activities. The elevation of hepatic
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding messenger RNA levels. The effects of CBE on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and redox status were more pronounced in the obese mice compared with the nonobese mice.

Modulatory Effects of a Cranberry Extract Co-Supplementation with Bacillus Subtilis CU1 Probiotic on Phenolic Compounds Bioavailability and Gut Microbiota Composition in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Dudonne S, Varin TV, Forato Anhe F, Dube P, Roy D, Pilon G, Marette A, Levy E, Jacquot C, Urdaci M, Desjardins Y
Journal: 
PharmaNutrition [doi: 10.1016/j.phanu.2015.04.002]
Abstract: 

Cranberry consumption has been demonstrated to improve features of the metabolic syndrome, therefore providing an alternative strategy to prevent obesity and type-2 diabetes. Moreover, gut dysbiosis is now considered as a key factor in metabolic disorders. In order to understand the involvement of phenolic compounds in the health-improving effects of cranberry, this study aimed to investigate their bioavailability after oral administration of a cranberry extract (CE) to high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) fed mice, and to explore a possible modulation of gut microbiota composition following a co-supplementation with spores of Bacillus subtilis CU1 probiotic (CE/P). Phenolic metabolites were extracted and characterized from plasma using μSPE-UHPLC-MS/MS, and a metagenomic analysis was performed on feces to assess gut bacterial composition. 22 circulating metabolites were identified, mainly microbial degradation products of native cranberry phenolic compounds. Plasma concentration of 3 microbial metabolites was significantly increased with the CE/P co-treatment: p-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (+53%, +103% and +70%, respectively). Associated to this modulation, we reported significant differences in the proportion of Barnesiella and Oscillibacter genera in CE/P treated mice in comparison with control animals. This study thus highlights the impact of an altered gut microbiota on phenolic compounds degradation and bioavailability in mice.

Profiling the Metabolome Changes Caused by Cranberry Procyanidins in Plasma of Female Rats Using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS Global Metabolomics Approaches

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Liu H, Garrett TJ, Tayyari F, Gu L
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 59(11):2107-18
Abstract: 

SCOPE: The objective was to investigate the metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS metabolomics approaches, and to identify the contributing metabolites.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and administered PPCP or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP) for three times using a 250 mg extracts/kg body weight dose. Plasma was collected 6 h after the last gavage and analyzed using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS. No metabolome difference was observed using (1) H NMR metabolomics approach. However, LC-HRMS metabolomics data show that metabolome in the plasma of female rats administered PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Eleven metabolites were tentatively identified from a total of 36 discriminant metabolic features based on accurate masses and/or product ion spectra. PPCP caused a greater increase of exogenous metabolites including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phenol, phenol-sulphate, catechol sulphate, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylvaleric acid, and 4'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-3'-O-beta-glucuronide in rat plasma. Furthermore, the plasma level of O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-O-glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(hydroxyphenyl)-Y-valerolactone-O-sulphate, 4-hydroxydiphenylamine, and peonidin-3-O-hexose were higher in female rats administered with PPAP.
CONCLUSION: The metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins were revealed using an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approach. Exogenous and microbial metabolites were the major identified discriminate biomarkers.

Cranberry extract standardized for proanthocyanidins promotes the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK pathway and HSF-1.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Dinh J, Angeloni JT, Pederson DB, Wang X, Cao M, Dong Y
Journal: 
PLoS One 9(7):e103290.
Abstract: 

Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry
phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP), a major component of
cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype)) infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but
upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs), may play an important role in enhancing the host innate
immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms.

Antioxidant effects of cranberry powder in lipopolysaccharide treated hypercholesterolemic rats.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Kim MJ, Kim JH, Kwak HK
Journal: 
Prev Nutr Food Sci 19(2):75-81
Abstract: 

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cranberry power on antioxidant defense system in rats fed an atherogenic diet and injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 5 groups: normal diet+saline (NS), atherogenic diet+saline (AS), atherogenic diet+LPS (AL), atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C5), and atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C10). Total antioxidant status measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly reduced by LPS injection (24%) and was restored by the cranberry powder treatment (P

Lifespan extension by cranberry supplementation partially requires SOD2 and is life stage independent.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Sun Y, Yolitz J, Alberico T, Sun X, Zou S
Journal: 
Exp Gerontol 50:57-63
Abstract: 

Many nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals have been shown to promote healthspan and lifespan. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of prolongevity interventions and the time points at which interventions should be implemented to achieve beneficial effects are not well characterized. We have previously shown that a cranberry-containing nutraceutical can promote lifespan in worms and flies and delay age-related functional decline of pancreatic cells in rats. Here we investigated the mechanism underlying lifespan extension induced by cranberry and the effects of short-term or life stage-specific interventions with cranberry on lifespan in Drosophila. We found that lifespan extension induced by cranberry was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK, a component of oxidative stress response MAPK signaling, and slightly increased phosphorylation of AKT, a component of insulin-like signaling. Lifespan extension was also associated with a reduced level of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, a biomarker of lipid oxidation. Moreover, lifespan extension induced by cranberry was partially suppressed by knockdown of SOD2, a major mitochondrial superoxide scavenger. Furthermore, cranberry supplementation was administered in three life stages of adult flies, health span (3-30 days), transition span (31-60 days) and senescence span (61 days to the end when all flies died). Cranberry supplementation during any of these life stages extended the remaining lifespan relative to the non-supplemented and life stage-matched controls. These findings suggest that cranberry supplementation is sufficient to promote longevity when implemented during any life stage, likely through reducing oxidative damage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Modulation of strawberry/cranberry phenolic compounds glucuronidation by co-supplementation with onion: characterization of phenolic metabolites in rat plasma using an optimized micro SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS method.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Dudonne S, Dube P, Pilon G, Marette A, Jacques H, Weisnagel J, Desjardins Y
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 62(14):3244-56
Abstract: 

Plant phenolic compounds are suggested to exert pharmacological activities in regards to obesity and type-2 diabetes, but their mode of action is poorly understood due to a lack of information about their bioavailability. This work aimed to study the bioavailability of GlucoPhenol phenolic compounds, a strawberry-cranberry extracts blend, by characterizing plasma phenolic profile in obese rats. A comparison was performed by co-supplementation with an onion extract. Using an optimized micro SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS method, 21 phenolic metabolites were characterized, mostly conjugated metabolites and microbial degradation products of the native phenolic compounds. Their kinetic profiles revealed either an intestinal or hepatic formation. Among identified metabolites, isorhamnetin glucuronide sulfate was found in greater amount in plasma. Three glucuronidated conjugates of strawberry-cranberry phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucuronide, catechins glucuronide, and methyl catechins glucuronide were found in higher quantities when GlucoPhenol was ingested together with onion extract (+252%, +279%, and +118% respectively), suggesting a possible induction of glucuronidation processes by quercetin. This work allowed the characterization of actual phenolic metabolites generated in vivo following a phenolic intake, the analysis of their kinetics and suggested a possible synergistic activity of phenolic compounds for improving bioavailability.

Supplement timing of cranberry extract plays a key role in promoting Caenorhabditis elegans healthspan.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Guha S, Natarajan O, Murbach CG, Dinh J, Wilson EC, Cao M, Zou S, Dong Y
Journal: 
Nutrients 6(2):911-21
Abstract: 

Consumption of nutraceuticals is a major and potent dietary intervention for delaying aging. As the timing of administration is critical for the efficacy of bioactive compounds in medicine, the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may also be dramatically affected by the timing of supplementation. Cranberry exact (CBE), rich in polyphenols, is consumed as a nutraceutical, and possesses anti-aging properties. Here, we examined the influence of timing on the beneficial effects of CBE supplementation in C. elegans. The prolongevity effect of CBE in different aged worms, young adults, middle-age adults, and aged adults, was determined. Early-start intervention with CBE prolonged the remaining lifespan of worms of different ages more robustly than late-start intervention. The effectiveness of CBE on stress responses and physiological behaviors in different aged worms was also investigated. The early-start intervention prominently promoted motility and resistance to heat shocks and V. cholera infection, especially in aged worms. Together, these findings suggest that the timing of CBE supplementation critically influences its beneficial effects on C. elegans lifespan and healthspan. It is of interest to further investigate whether the similar results would occur in humans.

Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry, blueberry, or black raspberry powder.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Khanal R, Howard LR, Prior RL
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 62(18):3987-96
Abstract: 

Dietary polyphenolics can be converted into smaller phenolic acids (PA) by microorganisms in the colon and may contribute to health benefits associated with the parent polyphenolics. Urinary excretion of 18 PA and their conjugates was studied, using HPLC-MS/MS, in rats fed AIN93 G-based diets containing 5% (dry weight basis) of either cranberry (CB), blueberry (BB), or black raspberry (BRB). Hippuric, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were excreted in greatest quantity in the urine over a 24 h period in all diets. Primary PA excreted in the berry diets were 4-hydroxycinnamic acid for CB; chlorogenic, ferulic, and 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acids for BB; and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, and 3-hydroxycinnamic acids for BRB. PA were present in conjugated form with cinnamic acid derivatives being 50-70% and phenylacetic acid derivatives conjugated

Cranberry interacts with dietary macronutrients to promote healthy aging in drosophila

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Wang C, Yolitz J, Alberico T, Laslo M, Sun Y, Wheeler CT, Sun X, Zou S
Journal: 
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci doi: 10.1093/gerona/glt161
Abstract: 

Botanicals possess numerous bioactivities, and some promote healthy aging. Dietary macronutrients are major determinants of life span. The interaction between botanicals and macronutrients that modulates life span is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of a cranberry-containing botanical on life span and the influence of macronutrients on the longevity-related effect of cranberry in Drosophila. Flies were supplemented with cranberry on three dietary conditions: standard, high sugar-low protein, and low sugar-high protein diets. We found that cranberry slightly extended life span in males fed with the low sugar-high protein diet but not with other diets. Cranberry extended life span in females fed with the standard diet and more prominently the high sugar-low protein diet but not with the low sugar-high protein diet. Life-span extension was associated with increased reproduction and higher expression of oxidative stress and heat shock response genes. Moreover, cranberry improved survival of sod1 knockdown and dfoxo mutant flies but did not increase wild-type fly's resistance to acute oxidative stress. Cranberry slightly extended life span in flies fed with a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that cranberry promotes healthy aging by increasing stress responsiveness. Our study reveals an interaction of cranberry with dietary macronutrients and stresses the importance of considering diet composition in designing interventions for promoting healthy aging.

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