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2017

Displaying 31 - 40 of 52

Polyphenol Interactions Mitigate the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Gliadins.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Perot M; Lupi R; Guyot S; Delayre-Orthez C; Gadonna-Widehem P; Thebaudin JY; Bodinier M; Larre C.
Journal: 
Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. 65(31):6442-6451
Abstract: 

Wheat allergy is an IgE-mediated disorder. Polyphenols, which are known to interact with certain proteins, could be used to reduce allergic reactions. This study screened several polyphenol sources for their ability to interact with gliadins, mask epitopes, and affect basophil degranulation. Polyphenol extracts from artichoke leaves, cranberries, apples, and green tea leaves were examined. Of these extracts, the first three formed insoluble complexes with gliadins. Only the cranberry and apple extracts masked epitopes in dot blot assays using anti-gliadin IgG and IgE antibodies from patients with wheat allergies. The cranberry and artichoke extracts limited cellular degranulation by reducing mouse anti-gliadin IgE recognition. In conclusion, the cranberry extract is the most effective polyphenol source at reducing the immunogenicity and allergenicity of wheat gliadins.

Protein-Bound Vaccinium Fruit Polyphenols Decrease IgE Binding to Peanut Allergens and RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation In Vitro.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Plundrich, N. J. Bansode, R. R. Foegeding, E. A. Williams, L. L. Lila, M. A.
Journal: 
Food and Function 8(4):1611-1621
Abstract: 

Peanut allergy is a worldwide health concern. In this study, the natural binding properties of plant-derived polyphenols to proteins was leveraged to produce stable protein-polyphenol complexes comprised of peanut proteins and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) or lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) pomace polyphenols. Protein-bound and free polyphenols were characterized and quantified by multistep extraction of polyphenols from protein-polyphenol complexes. Immunoblotting was performed with peanut-allergic plasma to determine peanut protein-specific IgE binding to unmodified peanut protein, or to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes. In an allergen model system, RBL-2H3 mast cells were exposed to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes and evaluated for their inhibitory activity on ionomycin-induced degranulation ( beta -hexosaminidase and histamine). Among the evaluated polyphenolic compounds from protein-polyphenol complex eluates, quercetin, - in aglycone or glycosidic form - was the main phytochemical identified to be covalently bound to peanut proteins. Peanut protein-bound cranberry and blueberry polyphenols significantly decreased IgE binding to peanut proteins at p<0.05 (38% and 31% decrease, respectively). Sensitized RBL-2H3 cells challenged with antigen and ionomycin in the presence of protein-cranberry and blueberry polyphenol complexes showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in histamine and beta -hexosaminidase release (histamine: 65.5% and 65.8% decrease; beta -hexosaminidase: 60.7% and 45.4% decrease, respectively). The modification of peanut proteins with cranberry or blueberry polyphenols led to the formation of peanut protein-polyphenol complexes with significantly reduced allergenic potential. Future trials are warranted to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms of these protein-polyphenol complexes and the role of quercetin in their hypoallergenic potential.

Strawberry and Cranberry Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Insulin-Resistant, Non-Diabetic Adults: a Parallel, Double-Blind, Controlled and Randomised Clinical Trial.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Paquette M, Medina Larqué AS, Weisnagel SJ, Desjardins Y, Marois J, Pilon G, Dudonné S, Marette A, Jacques H.
Journal: 
Br J Nutr.117(4):519-531
Abstract: 

Plant-derived foods rich in polyphenols are associated with several cardiometabolic health benefits, such as reduced postprandial hyperglycaemia. However, their impact on whole-body insulin sensitivity using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique remains under-studied. We aimed to determine the effects of strawberry and cranberry polyphenols (SCP) on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, lipid profile, inflammation and oxidative stress markers in free-living insulin-resistant overweight or obese human subjects (n 41) in a parallel, double-blind, controlled and randomised clinical trial. The experimental group consumed an SCP beverage (333 mg SCP) daily for 6 weeks, whereas the Control group received a flavour-matched Control beverage that contained 0 mg SCP. At the beginning and at the end of the experimental period, insulin sensitivity was assessed by a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, and glucose tolerance and insulin secretion by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity increased in the SCP group as compared with the Control group (+0·9 (sem 0·5)×10-3 v. -0·5 (sem 0·5)×10-3 mg/kg per min per pmol, respectively, P=0·03). Compared with the Control group, the SCP group had a lower first-phase insulin secretion response as measured by C-peptide levels during the first 30 min of the OGTT (P=0·002). No differences were detected between the two groups for lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. A 6-week dietary intervention with 333 mg of polyphenols from strawberries and cranberries improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese non-diabetic, insulin-resistant human subjects but was not effective in improving other cardiometabolic risk factors.

UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS-Based Global Metabolomics Reveal Metabolome Modifications in Plasma of Young Women after Cranberry Juice Consumption.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Liu H; Garrett TJ; Su Z; Khoo C; Gu L.
Journal: 
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 45:67-76
Abstract: 

Plasma metabolome in young women following cranberry juice consumption were investigated using a global UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS approach. Seventeen female college students, between 21 and 29 years old, were given either cranberry juice or apple juice for three days using a cross-over design. Plasma samples were collected before and after juice consumption. Plasma metabolomes were analyzed using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS followed by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses (OPLS-DA). S-plot was used to identify discriminant metabolites. Validated OPLS-DA analyses showed that the plasma metabolome in young women, including both exogenous and endogenous metabolites, were altered following cranberry juice consumption. Cranberry juice caused increases of exogenous metabolites including quinic acid, vanilloloside, catechol sulfate, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol sulfate, coumaric acid sulfate, ferulic acid sulfate, 5-(trihydroxphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, 3-(hydroxyphenyl)proponic acid, hydroxyphenylacetic acid and trihydroxybenzoic acid. In addition, the plasma levels of endogenous metabolites including citramalic acid, aconitic acid, hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, hippuric acid, 2-hydroxyhippuric acid, vanilloylglycine, 4-acetamido-2-aminobutanoic acid, dihydroxyquinoline, and glycerol 3-phosphate were increased in women following cranberry juice consumption. The metabolic differences and discriminant metabolites observed in this study may serve as biomarkers of cranberry juice consumption and explain its health promoting properties in human.

Cranberry Extract as a Supplemented Food inTreatment of Oxidative Stress and Breast Cancer Induced by n-methyl-n-nitrosourea in Female Virgin Rats

Posted: 
March 6, 2017
Authors: 
Boshra SA, Hussein MA
Journal: 
Int J Phytomed 8(2):217-27
Abstract: 

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and a major cause of death in women. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer potential of cranberry extract against N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) induced mammary carcinoma in rats. The tumor was induced in Female virgin rats of age 50 days by single dose of MNU (50mg/kg.b.w i.p.). After 85 days; all rats developed at least one tumor. Animals were treated with cranberry extract (400 and 600 mg/kg.b.w.orally) and tamoxifen (2mg/kg.b.w. i.p) for 4 weeks (from day 86 to day 113). MNU treatment resulted in a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in blood hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), platelets (PLTs) as well as blood, liver and breast catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, MNU treatment resulted in a significant increase in White blood cells (WBC) as well as plasma, liver and mammary tissue gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hexosamine, sialic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). Upon administration of the cranberry extract, the levels of WBC, GGT, LDH, hexosamine, sialic acid, TBARs, Hb, RBC, PLTs, CAT, GPx and SOD were significantly normalized. Histopathological changes also confirmed the formation of tumor tubules and neovascularization after the MNU treatment. Cranberry extract administration significantly reduces the growth of MNU-induced mammary tumors, and therefore has strong potential as a useful therapeutic regimen for inhibiting breast cancer development. Comparing the beneficial effect of cranberry extract with that of MNU-induced breast cancer, cranberry extract showed antitumor and antioxidant activity indicated by the measured biochemical parameters and the histopathological examination of mammary tissue. The results of the present study indicate that cranberry extract possesses strong anticancer effects through its role in modulating glycoprotein components and the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Cranberry exerted a stronger anticancer effect at the dosage of 600 mg/kg body weight than at dosage 400 mg/kg body weight.

Polyphenol Characterization, Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Proliferation and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Cranberry Pomace

Posted: 
March 6, 2017
Authors: 
Rupasinghe V, Neir SV, Parmar I
Journal: 
Functional Foods in Health and Disease 6(11):754-68
Abstract: 

Background: Cranberry pomace (CP), an underutilized by-product from juice processing, contains a wide range of biologically active compounds that can be recovered and used in a variety of applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Methods: In this study, analytical chemical techniques such as solvent extractions and characterization of extracts in respect with their phenolic content were performed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and spectrophotometry. Crude CP extract and its phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins–rich fractions were then evaluated for their anti-oxidant capacity, tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and anti-proliferation activity against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Results: On a dry weight basis, the different CP fractions contained seven major anthocyanins (0.1-125 mg/g), six major phenolic acids (0.8-31 mg/g), seven flavonols (1-126 mg/g) and five flavan-3-ols (0.1-12 mg/g). Fractions rich in flavonols exhibited the most potent antioxidant capacities with ferric ion reducing antioxidant power values of 1.8-1.9 mmole/g and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging IC50 values of 15.1-15.2 mg/L respectively. On the other hand, fractions rich in phenolic acids and flavan-3-ol monomers demonstrated the most potent anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50=6.1-6.2 mg/L) and anti-proliferative activity (IC50=7.8-15.8 mg/L). Generally, all the fractions exhibited a dose-response relationship in the selected biological activity assays.Conclusion: This study suggests an effective utilization of CP to obtain biologically active fractions with potential to be used in functional foods and nutraceuticals designed for the prevention of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress.

Ability of Cranberry Proanthocyanidins in Combination with a Probiotic Formulation to Inhibit in Vitro Invasion of Gut Epithelial Cells by Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic E. Coli

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Polewski MA, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Leyer G
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods; 2016. 25:123-134
Abstract: 

Cranberries and probiotics are individually considered as functional foods. This study evaluated the potential synergy between bioactive proanthocyanidins (c-PAC) derived from cranberries and probiotics on reducing the invasiveness of extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in a cell culture model. ExPEC can be a component of the gut microbiota in healthy individuals, and reducing the invasiveness of ExPEC is a potential means to lessen the risk of subsequent urinary tract infections (UTI), the most common bacterial infections in women. c-PAC (>92% A-type) concentrations greater than 36 micro g c-PAC/mL significantly (p<0.05) reduced ExPEC invasion, and was not inhibited by the presence of probiotics. Scanning electron microscopy suggests that the mechanism by which c-PAC prevent ExPEC invasion is by cross-linking surface virulence factors. A probiotic blend also significantly reduced invasion, albeit via a different mechanism. This study demonstrated the potential benefit of combining functional A-type c-PAC components in cranberry foods with probiotics.

Addition of Bacitracin and Cranberry to Standard Foley Care Reduces Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Sorour K, Nuzzo E, Tuttle M, Naidus E, Donovan LM, Bekhit M, Myers T, Malacaria B, Ryan S, Sorour O, Brown R
Journal: 
Canadian Journal of Infection Control. 2016 Sep 1;31(3)
Abstract: 

Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent over 30% of hospital-acquired infections with an annual incidence of 560,000 CAUTIs per year in the United States. An estimated 13,000 deaths are attributable to CAUTIs annually. Standard prevention strategies frequently fail to eliminate CAUTI in intensive care units. The effectiveness of a hospital-based program of cranberry products (CP) and meatal antimicrobials to prevent CAUTI in a heterogeneous ICU population has not been evaluated. Methods: Data of Foley days and incidence of CAUTI in the Critical Care Unit (CCU) and the general wards (GW) in a single 245-bed suburban medical center were collected as a part of routine infection control surveillance. Standard CAUTI prevention bundles were applied throughout the hospital in 2009. In May 2012 an intervention of applying Bacitracin ointment to the urinary meatus-Foley junction and oral cranberry juice or tablets was started only in the CCU. A retrospective review of the data collected before and after the intervention in both the GW and CCU was completed. Results: Prior to the QI intervention in May 2012, average CAUTI rates were 2.8 CAUTIs per 1000 catheter days (CI 0.26-1.89) in the CCU and 1.6 CAUTIs per 1000 catheter days (CI 0.71-4.97) on the GW (p = 0.28). After the intervention, the average number of CAUTIs/1000 days in the CCU was 0, which was significantly different from the average of 1.52 CAUTIs/1000 days (CI 0.78-2.26) on the GW (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the addition of cranberry-containing products and antimicrobial meatal care may further reduce incidence of CAUTI when added to standard recommendations. Further research will be necessary to determine if these interventions could be effective in a wider population.

Comparison of A-type Proanthocyanidins in Cranberry and Peanut Skin Extracts Using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Ye L, Neilson A, Sarnoski P, Ray WK, Duncan S
Journal: 
J Mol Genet Med. 2016;10(209):1747-086
Abstract: 

Cranberry products have long been used to treat urinary tract infections. It is believed that the A-type proanthocyanidins in cranberries contribute to this function. Peanut is one of the other, few food sources that primarily contain A-type proanthocyanidins. The skin on the outside of the peanut kernels (testa), which is treated as an agriculture waste product, contains high levels of A-type proanthocyanidins. In this study, an HPLC diol column separation method and MALDI-TOF MS were used to characterize and compare the proanthocyanidin compositions of peanut skins and cranberries. MALDI-TOF MS in linear mode was able to detect a group of proanthocyanidins with DP (degree of polymerization) 10 in peanut skin extract, but was only able to detect DP 8 in cranberry extract.The reflectron mode showed clusters of clear narrow peaks at DP 7 in peanut skin extract, while the highest DP resolved for cranberry extract was only 3 in reflectron mode. This might be due to the low response intensity of the cranberry samples with the current cleanup method and the matrix. Based on the resolved peaks in reflectron mode, peanut skins and cranberries have similar proanthocyanidins composition; they contain both A-type and B-type proanthocyanidins, with the A-type being predominant. This result may inspire future studies on the comparison of biological functions between peanut skins and cranberries and further comparison of their polymeric proanthocyanidin composition.

Cranberries and Cancer: An Update of Preclinical Studies Evaluating the Cancer Inhibitory Potential of Cranberry and Cranberry Derived Constituents

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Weh KM, Clarke J, Kresty LA
Journal: 
Antioxidants 5(3):27
Abstract: 

Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents reported to influence a variety of health benefits, ranging from improved immune function and decreased infections to reduced cardiovascular disease and more recently cancer inhibition. A review of cranberry research targeting cancer revealed positive effects of cranberries or cranberry derived constituents against 17 different cancers utilizing a variety of in vitro techniques, whereas in vivo studies supported the inhibitory action of cranberries toward cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, bladder, prostate, glioblastoma and lymphoma. Mechanisms of cranberry-linked cancer inhibition include cellular death induction via apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy; reduction of cellular proliferation; alterations in reactive oxygen species; and modification of cytokine and signal transduction pathways. Given the emerging positive preclinical effects of cranberries, future clinical directions targeting cancer or premalignancy in high risk cohorts should be considered.

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