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2017

Displaying 21 - 30 of 52

Evaluation of the Effects of a Natural Dietary Supplement with Cranberry, Noxamicina® and D-Mannose in Recurrent Urinary Infections in Perimenopausal Women] [Article In Italian]

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
De Leo V, Cappelli V, Massaro MG, Tosti C, Morgante G.
Journal: 
Minerva Ginecol. 69(4):336-341
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND:The female genital apparatus, the urinary tract and the perineal supporting tissues share a common embryological origin, whose differentiation depends on the action of estrogens. In adult women, the progressive decline of the ovarian function, with the ensuing estrogen deprivation, reduces tissue tropism causing urogenital atrophy, which makes these organs much more susceptible to traumatisms and urinary infections. The disorders associated with changes in the urogenital tract of peri- and postmenopausal women have significant clinical relevance, both on account of their chronicity and high frequency of occurrence and on account of their having major repercussions on the quality of life of the women, who often have to call their doctor seeking relief for their symptoms. In general, these patients report having a significant number of episodes of cystitis per year. With a view to verifying whether the use of a new dietary supplement (Kistinox® Forte sachets) containing cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), Noxamicina® (propolis extract) and D-mannose can be of use in the treatment of cystitis, with or without bacteriuria, through the elimination of urinary symptoms, a multicenter clinical study was conducted on 150 women aged 40 to 50 suffering from recurrent episodes of cystitis as attested by at least one positive urine culture during the six months preceding their recruitment.METHODS:The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A: 100 women were given Kistinox® Forte, 1 sachet per day during the first 10 days of the month, for 3 months; Group B: 50 women did not receive any treatment to serve as a control group.RESULTS:The results of the present study show a complete remission of urinary symptoms in 92 women; a slight decrease in urinary symptoms was observed in 5 subjects, whereas 3 women who stopped the treatment after the first cycle were considered drop-outs.CONCLUSIONS:This multicenter clinical study revealed the excellent efficacy and tolerability of Kistinox® Forte sachets in the treatment and prevention of urinary disorders in peri- and postmenopausal women. The posology of a sachet a day during the first 10 days of the month for 3 months was well tolerated by the patients, who did not report any disorder arising from the product.

Evidence of Some Natural Products with Antigenotoxic Effects. Part 1: Fruits and Polysaccharides

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Evidence of Some Natural Products with Antigenotoxic Effects. Part 1: Fruits and Polysaccharides
Journal: 
Nutrients 9(2)
Abstract: 

Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. The agents capable of causing damage to genetic material are known as genotoxins and, according to their mode of action, are classified into mutagens, carcinogens or teratogens. Genotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic degenerative diseases including hepatic, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, arthritis, cancer, chronic inflammation and ageing. In recent decades, researchers have found novel bioactive phytocompounds able to counteract the effects of physical and chemical mutagens. Several studies have shown potential antigenotoxicity in a variety of fruits. In this review (Part 1), we present an overview of research conducted on some fruits (grapefruit, cranberries, pomegranate, guava, pineapple, and mango) which are frequentl consumed by humans, as well as the analysis of some phytochemicals extracted from fruits and yeasts which have demonstrated antigenotoxic capacity in various tests, including the Ames assay, sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus and comet assay.

Formulation of Thermoreversible Gel of Cranberry Juice Concentrate: Evaluation, Biocompatibility Studies and its Antimicrobial Activity Against Periodontal Pathogens.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Rajeshwari HR; Dhamecha D; Jagwani S; Patil D; Hegde S; Potdar R; Metgud R; Jalalpure S; Roy S; Jadhav K; Tiwari NK; Koduru S; Hugar S; Dodamani S.
Journal: 
Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications. 75:1506-1514
Abstract: 

The present work aims to investigate the efficacy of thermoreversible gel of cranberry juice concentrate (CJC) as local drug delivery for the treatment of periodontitis. CJC was initially tested for its antimicrobial activities like MIC, MBC, antiadhesion, antibiofilm and time kill assay against the panel of organisms (S. mutans (SM), E. faecalis (EF), A. actinomycetemcomitans (AA), P. gingivalis (PG), T. forsythia (TF)) responsible for periapical and periodontal infections. Antimicrobial activity of CJC showed MIC value of 50mg/ml and MBC value of 100mg/ml with desirable antiadhesion (83-90%) and antibiofilm activity (70-85%). CJC was evaluated for its biocompatibility using periodontal fibroblasts by cell based MTT assay and found to be nontoxic. Influence of CJC on periodontopathogen PG derived virulence factors (fimA and kgp) was studied using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique wherein down regulation of selected genes demonstrated inhibitory effect against PG virulence factors. Thermoreversible gel of CJC was formulated by cold method using poloxamer 407 as thermosensitive polymer and carbopol 934 as mucoadhesive polymer and evaluated for its gelation temperature, viscosity, gel strength and mucoadhesive strength. Comparison of optimized thermoreversible gel of CJC (500mg/ml) with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate gel (0.2%) using agar well diffusion demonstrated equal zone of inhibition against SM, EF, AA, PG & TF. Hence the formulated thermoreversible gel of CJC could serve as a novel herbal alternative to currently available periodontal treatment modalities.

Highly Standardized Cranberry Extract Supplementation (Anthocran®) as Prophylaxis in Young Healthy Subjects with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Ledda A, Belcaro G, Dugall M, Riva A, Togni S, Eggenhoffner R, Giacomelli L.
Journal: 
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 21(2):389-393
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE:Several studies have investigated the role of cranberry extract in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), on different selected subpopulations at increased risk of UTI. In this registry, we tested the prophylactic effects of an oral supplementation containing a highly standardized cranberry extract (Anthocran®) in young subjects with a previous history of recurrent UTIs, over a 2-months follow-up.PATIENTS AND METHODS:36 otherwise healthy subjects in juvenile age (between 12 and 18 years of age) suffering by recurrent UTIs were enrolled. Participants received either a standard management (SM) (control group, n=17) or SM associated with an oral daily supplementation (supplementation group, n=19). Oral supplementation consisted in one capsule containing 120 mg of cranberry extract (Anthocran®), standardized to 36 mg proanthocyanidins, for 60 days. The effectiveness in the prevention of UTIs was determined by: the number of UTIs evaluated two months before the inclusion in the registry and during the supplementation period; the number of symptom-free subjects during the registry period. Safety considerations and measurement of adherence to treatment were also performed.RESULTS:The two groups were comparable for age, gender distribution, the days of follow-up and also for the number of UTIs before inclusion. The mean number of UTIs observed during the registry in the supplemented group (0.31±0.2) was significantly lower compared to the control group (2.3±1.3) and to the mean number of UTIs assessed before inclusion (1.74±1.1) (p-value = 0.0001 for both). Moreover, 63.1% of supplemented subjects was symptom-free during the registry period, whereas 23.5% subjects were asymptomatic in the control group (p-value <0.05).CONCLUSIONS:This registry supplement study provides compelling evidence on the efficacy of an oral supplementation, based on a highly standardized cranberry extract (Anthocran®), as prophylaxis in young healthy subjects suffering by recurrent UTIs.

Mechanism of Anti-rotavirus Synergistic Activity by Epigallocatechin Gallate and a Proanthocyanidin-Containing Nutraceutical.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Lipson SM; Karalis G; Karthikeyan L; Ozen FS; Gordon RE; Ponnala S; Bao J; Samarrai W; Wolfe E.
Journal: 
Food & Environmental Virology DOI 10.1007/s12560-017-9299-z
Abstract: 

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) of green tea and the nutraceutical CystiCran-40 (containing 40% proanthocyanidins) of the cranberry plant have been associated with antiviral activity. The purpose of this work was to determine the mechanism of antiviral synergy between each compound. Coliphage T4II (phage T4) and the rotavirus strain SA-11(RTV) were used as model virus systems. Individual and combined flavonoids structural and molecular weight analyses were performed by NMR and HPCL/MS, respectively. A suboptimal concentration of EGCG or C-40 alone or in combination reduced phage infectivity by <=10%. Similarly, EGCG (30 micro g/ml) and C-40 (25 micro g/ml), respectively, reduced RTV titers by 3 and 13%. However, RTV titers were reduced by 32% (p < .05) with both flavonoids used in combination. RTV was not recognized in host cells by electron microscopy 24-h post-inoculation. NMR and HPLC/MS findings revealed significant structural and potential changes in molecular weight of the flavonoids in complex.

Medicinal Plants with Multiple Effects on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Rouhi-Boroujeni H; Heidarian E; Rouhi-Boroujeni H; Deris F; Rafieian-Kopaei M.
Journal: 
Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23(7):999-1015
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. METHODS: In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016. The plants that were effective on one, two, three, or all of four diseases were determined. The doses, side effects, the most important pharmaceutically effective compounds, the used organs, and important points regarding usage were separately recorded. Also known clinically significant interactions were presented. RESULTS: 1023 articles were found to be about medicinal plants and hypertension, 1912 articles about medicinal plants and hyperlipidemia, 810 articles about medicinal plants and obesity, 1174 articles about medicinal plants and diabetes. Of 144 plants included in the analysis, 83 were found to be effective on hyperlipidemia, 100 on hypertension, 66 on obesity, and 72 on diabetes. 43 plants were found to be effective on two diseases, 14 on three diseases, and 34 on all four diseases. Three plants (Tomato, Cranberry and Pomegranate), in food and therapeutic doses, were found to be used to treat cardiovascular diseases especially in pre-eclampsia and hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Regarding the findings of this study, we can argue that the medicinal plants, other than monotherapy, can be used as poly-therapy, to treat cardiovascular diseases.

Morphometric Abnormalities in Spleen and Kidney of the Progeny of Mice Fed American Cranberry Extract (Vaccinium macrocarpon) During Pregnancy and Lactation.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Ba&#322;an BJ, Lewicki S, Siwicki AK, Stelmasiak M, Skopi&#324;ski P, Skopi&#324;ska-Ró&#380;ewska E, Wasiuty&#324;ski A, Zdanowski R.
Journal: 
Pol J Vet Sci. 20(1):57-65
Abstract: 

Cranberries and cranberry-derived diet supplements are often recommended for the treatment of urinary tract infections, also during pregnancy. These products contain strongly anti-angiogenic chemical compounds which could not be indifferent to the developing fetus. In the present work we evaluated the effect of feeding pregnant and lactating mice American cranberry extract (daily dose 0.88 mg) on the morphology and some parameters of spleen and kidney function of their adult progeny. Six weeks after delivery the morphometry of spleen and kidney, cytometric analysis of spleen lymphocytes, evaluation of humoral response to SRBC (Sheep Red Blood Cells), and examination of serum creatinine/urea concentration, were performed in the offspring. Spleens of progeny from experimental (E) group differed from the spleens of progeny of control mice in the lower number of lymphatic nodules and their larger diameter. Cytometry of spleen cells from progeny of E mothers revealed more CD19+ and CD8+ lymphocytes than in the control group. No difference was seen in the response to immunization by red blood cells of sheep (SRBC) between control and E offspring. An increase in the diameter of glomeruli was observed in the kidneys of the experimental group in comparison with the control group. No abnormalities in creatinine and urea serum level were observed. A higher concentration of VEGF and bFGF in E offspring sera in comparison to the controls was seen. CONCLUSION: Although the observed differences between the control and experimental group were not large, caution is recommended in using cranberries and their extracts during pregnancy until more research will be done on this topic.

Multidimensional Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Organic Juices with High Antioxidant Capacity.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Nowak D; Goslinski M; Szwengiel A.
Journal: 
Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture. 97(8):2657-2663
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: A diet rich in fruit, vegetables and juices is associated with health benefit and reduced risk of certain civilization diseases. Antioxidant properties depend mainly on the total content of polyphenols and their composition. The aim of this study was to perform a multidimensional comparative analysis of phenolic compounds of organic juices with high antioxidant capacity (chokeberry, elderberry, cranberry, pomegranate).RESULTS: All the analyzed juices were a rich source of phenolic compounds. Chokeberry juices had the highest total polyphenol content (up to 7900 mg GAE L-1 ). These juices as well as pomegranate juice were characterized by the highest antioxidant capacity (~5000 mg Trolox equivalents L-1 ). Other samples had lower total polyphenols content and total antioxidant capacity. Multidimensional analysis of the profiles of phenolic compounds showed that chokeberry juices differ from the other juices. Cranberry and pomegranate juices were similar to each other, and elderberry juice was closer to these samples than to chokeberry. The predominant polyphenols of chokeberry juices were anthocyanins (especially cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid). Elderberry juice was an exception by having flavonols (quercetin derivatives) as the principal compounds.CONCLUSION: Chokeberry juices were characterized by the highest antioxidant properties, which predispose them to further clinical research concerning the supporting cardiovascular disease prophylaxis

Oral Pharmacokinetic Interaction of Ester Rich Fruit Juices and Pharmaceutical Excipients with Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Male Wistar Rats.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Shailender J; Ravi PR; Saha P; Myneni S.
Journal: 
Xenobiotica http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00498254.2016.1269375
Abstract: 

1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of intestinal esterases on the absorption process of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). 2. The esterase inhibition capacity of fruit juices (FJs) rich in ester linkages and pharmaceutical excipients (having ester bonds) was performed in vitro by incubating TDF with each FJ and excipient in the intestinal washings. The ex vivo everted gut sac model was also used to evaluate the absorption enhancement capacity of these FJs and excipients. Single-dose oral pharmacokinetic studies were performed by concomitant administration of TDF with each of the selected FJs and excipients. 3. The in vitro and ex vivo studies showed that cremophor-EL and all FJs prevented the metabolism of TDF with grapefruit juice (GFJ) having the highest level of inhibition. Further, the permeability flux of the monoester form of tenofovir was increased by 113% and 212% by cranberry juice (CBJ) and GFJ, respectively. The in vivo studies also showed that both CBJ and GFJ enhanced the oral bioavailability of TDF as the AUC was increased by 24% and 97%, respectively. 4. These results indicate that the prevention of the metabolic conversion of TDF to its monoester form is crucial in increasing the oral absorption of TDF.

Photoprotective Effects of Cranberry Juice and its Various Fractions Against Blue Light-Induced Impairment in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Chang CH, Chiu HF, Han YC, Chen IH, Shen YC, Venkatakrishnan K, Wang CK.
Journal: 
Pharm Biol. 55(1):571-580.
Abstract: 

CONTEXT:Cranberry has numerous biological activities, including antioxidation, anticancer, cardioprotection, as well as treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI), attributed to abundant phenolic contents.OBJECTIVE:The current study focused on the effect of cranberry juice (CJ) on blue light exposed human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells which mimic age-related macular degeneration (AMD).MATERIALS AND METHODS:Preliminary phytochemical and HPLC analysis, as well as total antioxidant capacity and scavenging activity of cranberry ethyl acetate extract and different CJ fractions (condensed tannins containing fraction), were evaluated. In cell line model, ARPE-19 were irradiated with blue light at 450 nm wavelength for 10 h (mimic AMD) and treated with different fractions of CJ extract at different doses (5-50 μg/mL) by assessing the cell viability or proliferation rate using MTT assay (repairing efficacy).RESULTS:Phytochemical and HPLC analysis reveals the presence of several phenolic compounds (flavonoids, proanthocyanidin, quercetin) in ethyl acetate extract and different fractions of CJ. However, the condensed tannin containing fraction of ethyl acetate extract of CJ displayed the greater (p < 0.05) scavenging activity especially at the dose of 1 mg/mL. Similarly, the condensed tannin containing fraction at 50 μg/mL presented better (p < 0.05) repairing ability (increased cell viability). Furthermore, the oligomeric condensed tannin containing fraction display the best (p < 0.05) repairing efficiency at 50 μg/mL.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:In conclusion, this study distinctly proved that condensed tannin containing fraction of CJ probably exhibits better free radicals scavenging activity and thereby effectively protected the ARPE-19 cells and thus, hampers the progress of AMD.

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