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2012

Displaying 21 - 30 of 90

Impact of cranberry juice on initial adhesion of the EPS producing bacterium Burkholderia cepacia

Posted: 
July 31, 2012
Authors: 
Yang X, Teng F, Zeng H, Liu Y
Journal: 
Biofouling 28(5):417-31
Abstract: 

The impact of cranberry juice was investigated with respect to the initial adhesion of three isogenic strains of the bacterium Burkholderia cepacia with different extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) producing capacities, viz. a wild-type cepacian EPS producer PC184 and its mutant strains PC184rml with reduced EPS production and PC184bceK with a deficiency in EPS production. Adhesion experiments conducted in a parallel-plate flow chamber demonstrated that, in the absence of cranberry juice, strain PC184 had a significantly higher adhesive capacity compared to the mutant strains. In the presence of cranberry juice, the adhesive capacity of the EPS-producing strain PC184 was largely reduced, while cranberry juice had little impact on the adhesion behavior of either mutant strain. Thermodynamic modeling supported the results from adhesion experiments. Surface force apparatus (SFA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies demonstrated a strong association between cranberry juice components and bacterial EPS. It was concluded that cranberry juice components could impact bacterial initial adhesion by adhering to the EPS and impairing the adhesive capacity of the cells, which provides an insight into the development of novel treatment strategies to block the biofilm formation associated with bacterial infection.

Pilot randomized controlled dosing study of cranberry capsules for reduction of bacteriuria plus pyuria in female nursing home residents

Posted: 
July 31, 2012
Authors: 
Bianco L, Perrelli E, Towle V, Van Ness PH, Juthani-Mehta M
Journal: 
J Am Geriatr Soc 60(6):1180-1
Abstract: 

Cranberry products are a nonantimicrobial
method for prevention of urinary tract infection
(UTI). Cranberry proanthocyanidin (PAC), a type of condensed tannin, is the active ingredient in cranberry that
inhibits adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to
uroepithelial cells. Previous cranberry studies for UTI
prevention yielded conflicting results, probably because
of variability of PAC dose and clinical populations studied. In a clinical trial of 300 mL of cranberry juice beverage daily (36 mg PAC), older women (mean age 78.5) had 58% lower odds of having bacteriuria and pyuria than controls, but nursing home residents have difficulty ingesting the volume of juice necessary to prevent bacteriuria. Cranberry capsules are feasible to administer to nursing home residents, but their efficacy has not been demonstrated. In vitro, 36–108 mg of PAC is efficacious at inhibiting bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells, but the most efficacious dose for older nursing home residents has not been identified. The goal of this study was to identify the optimal dose of cranberry capsules that reduced the incidence of bacteriuria plus pyuria over 1 month.

Postprandial glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to sucrose ingested with berries in healthy subjects

Posted: 
July 31, 2012
Authors: 
Torronen R, Sarkkinen E, Niskanen T, Tapola N, Kilpi K, Niskanen L
Abstract: 

Berries are often consumed with sucrose. They are also rich sources of polyphenols which may modulate glycaemia after carbohydrate ingestion. The present study investigated the postprandial glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses to sucrose ingested with berries, in comparison with a similar sucrose load without berries. A total of twelve healthy subjects were recruited to a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. They participated in two meal tests on separate days. The berry meal was a puree (150 g) made of bilberries, blackcurrants, cranberries and strawberries with 35 g sucrose. The control meal included the same amount of sucrose and available carbohydrates in water. Fingertip capillary and venous blood samples were taken at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after starting to eat the meal. Glucose, insulin and GLP-1 concentrations were determined from the venous samples, and glucose also from the capillary samples. Compared to the control meal, ingestion of the berry meal resulted in lower capillary and venous plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations at 15 min (P = 0.021, P

Protective effects of the phenolic extracts of fruits against oxidative stress in human lung cells.

Posted: 
July 31, 2012
Authors: 
Boateng J, Verghese M
Journal: 
Int J Pharmacol 8(3):152-60
Abstract: 

Consumption of fruits and the other dietary antioxidants are considered beneficial due to the protection they afford in the pathogenesis associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effects of selected fruit extracts (Plums, Apples, Grapes and Cranberries) on human lung fibroblasts (CCD-25LU) exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) oxidative stress. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) was used to assess cytotoxicity (cell integrity) and antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidases (GPx) and concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined. Results showed that LDH release by cells pretreated with fruits extracts were significantly (p

Urinary Tract Infection Prophylaxis in Children with Neurogenic Bladder with Cranberry Capsules: Randomized Controlled Trial

Posted: 
July 31, 2012
Authors: 
Mutlu H, Ekinci Z
Journal: 
ISRN Pediatr doi: 10.5402/2012/317280
Abstract: 

Objectives. The aim of this randomized controlled prospective study is to evaluate the efficacy of cranberry capsules for prevention of UTI in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele. Patients and Methods. To be eligible for this study, patients had to be diagnosed as neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele, evaluated urodynamically, followed up with clean intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic drugs. Intervention. Six months of treatment with placebo; after a week of wash-out period treatment of cranberry extract tablets (1 capsule/day) for an additional 6 months. Randomization was performed sequentially. Patients and care givers were blinded to drug assignment. Main outcome measure was infection rate. Group comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon test. Results. The study population included 20 (F/M: 13/7) patients with neurogenic bladder with the mean age of 7.25 ± 3.49 (4, 18) years. The median UTI rate was 0.5/year during placebo usage whereas 0/year during cranberry capsule usage. Decrease in infection rate was significant with cranberry capsule usage (P = 0.012). Decrease in the percentage of the pyuria was also recorded as significant (P = 0.000). Any adverse events or side effects were not recorded. Conclusion. We concluded that cranberry capsules could be an encouraging option for the prevention of recurrent UTI in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele.

A Randomised Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial to Determine the Effect of Cranberry Juice on Decreasing the Incidence of Urinary Symptoms and Urinary Tract Infections in Patients Undergoing Radiotheraphy for Cancer of the Bladder or Cervix.

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Cowan CC, Hutchison C, Cole T, Barry SJ, Paul J, Reed NS, Russell JM
Journal: 
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 24(2):e31-8
Abstract: 

AIMS:
Radical pelvic radiotherapy is one of the main treatment modalities for cancers of the bladder and cervix. The side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy include urinary symptoms, such as urinary frequency and cystitis. The therapeutic effects of cranberry juice in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections in general are well documented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cranberry juice on the incidence of urinary tract infections and urinary symptoms in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy for cancer of the bladder or cervix.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study was a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Participants were randomised to receive cranberry juice, twice a day (morning and night) for the duration of their radiotherapy treatment and for 2 weeks after treatment (6 weeks in total) or a placebo beverage, for the same duration.
RESULTS:
The incidence of increased urinary symptoms or urinary tract infections was 82.5% on cranberry and 89.3% on placebo (P=0.240, adjusted odds ratio [cranberry/placebo] 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.14-1.63).
CONCLUSIONS:
The power of the study to detect differences was limited by the below target sample size and poor compliance. Further research is recommended, taking cognisance of the factors contributing to the limitations of this study.

American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract affects human prostate cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest by modulating expression of cell cycle regulators

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Deziel B, MacPhee J, Patel K, Catalli A, Kulka M, Neto C,
Journal: 
Food Funct DOI: 10.1039/c2fo10145a
Abstract: 

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and its prevalence is expected to increase appreciably in the coming decades. As such, more research is necessary to understand the etiology, progression and possible preventative measures to delay or to stop the development of this disease. Recently, there has been interest in examining the effects of whole extracts from commonly harvested crops on the behaviour and progression of cancer. Here, we describe the effects of whole cranberry extract (WCE) on the behaviour of DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Following treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells with 10, 25 and 50 mg ml 1 of WCE, respectively for 6 h, WCE significantly decreased the cellular viability of DU145 cells. WCE also decreased the
proportion of cells in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle and increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle following treatment of cells with 25 and 50 mg ml 1 treatment of WCE for 6 h. These alterations in cell cycle were associated with changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins and other cell cycle associated proteins. WCE decreased the expression of CDK4, cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and increased the expression of p27. Changes in p16INK4a and pRBp107 protein expression
levels also were evident, however, the changes noted in p16INK4a and pRBp107 protein expression levels
were not statistically significant. These findings demonstrate that phytochemical extracts from the
American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can affect the behaviour of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and further support the potential health benefits associated with cranberries.

Antimicrobial effects of fractions from cranberry products on the growth of seven

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Caillet S, Côté J, Sylvain JF, Lacroix M
Journal: 
Food Control 23;419-428
Abstract: 

The antimicrobial effect of thirty HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two cranberry juices and three extracts (anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds) isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace was investigated against seven bacterial strains Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442; Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the maximal tolerated concentration (MTC) of each fraction were determined for each pathogen using a 96-well microtiter plate method. The results, reported in mg phenol/mL, indicated that all the bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by the cranberry phenolic compounds. All pathogens were very sensitive to at least seven fractions with MTCs below 2 mg phenol/mL and five fractions with MICs below 10 mg phenol/mL. In addition, four fractions rich in apolar phenolic compounds were very efficient against all bacteria with MICs below 10 mg phenol/mL, and twenty five fractions completely inhibited microbial growth with MICs below100 mg phenol/well. L. monocytogenes exhibited the highest sensitivity with twelve very active fractions (MTCs and MICs below 1 and
10 mg phenol/mL, respectively) while E. coli O157H7 was the least sensitive to twenty seven fractions (with the highest MICs). Also, it appears that the technological process to manufacture cranberry juice can reduce the antimicrobial activity of phenolic fractions.

Biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine after consumption of cranberry-lingonberry juice

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Tapiainen T, Jauhiainen H, Jaakola L, Salo J, Sevander J, Ikäheimo I, Pirttilä AM, Hohtola A, Uhari M
Journal: 
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31(5):655-62
Abstract: 

Cranberry-lingonberry juice (CLJ) was effective in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in our earlier randomized clinical trial. We aimed to test whether consumption of CLJ at a similar dose to earlier reduces the biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine. Twenty healthy women drank 100 ml of CLJ daily for two weeks. Urine samples were obtained 2–4 hours after the last dose. Control samples were taken after a one-week period without berry consumption. Biofilm formation of 20 E. coli strains was measured at 72 hours by the polystyrene microtitre plate method. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed for selected genes. Four of the 20 clinical strains produced more biofilm in urine after CLJ consumption (P 

Cancer chemopreventive effect of fractions from cranberry products

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Caillet S, Lorenzo G, Côté J, Doyon G, Sylvain JF, Lacroix M
Journal: 
Food Res Int 45;320–330
Abstract: 

"Cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated in HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two
cranberry juices and three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace containing anthocyanins,
water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds, respectively. Compounds with close polarities were collected in order to obtain between three and four fractions from each juice or extract. Cranberry fractions were screened for their ability to induce the phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR).
The results showed that there was no cytotoxicity against the cells used in the test. All samples stimulated
the quinone reductase activity except the highest concentrations of the less polar fraction of anthocyaninrich extract from pomace, which inhibited the QR activity. The QR induction for all samples varied with the concentration and there was an optimal concentration for which the QR induction was maximal. The technological process to manufacture cranberry juice had little influence on the overall QR inducer potencies of
cranberry fractions, whereas the ability of phenols in fractions to stimulate the QR activity has been reduced
significantly (P≤0.05) during the technological process. Among all samples, phenolic compounds of eight
fractions presented a maximum QR induction greater than 100 II(QR)/mg phenol. The phenolic compounds
of the most polar fraction (rich in phenolic acids) and those of the less polar fraction (rich in proanthocyanidins)
showed stronger induction than those observed with phenols from intermediate fractions."

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