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2016

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Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Chou HI, Chen KS, Wang HC,Lee WM
Journal: 
American Journal of Veterinary Research; 2016. 77(4):421-427.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. ANIMALS: 12 client-owned dogs (in vivo experiment) and 6 client-owned dogs (in vitro experiment). PROCEDURES: 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n=6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells. RESULTS: None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E. coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.

Identification and quantification of novel cranberry-derived plasma and urinary (poly)phenols.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Feliciano R.P., Boeres A., Massacessi L., Istas G., Ventura M.R., Nunes Dos Santos C., Heiss C., Rodriguez-Mateos A.
Journal: 
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 599 (pp 31-41), 2016
Abstract: 

Cranberries are a rich source of (poly)phenols, in particular proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids. However, little is known about their bioavailability in humans. We investigated the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cranberry (poly)phenols in plasma and urine of healthy young men after consumption of a cranberry juice (787 mg (poly)phenols). A total of 60 cranberry-derived phenolic metabolites were identified using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis with authentic standards. These included sulfates of pyrogallol, valerolactone, benzoic acids, phenylacetic acids, glucuronides of flavonols, as well as sulfates and glucuronides of cinnamic acids. The most abundant plasma metabolites were small phenolic compounds, in particular hippuric acid, catechol-O-sulfate, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, isoferulic acid, 4-methylcatechol-O-sulfate, alpha-hydroxyhippuric acid, ferulic acid 4-O-sulfate, benzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid 3-O-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-O-sulfate. Some benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and flavonol metabolites appeared in plasma early, at 1-2 h post-consumption. Others such as phenylacetic acids, benzaldehydes, pyrogallols, catechols, hippuric and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives appear in plasma later (Tmax 4-22 h). The 24 h urinary recovery with respect to the amount of (poly)phenols consumed was 6.2%. Our extensive description of the bioavailability of cranberry (poly)phenols lays important groundwork necessary to start understanding the fate of these compounds in humans.

Inhibition of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 infections by Oximacro, a cranberry extract with a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A)

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Terlizzi ME; Occhipinti A; Luganini A; Maffei ME; Gribaudo G.
Journal: 
Antiviral Research. 132 (pp 154-164),
Abstract: 

In the absence of efficient preventive vaccines, topical microbicides offer an attractive alternative in the prevention of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infections. Because of their recognized anti-adhesive activity against bacterial pathogens, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) extracts may represent a natural source of new antiviral microbicides. However, few studies have addressed the applications of cranberry extract as a direct-acting antiviral agent. Here, we report on the ability of the novel cranberry extract Oximacro and its purified A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs-A), to inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication in vitro. Analysis of the mode of action revealed that Oximacro prevents adsorption of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to target cells. Further mechanistic studies confirmed that Oximacro and its PACs-A target the viral envelope glycoproteins gD and gB, thus resulting in the loss of infectivity of HSV particles. Moreover, Oximacro completely retained its anti-HSV activity even at acidic pHs (3.0 and 4.0) and in the presence of 10% human serum proteins; conditions that mimic the physiological properties of the vagina - a potential therapeutic location for Oximacro. Taken together, these findings indicate Oximacro as an attractive candidate for the development of novel microbicides of natural origin for the prevention of HSV infections.

Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry quantification of urinary proanthocyanin A2 dimer and its potential use as a biomarker of cranberry intake

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Walsh J.M., Ren X., Zampariello C., Polasky D.A., McKay D.L., Blumberg J.B., Chen C.-Y.O.
Journal: 
Journal of Separation Science. 39 (2) (pp 342-349), 2016.
Abstract: 

The lack of a biomarker for the consumption of cranberries has confounded the interpretation of several studies investigating the effect of cranberry products, especially juices, on health outcomes. The objectives of this pilot study were to develop a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of the proanthocyanin dimer A-2 in human urine and validate urinary proanthocyanin dimer A-2 as a biomarker of cranberry intake. Five healthy, nonsmoking, premenopausal women (20-30 years of age, body mass index: 18.5-25 kg/m2) were assigned to consume a cranberry beverage containing 140 mg proanthocyanin and 35 kilocalories at 237 mL/day, according to a weekly dosing schedule for 7 weeks. Eleven 24 h and morning spot urine samples each were collected from each subject. A reliable, sensitive method for the detection of proanthocyanin dimer A-2 in urine using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed with a limit of quantitation of 0.25 ng/mL and a relative standard deviation of 7.26%, precision of 5.7%, and accuracy of 91.7%. While proanthocyanin dimer A-2 was quantifiable in urine, it did not appear to be excreted in a concentration that corresponded to the dosing schedule and intake of cranberry juice.

NMR-based metabolomics reveals urinary metabolome modifications in female Sprague-Dawley rats by cranberry procyanidins.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Liu H., Tayyari F., Edison A.S., Su Z., Gu L.
Journal: 
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 34 (pp 136-145), 2016
Abstract: 

A 1H NMR global metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP). After collecting 24-h baseline urine, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and gavaged with PPCP or PPAP twice using a dose of 250 mg extracts per kilogram body weight. The 24-h urine samples were collected after the gavage. Urine samples were analyzed using 1H NMR. Multivariate analyses showed that the urinary metabolome in rats was modified after administering PPCP or PPAP compared to baseline urine metabolic profiles. 2D 1H-13C HSQC NMR was conducted to assist identification of discriminant metabolites. An increase of hippurate, lactate and succinate and a decrease of citrate and alpha-ketoglutarate were observed in rat urine after administering PPCP. Urinary levels of d-glucose, d-maltose, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, formate and phenol increased but citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate and creatinine decreased in rats after administering PPAP. Furthermore, the NMR analysis showed that the metabolome in the urine of rats administered with PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Compared to PPAP, PPCP caused an increase of urinary excretion of hippurate but a decrease of 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and phenol. These metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins may help to explain its reported health benefits and identify biomarkers of cranberry procyanidin intake.

Prevention of urinary tract infection with OximacroReg., a cranberry extract with a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins: a pre-clinical double-blind controlled study.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Occhipinti, A. Germano, A. Maffei, M. E.
Journal: 
Urology Journal; 2016. 13(2):2640-2649.
Abstract: 

Purpose: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are widespread and affect a large portion of the human population. Cranberry juices and extracts have been used for UTI prevention due to their content of bioactive proanthocyanidins (PACs), particularly of the A type (PAC-A). Controversial clinical results obtained with cranberry are often due to a lack of precise determination and authentication of the PAC-A content. This study used OximacroReg. (Biosfered S.r.l., Turin, Italy), a cranberry extract with a high content of PAC-A, to prevent UTIs in female and male volunteers. Materials and Methods: The OximacroReg. PACs content was assayed using the Brunswick Laboratories 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (BL-DMAC) method, and the dimer and trimer PACs-A and PACs-B percentages were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). A balanced group of female (ranging from 19 to over 51 years) and male volunteers (over 51 years) was divided into two groups. The experimental group received 1 capsule containing OximacroReg. (36 mg PACs-A) twice per day (morning and evening) for 7 days, and the placebo group was given the same number of capsules with no PACs. Results: Analysis of OximacroReg. revealed a high total PAC content (372.34 mg/g+or-2.3) and a high percentage of PAC-A dimers and trimers (86.72%+or-1.65). After 7 days of OximacroReg. administration, a significant difference was found between the placebo and OximacroReg. groups for both females (Mann-Whitney U-test=875; P=.001; n=60) and males (Mann-Whitney U-test=24; P=.016; n=10). When the female and male age ranges were analysed separately, the female age range 31-35 showed only slightly significant differences between the placebo and OximacroReg. groups (Mann-Whitney U-test=20.5; P=.095; n=10), whereas all other female age ranges showed highly significant differences between the placebo and OximacroReg. groups (Mann-Whitney U-test=25; P=.008; n=10). Furthermore, colony forming unit/mL counts from the urine cultures showed a significant difference (P<.001) between the experimental and the placebo groups (SD difference=51688; df=34, t=-10.27; Dunn-Sidak Adjusted P<.001, Bonferroni Adjusted P<.001). Conclusion: Careful determination of the total PAC content using the BL-DMAC method and the authentication of PACs-A with mass spectrometry in cranberry extracts are necessary to prepare effective doses for UTI prevention. A dose of 112 mg OximacroReg. containing 36 mg PACs-A was found to be effective in preventing UTIs when used twice per day for 7 days.

Review of dried fruits: phytochemicals, antioxidant efficacies, and health benefits.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Chang SK, Alasalvar C, Shahidi F
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods; 2016. 21:113-132.
Abstract: 

Dried fruits, which serve as important healthful snacks worldwide, provide a concentrated form of fresh fruits. They are nutritionally equivalent to fresh fruits in smaller serving sizes, ranging from 30 to 43 g depending on the fruit, in current dietary recommendation in different countries. Daily consumption of dried fruits is recommended in order to gain full benefit of essential nutrients, health-promoting phytochemicals, and antioxidants that they contain, together with their desirable taste and aroma. Recently, much interest in the health benefits of dried fruits has led to many in vitro and in vivo (animal and human intervention) studies as well as the identification and quantification of various groups of phytochemicals. This review discusses phytochemical compositions, antioxidant efficacies, and potential health benefits of eight traditional dried fruits such as apples, apricots, dates, figs, peaches, pears, prunes, and raisins, together with dried cranberries. Novel product formulations and future perspectives of dried fruits are also discussed. Research findings from the existing literature published within the last 10 years have been compiled and summarised.

The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Chua CS; Yang KC; Chen JH; Liu YH; Hsu YH; Lee HC; Huang SY.
Journal: 
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition; 2016. 67(2):177-183.
Abstract: 

Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Traditional therapy with proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics is regarded as optimal for H. pylori eradication whereas, the eradication rate is unsatisfactory. Studies have reported that cranberry may inhibit H. pylori adhesion to the human gastric mucus but lack of other berry extracts have been evaluated in clinical study. Thus, a 9-week add-on randomised controlled trial was conducted to explore the impact of blueberry and grape seed extract (BGE) combinations traditional therapy for H. pylori eradication. In results, we found that there was no significant difference of eradication rate between the berry extract group and placebo group in the intention-to-treat analysis and in the per-protocol analysis (94.64% versus 84.62%, p=0.085). Diarrhoea, constipation and epigastric pain were observed increasing during ingestion of the berry extract in some cases. In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy.

Triggering Akkermansia with dietary polyphenols: A new weapon to combat the metabolic syndrome?

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Anhe FF; Pilon G; Roy D; Desjardins Y; Levy E; Marette A
Journal: 
Gut Microbes. 7(2):146-53
Abstract: 

The gut and its bacterial colonizers are now well characterized as key players in whole-body metabolism, opening new avenues of research and generating great expectation for new treatments against obesity and its cardiometabolic complications. As diet is the main environmental factor affecting the gut microbiota, it has been suggested that fruits and vegetables, whose consumption is strongly associated with a healthy lifestyle, may carry phytochemicals that could help maintain intestinal homeostasis and metabolic health. We recently demonstrated that oral administration of a cranberry extract rich in polyphenols prevented diet-induced obesity and several detrimental features of the metabolic syndrome in association with a remarkable increase in the abundance of the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia in the gut microbiota of mice. This addendum provides an extended discussion in light of recent discoveries suggesting a mechanistic link between polyphenols and Akkermansia, also contemplating how this unique microorganism may be exploited to fight the metabolic syndrome.

Impact of Cranberries on Gut Microbiota and Cardiometabolic Health: Proceedings of the Cranberry Health Research Conference 2015

Posted: 
August 3, 2016
Authors: 
Blumberg JB, Basu A, Krueger CG, Lila MA, Neto CC, Novotny JA, Reed JD, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Toner CD
Journal: 
Advances in Nutrition. 2016;7:759S-770S. doi: 10.3945/an.116.012583
Abstract: 

Recent advances in cranberry research have expanded the evidence for the role of this Vaccinium berry fruit in modulating gut microbiota function and cardiometabolic risk factors. The A-type structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins seems to be responsible for much of this fruit’s efficacy as a natural antimicrobial. Cranberry proanthocyanidins interfere with colonization of the gut by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro and attenuate gut barrier dysfunction caused by dietary insults in vivo. Furthermore, new studies indicate synergy between these proanthocyanidins, other cranberry components such as isoprenoids and xyloglucans, and gut microbiota. Together, cranberry constituents and their bioactive catabolites have been found to contribute to mechanisms affecting bacterial adhesion, coaggregation, and biofilm formation that may underlie potential clinical benefits on gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, as well as on systemic anti-inflammatory actions mediated via the gut microbiome. A limited but growing body of evidence from randomized clinical trials reveals favorable effects of cranberry consumption on measures of cardiometabolic health, including serum lipid profiles, blood pressure, endothelial function, glucoregulation, and a variety of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. These results warrant further research, particularly studies dedicated to the elucidation of dose-response relations, pharmacokinetic/metabolomics profiles, and relevant biomarkers of action with the use of fully characterized cranberry products. Freeze-dried whole cranberry powder and a matched placebo were recently made available to investigators to facilitate such work, including interlaboratory comparability.

Link to full text article: http://advances.nutrition.org/content/7/4/759S.full

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