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2016

Displaying 11 - 20 of 59

Cranberry derivatives enhance biofilm formation and transiently impair swarming motility of the uropathogen Proteus mirabilis HI4320.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
O'May, C. Amzallag, O. Bechir, K. Tufenkji, N.
Journal: 
Can J Microbiol; 2016. 62(6):464-474.
Abstract: 

Proteus mirabilis is a major cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), emphasizing that novel strategies for targeting this bacterium are needed. Potential targets are P. mirabilis surface-associated swarming motility and the propensity of these bacteria to form biofilms that may lead to catheter blockage. We previously showed that the addition of cranberry powder (CP) to lysogeny broth (LB) medium resulted in impaired P. mirabilis swarming motility over short time periods (up to 16 h). Herein, we significantly expanded on those findings by exploring (i) the effects of cranberry derivatives on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis, (ii) whether swarming inhibition occurred transiently or over longer periods more relevant to real infections (~3 days), (iii) whether swarming was also blocked by commercially available cranberry juices, (iv) whether CP or cranberry juices exhibited effects under natural urine conditions, and (v) the effects of cranberry on medium pH, which is an indirect indicator of urease activity. At short time scales (24 h), CP and commercially available pure cranberry juice impaired swarming motility and repelled actively swarming bacteria in LB medium. Over longer time periods more representative of infections (~3 days), the capacity of the cranberry material to impair swarming diminished and bacteria would start to migrate across the surface, albeit by exhibiting a different motility phenotype to the regular "bull's-eye" swarming phenotype of P. mirabilis. This bacterium did not swarm on urine agar or LB agar supplemented with urea, suggesting that any potential application of anti-swarming compounds may be better suited to settings external to the urine environment. Anti-swarming effects were confounded by the ability of cranberry products to enhance biofilm formation in both LB and urine conditions. These findings provide key insights into the long-term strategy of targeting P. mirabilis CAUTIs.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins modulate reactive oxygen species in Barrett's and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Weh, K. M. Aiyer, H. S. Howell, A. B. Kresty, L. A.
Journal: 
Journal of Berry Research; 2016. 6(2):125-136.
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: We recently reported that a cranberry proanthocyanidin rich extract (C-PAC) induces autophagic cell death in apoptotic resistant esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells and necrosis in autophagy resistant cells. EAC is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates supporting development of improved preventive interventions. OBJECTIVE: The current investigation sought to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the context of C-PAC induced cell death. METHODS: Apanel of human esophageal cell lines of EAC or BE (Barrett's esophagus) origin were treated with C-PAC and assessed for ROS modulation using CellROXReg. Green reagent and the Amplex Red assay to specifically measure hydrogen peroxide levels. RESULTS: C-PAC significantly increased ROS levels in EAC cells, but significantly reduced ROS levels in CP-C BE cells. Increased hydrogen peroxide levels were also detected in C-PAC treated EAC cells and supernatant; however, hydrogen peroxide levels were significantly increased in medium alone, without cells, suggesting that C-PAC interferes or directly acts on the substrate. Hydrogen peroxide levels did not change in C-PAC treated CP-C BE cells. CONCLUSION: These experiments provide additional mechanistic insight regarding C-PAC induced cancer cell death through modulation of ROS. Additional research is warranted to identify specific ROS species associated with C-PAC exposure.

Cranberry product decreases fat accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Sun Q, Yue Y, Shen P, Yang JJ, Park Y.
Journal: 
Journal of Medicinal Food; 2016. 19(4):427-433.
Abstract: 

Cranberry phenolic compounds have been linked to many health benefits. A recent report suggested that cranberry bioactives inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the cranberry product (CP) on lipid metabolism using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model. CP (0.016% and 0.08%) dose-dependently reduced overall fat accumulation in C. elegans (N2, wild type) by 43% and 74%, respectively, without affecting its pumping rates or locomotive activities. CP decreased fat accumulation in aak-2 (an ortholog of AMP-activated kinase alpha ) and tub-1 (an ortholog of TUBBY) mutants significantly, but only minimal effects were observed in sbp-1 (an ortholog of sterol response element-binding protein-1) and nhr-49 (an ortholog of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- alpha ) mutant strains. We further confirmed that CP downregulated sbp-1, cebp, and hosl-1 (an ortholog of hormone-sensitive lipase homolog) expression, while increasing the expression of nhr-49 in wild-type C. elegans. These results suggest that CP could effectively reduce fat accumulation in C. elegans dependent on sbp-1, cebp, and nhr-49, but not aak-2 and tub-1.

Critical reevaluation of the 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde assay: cranberry proanthocyanidin standard is superior to procyanidin A2 dimer for accurate quantification of proanthocyanidins in cranberry products.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Krueger, C. G. Chesmore, N. Chen Xin Parker, J. Khoo, C. Marais, J. P. J. Shanmuganayagam, D. Crump, P. Reed, J. D.
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods; 2016. 22:13-19.
Abstract: 

The 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay is currently used to quantify proanthocyanidin (PAC) content in cranberry products. In a multi-operator/multi-day study design, a cranberry proanthocyanidin (c-PAC) standard was compared to procyanidin A2 (ProA2) dimer for accurate quantification of PAC in commercial cranberry juices, lab generated cranberry blends and cranberry powders. The c-PAC standard reflects the structural heterogeneity of cranberry PAC degree of polymerization, hydroxylation pattern and ratios of 'A-type' to 'B-type' interflavanyl bonds. Use of the c-PAC standard to quantify PAC content in cranberry samples resulted in values that were 3.6 times higher than those determined by ProA2. Overall, there was no effect (P>0.05) of operator or day on estimation of PAC concentration. The adoption of c-PAC standard should be considered as an improvement over the use of ProA2 for accurate quantification of cranberry PAC. Improved standardization of bioactive PAC components in functional cranberry foods will aid in establishment of dosage guidelines.

Deleterious effect of p-cresol on human colonic epithelial cells prevented by proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol extracts from fruits and proanthocyanidin bacterial metabolites.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Wong X; Carrasco-Pozo C; Escobar E; Navarrete P; Blachier F; Andriamihaja M; Lan A; Tome D; Cires MJ; Pastene E; Gotteland M.
Journal: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; 2016. 64(18):3574-3583
Abstract: 

The protective effect of proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol extracts from apples, avocados, cranberries, grapes, or proanthocyanidin microbial metabolites was evaluated in colonic epithelial cells exposed to p-cresol, a deleterious compound produced by the colonic microbiota from L-tyrosine. In HT29 Glc-/+ cells, p-cresol significantly increased LDH leakage and decreased ATP contents, whereas in Caco-2 cell monolayers, it significantly decreased the transepithelial electrical resistance and increased the paracellular transport of FITC-dextran. The alterations induced by p-cresol in HT29 Glc-/+ cells were prevented by the extracts from cranberries and avocados, whereas they became worse by extracts from apples and grapes. The proanthocyanidin bacterial metabolites decreased LDH leakage, ameliorating cell viability without improving intracellular ATP. All of the polyphenol extracts and proanthocyanidin bacterial metabolites prevented the p-cresol-induced alterations of barrier function. These results suggest that proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol extracts and proanthocyanidin metabolites likely contribute to the protection of the colonic mucosa against the deleterious effects of p-cresol.

Effect of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) oligosaccharides on the formation of advanced glycation end-products.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Sun J, Liu W, Ma H, Marais JPJ, Khoo C, Dain JA, Rowley DC, Seeram NP
Journal: 
Journal of Berry Research; 2016. 6(2):149-158
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are implicated in several chronic human illnesses including type-2 diabetes, renal failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruit has been previously reported to show anti-AGEs effects, attributed primarily to its phenolic constituents. However, there is lack of similar data on the non-phenolic constituents found in the cranberry fruit, in particular, its carbohydrate constituents. Herein, a chemically characterized oligosaccharide-enriched fraction purified from the cranberry fruit was evaluated for its potential anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging effects of a chemically characterized oligosaccharide-enriched fraction purified from the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruit. METHOD: The cranberry oligosaccharide-enriched fraction was purified from cranberry hull powder and characterized based on spectroscopic and spectrometric (NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS, and HPAEC-PAD) data. The oligosaccharide-enriched fraction was evaluated for its anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging effects by the bovine serum albumin-fructose, and DPPH assays, respectively. RESULTS: Fractionation of cranberry hull material yielded an oligosaccharide-enriched fraction named Cranf1b-CL. The 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF-MS revealed that Cranf1b-CL consists of oligosaccharides ranging primarily from 6-mers to 9-mers. The monosaccharide composition of Cranf1b-CL was arabinose (25%), galactose (5%), glucose (47%) and xylose (23%). In the bovine serum albumin-fructose assay, Cranf1b-CL inhibited AGEs formation in a concentration-dependent manner with comparable activity to the synthetic antiglycating agent, aminoguanidine, used as the positive control (57 vs. 75%; both at 500 micro g/mL). In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, Cranf1b-CL showed superior activity to the synthetic commercial antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene, used as the positive control (IC50=680 vs. 2200 micro g/mL, respectively). CONCLUSION: The in vitro anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging effects of cranberry oligosaccharides support previous data suggesting that these constituents may also contribute to biological effects of the whole fruit beyond its phenolic constituents alone. Also, this is the first study to evaluate a chemically characterized oligosaccharide fraction purified from the North American cranberry fruit for anti-AGEs and free radical scavenging properties.

Effect of glycated albumin and cranberry components on interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 production by human gingival fibroblasts

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Tipton DA; Hatten AA; Babu JP; Dabbous MKh.
Journal: 
Journal of Periodontal Research. 51(2):228-36
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gingival fibroblasts have the potential to participate in periodontal inflammation and breakdown, producing interleukin (IL)-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed during diabetic hyperglycemia, might aggravate periodontal inflammation. The cranberry contains anti-inflammatory polyphenols, which inhibit proinflammatory activities of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and IL-1beta-stimulated human cells. Little is known of its effects on gingival fibroblast IL-6 or MMP-3 production stimulated by AGEs. The objectives were to determine cranberry effects on IL-6 and MMP-3 production by gingival fibroblasts exposed to the representative AGE, glycated human serum albumin (G-HSA), or LPS +/- G-HSA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), was derived from cranberry juice. Normal human gingival fibroblasts were incubated with G-HSA or normal HSA or Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS (1 mug/mL) +/- G-HSA, in the presence or absence of preincubation with NDM. IL-6 and MMP-3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's F procedure. RESULTS: IL-6 production was stimulated by G-HSA or LPS (p

Effect of oral cranberry extract (standardized proanthocyanidin-A) in patients with recurrent UTI by pathogenic E. coli: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical research study.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Singh I; Gautam LK; Kaur IR.
Journal: 
International Urology & Nephrology. , 2016 Jun 17
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (PAC-A ~ proanthocyanidin-A) on the in vitro bacterial properties of uropathogenic (E. coli) and its efficacy/tolerability in patients with subclinical or uncomplicated recurrent UTI (r-UTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining clearance from the ethics committee and administering a written informed consent, 72 patients with r-UTI were enrolled as per protocol (November 2011 to March 2013) in this prospective study, to randomly receive (PAC-A: group I, 36) or (placebo: group II, 36), for 12 weeks. Any change/reduction in the incidence of r-UTI at 12 weeks was construed to be the primary endpoint of this study. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, bacterial adhesion scoring decreased (0.28)/(2.14) in group I/II (p < 0.001); 32/36 (88.8 %) and 2/36 (5.5 %) in groups I and II, respectively, turned MRHA negative (p < 0.001); biofilm (p < 0.01) and bacterial growth (p < 0.001) decreased in group I; microscopic pyuria score was 0.36/2.0 in group I/II (p < 0.001); r-UTI decreased to 33.33 versus 88.89 % in group I/II (p < 0.001); mean subjective dysuria score was 0.19 versus 1.47 in group I/II (p < 0.001), while mean urine pH was 5.88 versus 6.30 in group I/II (p < 0.001). No in vitro antibacterial activity of cranberry could be demonstrated, and no adverse events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: The overall efficacy and tolerability of standardized cranberry extract containing (PAC-A) as a food supplement were superior to placebo in terms of reduced bacterial adhesion; bacterial MRHA negativity; urine pH reduction; and in preventing r-UTI (dysuria, bacteriuria and pyuria). Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to elucidate the precise role, exact dose and optimal duration of PAC-A therapy in patients at risk of r-UTI.

Effectiveness of a Combination of Cranberries, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Vitamin C for the Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: Results of a Pilot Study.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Montorsi F; Gandaglia G; Salonia A; Briganti A; Mirone V.
Journal: 
European Urology. , 2016 Jun 7
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women and many patients with recurrent UTIs do not eradicate the condition albeit being treated with multiple courses of antibiotics. The use of nutritional supplements might reduce the risk of recurrent UTIs. However, the role of supplements taken as single agents appears to be limited. We hypothesized that a combination of cranberries, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and vitamin C might produce a clinical benefit due to their additive or synergistic effects. We prospectively enrolled 42 consecutive women with recurrent UTIs treated with 120mg cranberries (minimum proanthocyanidin content: 32mg), 1 billion heat-killed L. rhamnosus SGL06, and 750mg vitamin C thrice daily for 20 consecutive d. Patients were advised to stop taking these supplements for 10 d and then to repeat the whole cycle three times. Patients were contacted three mo and six mo following the end of the administration of these supplements and evaluated with a semistructured interview and urinalysis. Responders were defined as the absence of symptoms and negative urinalysis or urine culture. Follow-up data were available for 36 patients. Overall, 26 (72.2%) and 22 patients (61.1%) were responders at the 3-mo and 6-month follow-up. No major side effects were recorded. The administration of cranberries, L. rhamnosus, and vitamin C might represent a safe and effective option in women with recurrent UTIs.

Effects of cranberry components on IL-1beta-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF by human TMJ synovial fibroblasts.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Tipton DA; Christian J; Blumer A.
Journal: 
Archives of Oral Biology. 68:88-96, 2016 Aug
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) in the TMJ is characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and secondary inflammatory changes. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) stimulates IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in synovial fluid of TMJ with internal derangement and bony changes. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contains polyphenolic compounds that inhibit production of pro-inflammatory molecules by gingival cells in response to several stimulators. This study examined effects of cranberry components on IL-1beta-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production by human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells. DESIGN: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM) was derived from cranberry juice. Human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells from joints with degenerative OA and an ankylosed TMJ without degeneration were incubated with IL-1beta (0.001-1nM)+/-NDM (25-250mug/ml) (2h preincubation). Viability was assessed via activity of a mitochondrial enzyme. IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA; NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factors were measured in nuclear extracts via binding to specific oligonucleotides. DATA ANALYSIS: ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. RESULTS: NDM did not affect cell viability but inhibited IL-1beta stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production in all cell lines (p

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