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2018

Displaying 11 - 20 of 54

Cranberry Proanthocyanidin-Chitosan Hybrid Nanoparticles as a Potential Inhibitor of Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Invasion of Gut Epithelial Cells.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Alfaro-Viquez E; Esquivel-Alvarado D; Madrigal-Carballo S; Krueger CG; Reed JD.
Journal: 
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 111:415-420
Abstract: 

Chitosan interacts with proanthocyanidins through hydrogen-bonding, which allows encapsulation and development of stable nanoparticles via ionotropic gelation. Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are associated with the prevention of urinary tract infections and PAC inhibit invasion of gut epithelial cells by extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC). We determined the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin-chitosan hybrid nanoparticles (PAC-CHTNp) on the ExPEC invasion of gut epithelial cells in vitro. PAC-CHTNp were characterized according to size, morphology, and bioactivity. Results showed a decrease in the size of the nanoparticles as the concentration of PAC was increased, indicating that PAC increases cross-linking by hydrogen-bonding on the surface of the chitosan nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were produced with diameters ranging from 367.3nm to 293.2nm. Additionally, PAC-CHTNp significantly inhibited the ability of ExPEC to invade the enterocytes by ~80% at 66mugGAE/mL and by ~92% at 100mugGAE/mL. Results also indicate that chitosan nanoparticles alone were not significantly different from controls in preventing ExPEC invasion of enterocytes (data not shown) and also there were not significant differences between PAC alone and PAC-CHTNp, suggesting that the new PAC-CHTNp could lead to an increase in the stability of encapsulated PAC, maintain the molecular adhesion of PAC to ExPEC.

Cranberry Supplementation Does Not Reduce Urinary Tract Infections in Patients With Indwelling Catheters After Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Shatkin-Margolis A; Warehime J; Pauls RN.
Journal: 
Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery. 24(2):130-134
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common after pelvic reconstructive surgery, likely due to high rates of urinary retention. We sought to determine if prescription of cranberry capsules reduced UTIs in postoperative patients requiring catheter use. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective cohort study. Two 6-month periods were compared: April to September 2015, before cranberry capsules were incorporated, and April to September 2016, after cranberry capsules were implemented. Our study population included patients discharged with a catheter after pelvic reconstructive surgery. All charts were reviewed for demographics, perioperative data, and urine cultures up to 6 weeks postoperatively. A UTI was defined as treatment with antibiotics or positive cultures. Statistical analysis was performed; logistic regression evaluated for relationships between UTI and other factors. Our a priori sample size calculation determined 88 subjects per group would be necessary. RESULTS: Over the 2 periods, 167 patients met inclusion criteria: 71 before and 96 after cranberry implementation. The 2 cohorts were similar in all data. Regarding incidence of UTI, rates were overall high and not significantly different between groups (76% before cranberry vs 69% with cranberry; P = 0.299). The median duration of catheter use was 8 days in both cohorts. The UTI was most likely to occur in the second week after surgery. Logistic regression revealed no associations between age, surgery type, duration of catheter use, and UTI. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, prescription of cranberry capsules did not significantly reduce UTI rates among patients with urinary catheters after pelvic reconstructive surgery.

Cranberry-Derived Proanthocyanidins Induce a Differential Transcriptomic Response within Candida Albicans Urinary Biofilms.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Sundararajan A; Rane HS; Ramaraj T; Sena J; Howell AB; Bernardo SM; Schilkey FD; Lee SA.
Journal: 
PLoS ONE.13(8):e0201969
Abstract: 

Candida albicans is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, azoles are poorly active against biofilms, echinocandins do not achieve clinically useful urinary concentrations, and amphotericin B exhibits severe toxicities. Thus, novel strategies are needed to prevent Candida UTIs, which are often associated with urinary catheter biofilms. We previously demonstrated that cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins (PACs) prevent C. albicans biofilm formation in an in vitro urinary model. To elucidate functional pathways unique to urinary biofilm development and PAC inhibition, we investigated the transcriptome of C. albicans in artificial urine (AU), with and without PACs. C. albicans biofilm and planktonic cells were cultivated with or without PACs. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed by RNA sequencing. Differentially expressed genes were determined using DESeq2 software; pathway analysis was performed using Cytoscape. Approximately 2,341 of 6,444 total genes were significantly expressed in biofilm relative to planktonic cells. Functional pathway analysis revealed that genes involved in filamentation, adhesion, drug response and transport were up-regulated in urinary biofilms. Genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism and nutrient response were down-regulated. In PAC-treated urinary biofilms compared to untreated control biofilms, 557 of 6,444 genes had significant changes in gene expression. Genes downregulated in PAC-treated biofilms were implicated in iron starvation and adhesion pathways. Although urinary biofilms share key features with biofilms formed in other environments, many genes are uniquely expressed in urinary biofilms. Cranberry-derived PACs interfere with the expression of iron acquisition and adhesion genes within urinary biofilms.

Determination of Flavanols by Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. Application to the Characterization of Cranberry-Based Pharmaceuticals Through Profiling and Fingerprinting Approaches.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Bakhytkyzy, I. Nunez, O. Saurina, J.
Journal: 
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis; 2018. 156:206-213.
Abstract: 

In this work, a new method based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) was established for the determination of catechins and related oligomeric proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry-based pharmaceuticals. Compounds were recovered by liquid extraction using methanol/water/hydrochloric acid (60:39:1, v:v:v) as the extraction solvent. The chromatographic separation was carried out using a core-shell C18 column under an elution program based on 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol as the components of the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.4 mL min-1 and the injection volume was 5 micro L. Chromatograms were acquired at 280 nm by UV-vis absorption and at lambda ex 280 nm and lambda em 347 nm by fluorescence spectroscopy. Compared to UV detection, FLD demonstrated both increased sensitivity and selectivity to avoid interfering signals from other phenolic compounds present in the samples. Data resulting from the analysis of cranberry-based products was exploited to tackle an exploratory characterization and classification using principal component analysis. Samples were clustered according to their compositions and those enriched with PACs with antibacterial activity were clearly distinguished from the others.

Development of a Thiolysis HPLC Method for the Analysis of Procyanidins in Cranberry Products.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Gao C; Cunningham DG; Liu H; Khoo C; Gu L.
Journal: 
Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. 66(9):2159-2167
Abstract: 

The objective of this study was to develop a thiolysis HPLC method to quantify total procyanidins, the ratio of A-type linkages, and A-type procyanidin equivalents in cranberry products. Cysteamine was utilized as a low-odor substitute of toluene-alpha-thiol for thiolysis depolymerization. A reaction temperature of 70 degreeC and reaction time of 20 min, in 0.3 M of HCl, were determined to be optimum depolymerization conditions. Thiolytic products of cranberry procyanidins were separated by RP-HPLC and identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Standards curves of good linearity were obtained on thiolyzed procyanidin dimer A2 and B2 external standards. The detection and quantification limits, recovery, and precision of this method were validated. The new method was applied to quantitate total procyanidins, average degree of polymerization, ratio of A-type linkages, and A-type procyanidin equivalents in cranberry products. Results showed that the method was suitable for quantitative and qualitative analysis of procyanidins in cranberry products.

Dietary Polyphenols and Periodontitis-A Mini-Review of Literature.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Basu A; Masek E; Ebersole JL
Journal: 
Molecules. 23(7)
Abstract: 

Periodontitis, which is a chronic infection and disease of the periodontium, is a significant global health burden and is linked to other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols present in a wide variety of plant-based foods, herbs, and botanicals have been shown to exert antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and reduced osteoclast and alveolar bone loss activities in animal models of periodontitis. Polyphenol-containing beverages and foods especially green tea and its active catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate, cranberries, pomegranates, and fruit and vegetable extracts have reported bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity against microbial species such as P. gingivalis and shown total bacterial burden in clinical studies. These polyphenols also exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which have the potential to impact various biological mechanisms for reducing the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The main objective of this mini-review is to focus on the mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols in improving the pathophysiology underlying chronic inflammatory diseases like periodontitis based on pre-clinical and clinical models.

Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Rocha DMUP; Caldas APS; da Silva BP; Hermsdorff HHM; Alfenas RCG.
Journal: 
Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition. 1-13. 10.1080/10408398.2018.1430019 [doi]
Abstract: 

The metabolic effects of cranberry and blueberry consumption on glycemic control have been evaluated in vitro and in animal models as well as in human studies, although findings have not been systematically reviewed yet. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out of relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in order to assess the effect of berries (blueberry and cranberry) consumption on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) glycemic control. Some evidences were also discussed on the anti-diabetic mechanisms exerted by berries polyphenols. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases: LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Three authors independently searched and extracted RCTs in which the effect of berries (cranberry or blueberry) consumption on T2DM glycemic control was assessed. A total of 7 RCTs, involving 270 adults with type 2 diabetes were included. Despite the heterogeneity of the administration forms (in natura, dried, extract, preparations - juice), dosage, duration of the intervention and type of population of the studies involving these two berries some studies highlight the potential benefit of berries, especially of blueberry, on glucose metabolism in T2DM subjects. Daily cranberry juice (240 mL) consumption for 12 weeks and blueberry extract or powder supplementation (9.1 to 9.8 mg of anthocyanins, respectively) for 8 to 12 weeks showed a beneficial effect on glucose control in T2DM subjects. Those results indicate a promising use of these berries in T2DM management; although more studies are required to better understand the mechanisms involved.

Effects of Superfoods on Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome: a Systematic Review of Human Intervention Trials.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
van den Driessche JJ; Plat J; Mensink RP.
Journal: 
Food & Function. 9(4):1944-1966
Abstract: 

Functional foods can be effective in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and subsequently the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. More recently, however, another term was introduced to describe foods with additional health benefits: "superfoods", for which, to date, no generally accepted definition exists. Nonetheless, their consumption might contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, for example due to the presence of potentially bioactive compounds. This review provides an overview of controlled human intervention studies with foods described as "superfoods" and their effects on metabolic syndrome parameters. First, an Internet search was performed to identify foods described as superfoods. For these superfoods, controlled human intervention trials were identified until April 2017 investigating the effects of superfood consumption on metabolic syndrome parameters: waist circumference or BMI, blood pressure, or concentrations of HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol or glucose. Seventeen superfoods were identified, including a total of 113 intervention trials: blueberries (8 studies), cranberries (8), goji berries (3), strawberries (7), chili peppers (3), garlic (21), ginger (10), chia seed (5), flaxseed (22), quinoa (1), cocoa (16), maca (1), spirulina (7), wheatgrass (1), acai berries (0), hemp seed (0) and bee pollen (0). Overall, only limited evidence was found for the effects of the foods described as superfoods on metabolic syndrome parameters, since results were not consistent or the number of controlled intervention trials was limited. The inconsistencies might have been related to intervention-related factors, such as duration or dose. Furthermore, conclusions may be different if other health benefits are considered.

Effects of Unextruded and Extruded Cranberry Pomace on Selected Metabolic Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Bajerska J; Chmurzynska A; Mildner-Szkudlarz S; Drzymala-Czyz S; Gornas P; Waskiewicz A; Muzsik A; Podgorski T; Nowaczyk P; Wozniewicz M.
Journal: 
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 17(1):91-100
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: The effects of un-extruded (UCP) and extruded cranberry pomace (ECP) on fecal fat excretion, liver index, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and inhibition of oxidative stress due to a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats were studied. METHODS: The Wistar rats for 8 weeks received one of the four diets: (1) control (modified the American Institute of Nutrition: AIN based diet containing 7% fat), (2) HFD (AIN based diet containing 30% fat), (3) HFD with 3% un-extruded (UCP) and (4) HFD with 3% (ECP). RESULTS: Both UCP and ECP significantly improved the plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid per- oxidation in rats fed a HFD. However, only the addition of 3% UCP into the HFD significantly increased the fecal lipid excretion and considerably decreased serum triglycerides level in rats. CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is needed to determine the role of an individual components present in UCP and ECP in the improvement of metabolic conditions observed in the current study.

Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti- Beta -Amyloid Aggregation.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Ma H, Johnson SL, Liu W, DaSilva NA, Meschwitz S, Dain JA, Seeram NP
Journal: 
International Journal of Molecular Sciences;19(2):461.
Abstract: 

Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as beta -amyloid (A beta ). Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1) total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2) free radical (DPPH) scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO) trapping, (3) anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models), (4) anti-A beta aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models), and, (5) murine microglia (BV-2) neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE) were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF) and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE) extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 micro g/mL) showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 micro g/mL) inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced A beta fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 micro g/mL) reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-A beta fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.

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