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Miscellaneous: Animal

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Anti-Aging and Redox State Regulation Effects of A-type Proanthocyanidins-Rich Cranberry Concentrate and its Comparison with Grape Seed Extract in Mice.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Jiao JJ, Wei Y, Chen J, Chen X, Zhang Y.
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods 30:63-73
Abstract: 

We investigated the anti-aging and redox state regulation effects by A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs)-rich cranberry concentrate (CBC) and its comparison with B-type PACs-rich grape seed extract (GSE). Using the Q-Extractive mass spectrometry, PACs dimer A and B were identified as predominant phenolic compounds of CBC and GSE, respectively, while epicatechin was present in both extracts. Using the d-galactose-induced aging mice model, effects were investigated via an 8-week oral gavage considering water-soluble vitamin E as the positive control. Both CBC and GSE reduced hepatic and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and plasma 8-isoprostane levels by 30-57%, 24-30% and 11-62%, respectively, and decreased brain and plasma monoamine oxidase activities by 27-59% and 65-71%, respectively. CBC could improve hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity by 42%, while GSE increased hepatic superoxide dismutase activity by 13%. Therefore, both extracts exerted anti-aging effects probably via regulating in vivo redox state. However, neither generated any effect on catalase activities.

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Extract Treatment Improves Triglyceridemia, Liver Cholesterol, Liver Steatosis, Oxidative Damage and Corticosteronemia in Rats Rendered Obese by High Fat Diet.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Peixoto TC; Moura EG; de Oliveira E; Soares PN; Guarda DS; Bernardino DN; Ai XX; Rodrigues VDST; de Souza GR; da Silva AJR; Figueiredo MS; Manhaes AC; Lisboa PC.
Journal: 
European Journal of Nutrition DOI 10.1007/s00394-017-1467-2
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: Obese individuals have higher production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative damage. We hypothesize that cranberry extract (CE) can improve this dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity in rats since it has an important antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the effects of CE in food intake, adiposity, biochemical and hormonal parameters, lipogenic and adipogenic factors, hepatic morphology and oxidative balance in a HFD model. METHODS: At postnatal day 120 (PN120), male Wistar rats were assigned into two groups: (1) SD (n = 36) fed with a standard diet and (2) HFD (n = 36), fed with a diet containing 44.5% (35.2% from lard) energy from fat. At PN150, 12 animals from SD and HFD groups were killed while the others were subdivided into four groups (n = 12/group): animals that received 200 mg/kg cranberry extract (SD CE, HFD CE) gavage/daily/30 days or water (SD, HFD). At PN180, animals were killed.RESULTS: HFD group showed higher body mass and visceral fat, hypercorticosteronemia, higher liver glucocorticoid sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride contents and microsteatosis. Also, HFD group had higher lipid peroxidation (plasma and tissues) and higher protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) compared to SD group. HFD CE group showed lower body mass gain, hypotrygliceridemia, hypocorticosteronemia, and lower hepatic cholesterol and fatty acid synthase contents. HFD CE group displayed lower lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation (liver and adipose tissue) and accumulation of liver fat compared to HFD group. CONCLUSION: Although adiposity was not completely reversed, cranberry extract improved the metabolic profile and reduced oxidative damage and steatosis in HFD-fed rats, which suggests that it can help manage obesity-related disorders.

Morphometric Abnormalities in Spleen and Kidney of the Progeny of Mice Fed American Cranberry Extract (Vaccinium macrocarpon) During Pregnancy and Lactation.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Bałan BJ, Lewicki S, Siwicki AK, Stelmasiak M, Skopiński P, Skopińska-Różewska E, Wasiutyński A, Zdanowski R.
Journal: 
Pol J Vet Sci. 20(1):57-65
Abstract: 

Cranberries and cranberry-derived diet supplements are often recommended for the treatment of urinary tract infections, also during pregnancy. These products contain strongly anti-angiogenic chemical compounds which could not be indifferent to the developing fetus. In the present work we evaluated the effect of feeding pregnant and lactating mice American cranberry extract (daily dose 0.88 mg) on the morphology and some parameters of spleen and kidney function of their adult progeny. Six weeks after delivery the morphometry of spleen and kidney, cytometric analysis of spleen lymphocytes, evaluation of humoral response to SRBC (Sheep Red Blood Cells), and examination of serum creatinine/urea concentration, were performed in the offspring. Spleens of progeny from experimental (E) group differed from the spleens of progeny of control mice in the lower number of lymphatic nodules and their larger diameter. Cytometry of spleen cells from progeny of E mothers revealed more CD19+ and CD8+ lymphocytes than in the control group. No difference was seen in the response to immunization by red blood cells of sheep (SRBC) between control and E offspring. An increase in the diameter of glomeruli was observed in the kidneys of the experimental group in comparison with the control group. No abnormalities in creatinine and urea serum level were observed. A higher concentration of VEGF and bFGF in E offspring sera in comparison to the controls was seen. CONCLUSION: Although the observed differences between the control and experimental group were not large, caution is recommended in using cranberries and their extracts during pregnancy until more research will be done on this topic.

Cranberry Extract Standardized for Proanthocyanidins Alleviates Beta -Amyloid Peptide Toxicity by Improving Proteostasis Through HSF-1 in Caenorhabditis Elegans Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Guo H, Cao M, Zou S, Ye B, Dong Y
Journal: 
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 71(12):1564-1573
Abstract: 

A growing body of evidence suggests that nutraceuticals with prolongevity properties may delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently demonstrated that a proanthocyanidins-standardized cranberry extract has properties that prolong life span and promote innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this article, we report that supplementation of this cranberry extract delayed A beta toxicity-triggered body paralysis in the C. elegans AD model. Genetic analyses indicated that the cranberry-mediated A beta toxicity alleviation required heat shock transcription factor (HSF)-1 rather than DAF-16 and SKN-1. Moreover, cranberry supplementation increased the transactivity of HSF-1 in an IIS-dependent manner. Further studies found that the cranberry extract relies on HSF-1 to significantly enhance the solubility of proteins in aged worms, implying an improved proteostasis in AD worms. Considering that HSF-1 plays a pivotal role in maintaining proteostasis, our results suggest that cranberry maintains the function of proteostasis through HSF-1, thereby protecting C. elegans against A beta toxicity. Together, our findings elucidated the mechanism whereby cranberry attenuated A beta toxicity in C. elegans and stressed the significance of proteostasis in the prevention of age-related diseases from a practical point of view.

Cranberry product decreases fat accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Sun Q, Yue Y, Shen P, Yang JJ, Park Y.
Journal: 
Journal of Medicinal Food; 2016. 19(4):427-433.
Abstract: 

Cranberry phenolic compounds have been linked to many health benefits. A recent report suggested that cranberry bioactives inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the cranberry product (CP) on lipid metabolism using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model. CP (0.016% and 0.08%) dose-dependently reduced overall fat accumulation in C. elegans (N2, wild type) by 43% and 74%, respectively, without affecting its pumping rates or locomotive activities. CP decreased fat accumulation in aak-2 (an ortholog of AMP-activated kinase alpha ) and tub-1 (an ortholog of TUBBY) mutants significantly, but only minimal effects were observed in sbp-1 (an ortholog of sterol response element-binding protein-1) and nhr-49 (an ortholog of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- alpha ) mutant strains. We further confirmed that CP downregulated sbp-1, cebp, and hosl-1 (an ortholog of hormone-sensitive lipase homolog) expression, while increasing the expression of nhr-49 in wild-type C. elegans. These results suggest that CP could effectively reduce fat accumulation in C. elegans dependent on sbp-1, cebp, and nhr-49, but not aak-2 and tub-1.

NMR-based metabolomics reveals urinary metabolome modifications in female Sprague-Dawley rats by cranberry procyanidins.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Liu H., Tayyari F., Edison A.S., Su Z., Gu L.
Journal: 
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 34 (pp 136-145), 2016
Abstract: 

A 1H NMR global metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP). After collecting 24-h baseline urine, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and gavaged with PPCP or PPAP twice using a dose of 250 mg extracts per kilogram body weight. The 24-h urine samples were collected after the gavage. Urine samples were analyzed using 1H NMR. Multivariate analyses showed that the urinary metabolome in rats was modified after administering PPCP or PPAP compared to baseline urine metabolic profiles. 2D 1H-13C HSQC NMR was conducted to assist identification of discriminant metabolites. An increase of hippurate, lactate and succinate and a decrease of citrate and alpha-ketoglutarate were observed in rat urine after administering PPCP. Urinary levels of d-glucose, d-maltose, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, formate and phenol increased but citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate and creatinine decreased in rats after administering PPAP. Furthermore, the NMR analysis showed that the metabolome in the urine of rats administered with PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Compared to PPAP, PPCP caused an increase of urinary excretion of hippurate but a decrease of 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and phenol. These metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins may help to explain its reported health benefits and identify biomarkers of cranberry procyanidin intake.

Cranberry Anthocyanin Extract Prolongs Lifespan of Fruit Flies

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Wang L, Li YM, Lei L, Liu Y, Wang X, Ma KY, Chen ZY
Journal: 
Exp Gerontol 69:189-95
Abstract: 

Cranberry is an excellent source of dietary antioxidants. The present study investigated the effect of cranberry anthocyanin (CrA) extract on the lifespan of fruit flies with focus on its interaction with aging-related genes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (MTH), insulin receptor (InR), target of rapamycin (TOR), hemipterus (Hep), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Results showed that diet containing 20mg/mL CrA could significantly prolong the mean lifespan of fruit flies by 10% compared with the control diet. This was accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1 and down-regulation of MTH, InR, TOR and PEPCK. The stress resistance test demonstrated that CrA could reduce the mortality rate induced by H2O2 but not by paraquat. It was therefore concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of CrA was most likely mediated by modulating the genes of SOD1, MTH, InR, TOR and PEPCK.

Cranberry Extract-Enriched Diets Increase NAD(P)H:quinone Oxidoreductase and Catalase Activities in Obese but not in Nonobese Mice

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Bousova I, Bartikova H, Matouskova P, Lnenickova K, Zappe L, Valentova K, Szotakova B, Martin J, Skalova L
Journal: 
Nutr Res 35(10):901-9
Abstract: 

Consumption of antioxidant-enriched diets is 1 method of addressing obesity, which is associated with chronic oxidative stress and changes in the activity/expression of various enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and redox status through a cranberry extract (CBE)-enriched diet would differ between obese and nonobese mice. The CBE used in this study was obtained from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ericaceae), a popular constituent of dietary supplements that is a particularly rich source of (poly)phenols and has strong antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to test and compare the in vivo effects of 28-day consumption of a CBE-enriched diet (2%) on the antioxidant status of nonobese mice and mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and small intestine were studied concurrently to obtain more complex information. The specific activities, protein, and messenger RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as the levels of malondialdehyde and thiol (SH) groups were analyzed. Cranberry extract treatment increased the SH group content in plasma and the glutathione S-transferase activity in the erythrocytes of the obese and nonobese mice. In addition, in the obese animals, the CBE treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content in erythrocytes and increased
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (liver) and catalase (erythrocytes and small intestine) activities. The elevation of hepatic
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding messenger RNA levels. The effects of CBE on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and redox status were more pronounced in the obese mice compared with the nonobese mice.

Modulatory Effects of a Cranberry Extract Co-Supplementation with Bacillus Subtilis CU1 Probiotic on Phenolic Compounds Bioavailability and Gut Microbiota Composition in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Dudonne S, Varin TV, Forato Anhe F, Dube P, Roy D, Pilon G, Marette A, Levy E, Jacquot C, Urdaci M, Desjardins Y
Journal: 
PharmaNutrition [doi: 10.1016/j.phanu.2015.04.002]
Abstract: 

Cranberry consumption has been demonstrated to improve features of the metabolic syndrome, therefore providing an alternative strategy to prevent obesity and type-2 diabetes. Moreover, gut dysbiosis is now considered as a key factor in metabolic disorders. In order to understand the involvement of phenolic compounds in the health-improving effects of cranberry, this study aimed to investigate their bioavailability after oral administration of a cranberry extract (CE) to high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) fed mice, and to explore a possible modulation of gut microbiota composition following a co-supplementation with spores of Bacillus subtilis CU1 probiotic (CE/P). Phenolic metabolites were extracted and characterized from plasma using μSPE-UHPLC-MS/MS, and a metagenomic analysis was performed on feces to assess gut bacterial composition. 22 circulating metabolites were identified, mainly microbial degradation products of native cranberry phenolic compounds. Plasma concentration of 3 microbial metabolites was significantly increased with the CE/P co-treatment: p-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (+53%, +103% and +70%, respectively). Associated to this modulation, we reported significant differences in the proportion of Barnesiella and Oscillibacter genera in CE/P treated mice in comparison with control animals. This study thus highlights the impact of an altered gut microbiota on phenolic compounds degradation and bioavailability in mice.

Profiling the Metabolome Changes Caused by Cranberry Procyanidins in Plasma of Female Rats Using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS Global Metabolomics Approaches

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Liu H, Garrett TJ, Tayyari F, Gu L
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 59(11):2107-18
Abstract: 

SCOPE: The objective was to investigate the metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS metabolomics approaches, and to identify the contributing metabolites.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and administered PPCP or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP) for three times using a 250 mg extracts/kg body weight dose. Plasma was collected 6 h after the last gavage and analyzed using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS. No metabolome difference was observed using (1) H NMR metabolomics approach. However, LC-HRMS metabolomics data show that metabolome in the plasma of female rats administered PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Eleven metabolites were tentatively identified from a total of 36 discriminant metabolic features based on accurate masses and/or product ion spectra. PPCP caused a greater increase of exogenous metabolites including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phenol, phenol-sulphate, catechol sulphate, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylvaleric acid, and 4'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-3'-O-beta-glucuronide in rat plasma. Furthermore, the plasma level of O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-O-glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(hydroxyphenyl)-Y-valerolactone-O-sulphate, 4-hydroxydiphenylamine, and peonidin-3-O-hexose were higher in female rats administered with PPAP.
CONCLUSION: The metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins were revealed using an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approach. Exogenous and microbial metabolites were the major identified discriminate biomarkers.

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