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2012

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Polyphenol-rich cranberry juice has a neutral effect on endothelial function but decreases the fraction of osteocalcin-expressing endothelial progenitor cells

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Flammer AJ, Martin EA, Gössl M,Widmer RJ, Lennon RJ, Sexton JA, Loeffler D, Khosla S,Lerman LO, Lerman A
Journal: 
Eur J Nutr DOI 10.1007/s00394-012-0334-4
Abstract: 

Purpose Cranberry juice (CJ) contains a remarkably high
concentration of polyphenols, considered to be beneficial for cardiovascular and bone health. The current double-blind, randomized study was designed to test whether daily consumption of double-strength Ocean Spray light CJ (2 9 230 ml) over 4 months has beneficial effects on vascular
function and on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) carrying the osteoblastic marker osteocalcin in particular.
Methods Atotal of 84 participants (49.5 ± 16.2 years)with
peripheral endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk
factors were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial (69 completed the 4-month protocol—32 in the CJ group and 37 in the placebo group, respectively). Vascular responses to reactive hyperemia were measured non-invasively by peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for EPC markers, as well as osteocalcin, and counted by flow cytometry. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in bothgroups. The effect of CJ on peripheral endothelial function
and on circulating EPC counts (CD34?/CD133?/KDR?)
did not change during the study. A high percentage of
EPCs expressed osteocalcin (59.4 ± 35.7%). CJ, as compared
to placebo, induced a decrease in the fraction of
EPCs expressing osteocalcin (-8.64 ± 48.98 and
19.13 ± 46.11%, respectively, p = 0.019). Systemic levels
of the adhesion marker ICAM correlated significantly with
the number of EPCs expressing osteocalcin.
Conclusions The study demonstrated that long-term
supplementation of polyphenol-rich CJ did not improve
peripheral endothelial function. However, the decrease in
the fraction of osteocalcin? EPCs suggests a potential
beneficial effect of polyphenol-rich CJ.

Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Zou S, Carey JR, Liedo P, Ingram DK, Yu B.
Journal: 
Age (Dordr) 34(2):269-79
Abstract: 

Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet supplemented with or without 2% OC. Lifespan and daily egg production of individual flies were recorded. The effect of short-term OC supplementation was evaluated by implementing the supplementation at three age intervals-young, middle, and old age. We found that OC increased lifespan of Mexflies on the full or DR diet when compared to their respective controls. OC increased reproduction of females on the full diet and, to a lesser extent, on the DR diet. Short-term OC supplementation was not sufficient to extend lifespan for males at all three age intervals nor for females at young and old age intervals. However, OC supplementation at the middle age interval was sufficient to extend lifespan in females, while only OC supplementation at the young age interval increased reproduction in females. Our findings suggest that OC extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through DR-independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction. This also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans.

Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Cheshchevik VT, Lapshina EA, Dremza IK, Zabrodskaya SV, Reiter RJ, Prokopchik NI, Zavodnik IB
Journal: 
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2012.04.007
Abstract: 

In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage hasmarkedly increased. The aim of the presentworkwas to carry out further research into themechanism(s) of livermitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg bodyweight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate
and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, pb0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxicmitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of livermitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance ofmitochondria. The activities of themitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl4, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of
the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg)
plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of
toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage.

Recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary Escherichia coli in women ingesting cranberry juice daily: a randomized controlled trial

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Stapleton AE, Dziura J, Hooton TM, Cox ME, Yarova-Yarovaya Y, Chen S, Gupta K
Journal: 
Mayo Clin Proc 87(2):143-50
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE:
To compare the time to urinary tract infection (UTI) and the rates of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary P-fimbriated Escherichia coli during a 6-month period in women ingesting cranberry vs placebo juice daily.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
Premenopausal women with a history of recent UTI were enrolled from November 16, 2005, through December 31, 2008, at 2 centers and randomized to 1 of 3 arms: 4 oz of cranberry juice daily, 8 oz of cranberry juice daily, or placebo juice. Time to UTI (symptoms plus pyuria) was the main outcome. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, adherence, and adverse effects were assessed at monthly visits.
RESULTS:
A total of 176 participants were randomized (120 to cranberry juice and 56 to placebo) and followed up for a median of 168 days. The cumulative rate of UTI was 0.29 in the cranberry juice group and 0.37 in the placebo group (P=.82). The adjusted hazard ratio for UTI in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group was 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.39; P=.29). The proportion of women with P-fimbriated urinary E coli isolates during the intervention phase was 10 of 23 (43.5%) in the cranberry juice group and 8 of 10 (80.0%) in the placebo group (P=.07). The mean dose adherence was 91.8% and 90.3% in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group. Minor adverse effects were reported by 24.2% of those in the cranberry juice group and 12.5% in the placebo group (P=.07).
CONCLUSION:
Cranberry juice did not significantly reduce UTI risk compared with placebo. The potential protective effect we observed is consistent with previous studies and warrants confirmation in larger, well-powered studies of women with recurrent UTI. The concurrent reduction in urinary P-fimbriated E coli strains supports the biological plausibility of cranberry activity.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00128128.

Study on the influence of cranberry extract Żuravit S·O·S(®) on the properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, their ability to form biofilm and its antioxidant properties.

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Wojnicz D, Sycz Z, Walkowski S, Gabrielska J, Aleksandra W, Alicja K, Anna SŁ, Hendrich AB
Journal: 
Phytomedicine 19(6):506-14
Abstract: 

Consumption of cranberries is known to exert positive health effects, especially against urinary tract infections. For this reason, presumably, they are widely used in folk medicine. Different aspects of cranberry phenolics activity were studied in individual papers but complex study in this matter is missing. The aim of the present study is to provide complex data concerning various aspects of cranberry extract activity. We studied the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of commercially available extract (Żuravit S·O·S(®)) against two Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine of patients with pyelonephritis. Additionally the main extract anthocyanins were characterized. The activity of extract against lipid peroxidation and its radical scavenging ability were also assessed. Żuravit S·O·S(®) decreased the hydrophobicity of one of the studied E. coli strains, reduced swimming motility and adhesion to epithelial cells of both studied strains, it also limited the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. Expression of curli was not affected by cranberry extract, the assessment of P fimbriae expression was not reliable due to extract-induced agglutination of erythrocytes. Cranberry extract caused filamentation in both studied E. coli strains. It also showed pronounced antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. The properties of the studied cranberry extract show that it could be effectively used in prevention and/or elimination of urinary tract infections, specially the recurrent ones.

The antimicrobial effects of cranberry against Staphylococcus aureus

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Lian PY, Maseko T, Rhee M, Ng K.
Journal: 
Food Sci Technol Int 18(2):179-86
Abstract: 

The antimicrobial effects of the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on a major food-borne pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, were investigated using commercially obtained Lakewood® organic cranberry juice and Ocean Spray® cranberry juice cocktail and four other berry fruit extracts (acai berry, strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry). The results showed that cranberry is a potent antimicrobial against S. aureus and the most potent among the berries studied. The order of percentage inhibition of bacterial growth at the same concentration of phenolic materials as gallic acid equivalents was Lakewood cranberry juice > Ocean Spray cranberry juice ≫ blueberry > acai berry ≫ raspberry ≫ strawberry. The antimicrobial effect was not due to the acidity of the berries as NaOH-neutralized samples were almost as effective in terms of percentage inhibition of viable cell growth. Solid-phase extraction of cranberry juice using C18 solid phase showed that the antimicrobial effects reside exclusively with the C18-bound materials.

The effects of cranberry juice on serum glucose, apoB, apoA-I, Lp (a), and Paraoxonase-1 activity in type 2 diabetic male patients

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Shidfar F,Heydari I, Hajimiresmaiel SJ, Hosseini S, Shidfar S, Amiri F
Journal: 
J Res Med Sci 17(6):Epub
Abstract: 

Background: Type 2 diabetic patients are faced with a higher risk of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disorders. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of consumption of 1 cup cranberry juice by type 2 diabetic patients on serum paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity, apoA-1, apoB, glucose, and Lp(a). Materials and Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 58 type 2 diabetic male patients were randomly divided to receive 1 cup cranberry juice (CJ) or placebo drink daily for 12 weeks. Fasting blood were obtained at beginning and at the end of study (12th week). Serum glucose and PON-1 activity were measured by enzymatic and colorimetric methods, respectively. ApoB, apoA-I, and Lp(a) were determined immunoturbidimetrically. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: There were significant decrease in serum glucose and apoB (P>0.05 and P>0.01, respectively) and significant increase in serum apoA-1 and PON-1 activity (P>0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) at the end of study in CJ group compared with control group. In CJ group at the end of study, there were significant decrease in serum glucose and apoB (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively) and significant increase in serum apo A-1 and PON-1 activity (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively) compared with initial values. In CJ group, there was no significant change in Lp(a) at the end of study compared with initial values and also compared with control group. Conclusion: 1 cup CJ for 12 weeks is effective in reducing serum glucose and apoB and increasing apoA-1 and PON-1 activity, so may have favorite effects on reducing CVD risk factors in type 2 diabetic male patients.

Transport of Cranberry A-type Procyanidin Dimers, Trimers, and Tetramers across Monolayers of Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells.

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Ou K, Percival SS, Zou T, Khoo C, Gu L
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 15;60(6):1390-6
Abstract: 

A-type procyanidin oligomers in cranberries are known to inhibit the adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria. B-type procyanidins dimers and trimers are absorbed by humans. The absorption of A-type procyanidins from cranberries in humans has not been demonstrated. This study examined the transport of A-type cranberry procyanidin dimers, trimers, and tetramers on differentiated human intestinal
epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Procyanidins were extracted from cranberries and purified using hromatographic methods. Fraction I contained predominantly A-type procyanidin dimer A2 [epicatechin-(2-O-7, 4-8)-epicatechin]. Fraction II contained primarily A-type trimers and tetramers, with B-type trimers, A-type
pentamers, and A-type hexamers being minor components. Fraction I or II in solution were added onto the apical side of the Caco-2 cell membranes. The media at the basolateral side of the membranes were analyzed using HPLC-MSn after 2 h. Data indicated that procyanidin dimer A2 in fraction I and A-type trimers and tetramers in fraction II traversed across Caco-2 cell monolayers with transport ratio of 0.6%, 0.4%, and 0.2%, respectively. This study demonstrated A-type dimers, trimers, and tetramers were transported across Caco-2 cells at low rates, suggesting they could be absorbed by humans after cranberry consumption.

A Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled, Dose Dependent Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Proanthocyanidin Standardized Whole Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Powder on Infections of the Urinary Tract

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Sengupta K, Alluri K, Golakoti T, Gottumukkala G, Raavi J, Kotchrlakota L, Sigalan S, Dey D, Ghosh S, Chatterjee A
Journal: 
Curr Bioact Compd 7(1):39-46(8)
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a recurrent health problem especially for women. More than 50% of women will suffer from a UTI at least once in their lifetime. Cranberries have long been used for their beneficial effects in preventing symptomatic UTIs in several published studies. However, cranberry products used in these clinical studies do not indicate the amount of active ingredients delivered that help to prevent UTIs. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was designed to understand the impact and safety profile of a standardized cranberry product (Proanthocyanidins Standardized Whole Cranberry Powder,PS-WCP) on reducing the recurrences of symptomatic UTI in culture-positive subjects. A 90- day randomized clinical trial including an untreated control group with a total of 60 female subjects between 18-40 years of age was conducted. Study subjects were randomly selected and assigned to three groups including an untreated control group (n=16), a low dose (500 mg daily, n=21) and a high dose (1000 mg daily, n=23) treatment group. The safety of PSWCP was assessed by evaluation of biochemical and hematological parameters on days 10, 30, 60 and 90 during the study, comparing the values with those at the baseline. Occurrence of UTI at baseline and during the follow-up period was characterized by the presence of symptoms and Escherichia coli in the culture of urine samples. The statistical analysis used was ANOVA. At the end of the 90-day treatment period, no significant changes were observed in the hematological and serum biochemical parameters. At the end of the study, change in the presence of E. coli in the untreated control group was not significant (p=0.7234), whereas, there was significant reduction (p

Absorption and excretion of cranberry-derived

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Wang C, Zuo Y, Vinson JA, Deng Y
Journal: 
Food Chem 132(3):1420–1428
Abstract: 

Absorption and excretion of twenty cranberry-derived phenolics were studied following the consumption of cranberry juice, sauces, and fruits by healthy human volunteers. Plasma and urine samples were collected and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was employed for analysing urinary creatinine, which was used as a normalisation agent. Significant increases in the sum of plasma phenolics were observed with different concentration peaks (between 0.5 and 2 h) for individual subjects. Some of the phenolics, such as trans-cinnamic, vanillic, p-coumaric acids, and catechin showed second plasma concentration peaks. All of cranberry-derived phenolics increased significantly in urine samples after the intake of each cranberry product. The high molecular weight quercetin and myricetin, which were abundant in cranberry foodstuffs, were not found in either plasma or urine samples. This study provided the fundamental information for understanding the absorption and excretion of phenolics in the human gastrointestinal system after dietary intake of cranberry products.

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