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Cardiovascular Health & Anti-inflammatory Benefits: Animal

Displaying 11 - 20 of 23

Cranberry proanthocyanidins improve the gut mucous layer morphology and function in mice receiving elemental enteral nutrition

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Pierre JF, Heneghan AF, Feliciano RP, Shanmuganayagam D, Roenneburg DA, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Kudsk KA
Journal: 
JPEN-Parenter Enter 37(3):401-9
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Lamina propria Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, stimulate goblet cell (GC) proliferation and MUC2 production, which protect the intestinal mucosa. Elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) reduces tissue IL-4 and impairs barrier function. Proanthocyanidins (PACs) stimulate oral mucin levels. We hypothesized that adding PAC to EEN would maintain Th2-without stimulating Th1-cytokines and preserve luminal MUC2 vs EEN alone. Materials and
METHODS: Seventy mice were randomized to 5 diet groups-standard chow, intragastric EEN, or EEN with lowPAC, midPAC (50 mg), or highPAC (100 mg PAC/kg BW)-for 5 days, starting 2 days after gastric cannulation. Ileal tissue was analyzed for histomorphology and the cytokines IL-4, IL-13, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF- by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MUC2 was measured in intestinal washes.
RESULTS: EEN lowered IL-13 (P CONCLUSIONS: Adding PACs to EEN reverses impaired intestinal barrier function following EEN by improving the gut mucous layer and function through increased GC size and number as well as levels of MUC2 and ileal IL-4 and IL-13.

Lingonberry, cranberry and blackcurrant juices affect mRNA

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Kivimaki AS, Ehlers PI, Siltari A, Turpeinen AM,
Journal: 
J Funct Food 4;496-503
Abstract: 

Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds affect low-grade inflammation related to cardiovascular diseases among other positive health effects. Cardioprotective actions are
mainly due to enhanced endothelial function and production of nitric oxide (NO).We investigated vascular anti-inflammatory effects of cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) juices given as drinking fluid ad
libitum to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a widely used model of human hypertension, in an 8 week ntervention study. The animals were sacrificed, the aortas cleaned and RNA was extracted. cDNA was prepared for real-time PCR and blood was collected for biochemical
analyses. The mRNA expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and P-selectin were
significantly reduced in the cranberry and lingonberry groups. These findings suggest that cranberry and lingonberry cold-compressed juices have anti-inflammatory and antiatherothrombotic actions in long-term treatment of SHR.

Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Cheshchevik VT, Lapshina EA, Dremza IK, Zabrodskaya SV, Reiter RJ, Prokopchik NI, Zavodnik IB
Journal: 
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2012.04.007
Abstract: 

In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage hasmarkedly increased. The aim of the presentworkwas to carry out further research into themechanism(s) of livermitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg bodyweight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate
and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, pb0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxicmitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of livermitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance ofmitochondria. The activities of themitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl4 displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl4, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of
the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg)
plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of
toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage.

Effects of freeze-dried cranberry powder on serum lipids and inflammatory markers in lipopolysaccharide treated rats fed an atherogenic diet

Posted: 
January 22, 2012
Authors: 
Kim MJ, Ohn J, Kim JH, Kwak HK
Journal: 
Nutr Res Pract 5(5):404-11
Abstract: 

This study investigated the effects of freeze-dried cranberry powder on anti-inflammation and lipid profiles of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet for 6 weeks. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats (6-weeks-old) were equally divided into the following five groups: 1) normal diet group + saline (NC); 2) atherogenic diet + saline (HFC); 3) atherogenic diet + LPS (HL); 4) atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry power + LPS (C5); 5) atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry power + LPS (C10). LPS (0.5 mg/kg) was injected into the abdominal cavities of rats 18 hours prior to sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, we measured serum lipid profiles as well as levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide (NO), and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. The mean serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level in C5 rats was significantly higher than that in NC and HL rats (P

Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend

Posted: 
January 22, 2012
Authors: 
Auger C, Kim JH, Trinh S, Chataigneau T, Popken AM, Schini-Kerth VB.
Journal: 
Food Funct 2(5):245-50
Abstract: 

Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content.

Insights into the molecular mechanisms of the anti-atherogenic actions of flavonoids in normal and obese mice.

Posted: 
January 22, 2012
Authors: 
Shabrova EV, Tarnopolsky O, Singh AP, Plutzky J, Vorsa N, Quadro L.
Journal: 
PLoS One 6(10):e24634
Abstract: 

Obesity is a major and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and it is strongly associated with the development of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Flavonoids, a diverse group of polyphenol compounds of plant origin widely distributed in human diet, have been reported to have numerous health benefits, although the mechanisms underlying these effects have remained obscure. We analyzed the effects of chronic dietary supplementation with flavonoids extracted from cranberry (FLS) in normal and obese C57/BL6 mice compared to mice maintained on the same diets lacking FLS. Obese mice supplemented with flavonoids showed an amelioration of insulin resistance and plasma lipid profile, and a reduction of visceral fat mass. We provide evidence that the adiponectin-AMPK pathway is the main mediator of the improvement of these metabolic disorders. In contrast, the reduced plasma atherogenic cholesterol observed in normal mice under FLS seems to be due to a downregulation of the hepatic cholesterol synthesis pathway. Overall, we demonstrate for the first time that the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of flavonoids are determined by the metabolic state.

Effects of ginger and cranberry

Posted: 
December 16, 2010
Authors: 
Liburt NR, McKeever KH, Streltsova JM, Franke WC, Gordon ME, Filho HCM, Horohov DW, Rosen RT, Ho CT, Singh AP, Vorsa N.
Journal: 
Comp Exerc Physiol 6(4):157-169
Abstract: 

This study hypothesized that ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extracts would alter the physiological response to exercise as well as markers of muscle damage, and mRNA expression for the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interferon-g (IFN-g) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) after an exhaustive bout of exercise in horses. Nine unfit Standardbred mares (age 10 ^ 4 years, ,450 kg) completed three graded exercise tests (GXTs) in a crossover design, where they were assigned to the initial order of treatment in a randomized fashion. The GXTs were conducted between 07.00 and 12.00 hours, 7 days apart. Mares received either water (2 l), cranberry (,30 g in 2 l of water) or ginger (,30 g in 2 l of water) extract 1 h prior to testing. Blood samples were taken prior to dosing (pre-exercise), at the end of each step of the GXT, at the end of the exercise and at 2, 5 and 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 24 h post-GXT. Plasma total protein (TP) concentration and haematocrit (HCT) were analysed immediately following the tests. Analysis of creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was done commercially. There was no effect of treatment (P > 0.05) on VO2max, run-time to fatigue, core temperature, TP or HCT. CK was substantially elevated (P 0.05) was noted in AST. A slight increase (P 0.05) was seen on IL-6 mRNA expression. Results suggest that cranberry extract blunts the upregulation and expression of TNF-a mRNA, while ginger extract reduces cardiovascular recovery time in horses completing a short, exhaustive bout of exercise.

Effects of cranberry powder on serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Kim MJ, Jung HN, Kim KN, Kwak HK
Journal: 
Nutr Res Pract 2(3):158-64
Abstract: 

This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% corn oil (control), atherogenic diet group with 5% corn oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate (HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C2), and atherogenic plus 5% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C5), and respective diet and water were fed daily for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the serum lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), plasma phenolics content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were examined. Total phenolic compound and total flavonoid levels in freeze-dried cranberry powder were 9.94 mg/g and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different for cranberry powder treatment, but serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Plasma FRAP value tended to be increased by cranberry powder treatment though there was no significant difference. Plasma total phenol concentrations and SOD activities were not significantly different among all groups. Serum protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were significantly decreased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Overall results suggested that freeze-dried cranberry powder might have the serum lipid improving effect, as well as antioxidative effect demonstrated by its protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation.

Cranberry juice improved antioxidant status without affecting bone quality in orchidectomized male rats.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Villarreal A, Stoecker BJ, Garcia C, Garcia K, Rios R, Gonzales C, Mandadi K, Faraji B, Patil BS, Deyhim F.
Journal: 
Phytomedicine 14(12):815-20
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: We reported that drinking citrus juice improves bone quality in orchidectomized senescent male rats. Because cranberry juice, like citrus, is rich in nutrients and phenolic compounds, beneficial effects of citrus juice might also be seen with cranberry juice. An experiment evaluated effect of drinking cranberry juice on bone quality in orchidectomized rats.

METHODS: Thirty-two 1-year-old male rats were randomized to two groups: a sham-control group (n=8) and an orchidectomized group (n=24). The treatments for the 4 months duration of the study were SHAM, orchidectomy (ORX), ORX+drinking either 27% or 45% cranberry juice concentrate added to drinking water. At the termination of the study, the rats were euthanized, blood was collected for plasma antioxidant status and IGF-I. The femur, tibia and the 4th lumbar were evaluated for bone quality. Total calcium and magnesium concentration in the femurs were also evaluated.

RESULTS: ORX did not affect red blood cell (RBC)-induced hemolysis despite lowering (p

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry juice increases plasma antioxidant status without affecting bone quality.

Cranberry juice increases antioxidant status without affecting cholesterol homeostasis in orchidectomized rats.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Deyhim F, Patil BS, Villarreal A, Lopez E, Garcia K, Rios R, Garcia C, Gonzales C, Mandadi K.
Journal: 
J Med Food 10(1):49-53
Abstract: 

Oxidative stress and hypogonadism are linked to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in males. The objective of this research was to delineate whether drinking cranberry juice for 4 months affects antioxidant capacity and lipid profile in orchidectomized rats. Thirty-two 1-year-old male rats were randomized to two groups: a sham-control group (n = 8) and an orchidectomized group (n = 24). The orchidectomized group was divided into three groups of eight and assigned to one of the following treatments: orchidectomy, orchidectomy plus 27% cranberry juice, and orchidectomy plus 45% cranberry juice. At 120 days after initiation of the study, all rats were killed, blood was collected, and plasma was harvested for total antioxidant status, malondialdehyde, nitrate + nitrite, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver, and concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in liver and in plasma. Orchidectomy depressed (P

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