Back to top

Search

Cardiovascular Health & Anti-inflammatory Benefits: Human

Displaying 11 - 20 of 22

Low-energy cranberry juice decreases lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Basu A, Betts NM, Ortiz J, Simmons B, Wu M, Lyons TJ
Journal: 
Nutr Res 31(3):190-6
Abstract: 

Cranberries, high in polyphenols, have been associated with several cardiovascular health benefits, although limited clinical trials have been reported to validate these findings. We tested the hypothesis that commercially available low-energy cranberry juice (Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc, Lakeville-Middleboro, Mass) will decrease surrogate risk factors of cardiovascular disease, such as lipid oxidation, inflammation, and dyslipidemia, in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants identified with metabolic syndrome (n = 15-16/group) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: cranberry juice (480 mL/day) or placebo (480 mL/day) for 8 weeks. Anthropometrics, blood pressure measurements, dietary analyses, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screen and 8 weeks of the study. Cranberry juice significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 +/- 0.6 to 2.2 +/- 0.4 mumol/L [means +/- SD], P

Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease

Posted: 
January 22, 2012
Authors: 
Dohadwala MM, Holbrook M, Hamburg NM, Shenouda SM, Chung WB, Titas M, Kluge MA, Wang N, Palmisano J, Milbury PE, Blumberg JB, Vita JA
Journal: 
Am J Clin Nutr 93(5):934-40
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease.
DESIGN: We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo (n = 15) and a chronic placebo-controlled crossover study (n = 44) that examined the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease.
RESULTS: In the chronic crossover study, subjects with coronary heart disease consumed a research preparation of double-strength cranberry juice (54% juice, 835 mg total polyphenols, and 94 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo beverage (480 mL/d) for 4 wk each with a 2-wk rest period between beverages. Beverage order was randomly assigned, and participants refrained from consuming other flavonoid-containing beverages during the study. Vascular function was measured before and after each beverage, with follow-up testing >=12 h after consumption of the last beverage. Mean (+/-SD) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of central aortic stiffness, decreased after cranberry juice (8.3 +/- 2.3 to 7.8 +/- 2.2 m/s) in contrast with an increase after placebo (8.0 +/- 2.0 to 8.4 +/- 2.8 m/s) (P = 0.003). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, digital pulse amplitude tonometry, blood pressure, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity did not change. In the uncontrolled pilot study, we observed improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (7.7 +/- 2.9% to 8.7 +/- 3.1%, P = 0.01) and digital pulse amplitude tonometry ratio (0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.23 +/- 0.16, P = 0.001) 4 h after consumption of a single 480-mL portion of cranberry juice.
CONCLUSIONS: Chronic cranberry juice consumption reduced carotid femoral pulse wave velocity-a clinically relevant measure of arterial stiffness. The uncontrolled pilot study suggested an acute benefit; however, no chronic effect on measures of endothelial vasodilator function was found. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00553904.

Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Pedersen CB, Kyle J, Jenkinson AM, Gardner PT, McPhail DB, Duthie GG
Journal: 
Eur J Clin Nutr 54(5):405-8
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60-120 min. This corresponded to a 30% increase in vitamin C and a small but significant increase in total phenols in plasma. Consumption of blueberry juice had no such effects. CONCLUSION: The increase in plasma antioxidant capacity following consumption of cranberry juice could mainly be accounted for by an increase in vitamin C rather than phenolics. This also accounted for the lack of an effect of the phenolic-rich but vitamin C-low blueberry juice.

Changes in plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in men after short-term cranberry juice consumption.

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lamarche B, Couillard C
Journal: 
Metabolism 54(7):856-61
Abstract: 

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is closely implicated in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), and thus, reducing LDL susceptibility to oxidation with antoxidants could be of importance in CVD prevention. Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds found in a large selection of fruits and vegetables, have been characterized as having a strong antioxidant potential, and intake of flavonoid-rich foods has been related to decreased morbidity and mortality from heart disease. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of flavonoid-rich cranberry juice supplementation on plasma lipoprotein levels and LDL oxidation. For that purpose, 21 men (age +/- SD, 38 +/- 8 years) were enrolled in a 14-day intervention and instructed to drink cranberry juice 7 mL/kg body weight per day. Physical and metabolic measures including plasma lipid and oxidized LDL (OxLDL) concentrations as well as antioxidant capacity were performed before and after the intervention. At baseline, we found that plasma OxLDL levels were significantly associated with waist circumference ( r = 0.47, P = .0296) as well as plasma triglyceride ( r = 0.68, P = .0007) and apolipoprotein B ( r = 0.91, P

Favourable impact of low-calorie cranberry juice consumption on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C
Journal: 
Br J Nutr 96(2):357-64
Abstract: 

A low HDL-cholesterol concentration is an independent risk factor for CVD. Studies have suggested that flavonoid consumption may be cardioprotective, and a favourable impact on circulating HDL-cholesterol concentrations has been suggested to partially explain this association. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of consuming increasing daily doses of low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) on the plasma lipid profile of abdominally obese men. For that purpose, thirty men (mean age 51 (SD 10) years) consumed increasing doses of CJC during three successive periods of 4 weeks (125 ml/d, 250 ml/d, 500 ml/d). Before the study and after each phase, we measured changes in physical and metabolic variables. We noted a significant increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration after the consumption of 250 ml CJC/d (+8.6+/-14.0% v. 0 ml CJC/d; P

Low-calorie cranberry juice supplementation reduces plasma oxidized LDL and cell adhesion molecule concentrations in men.

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C
Journal: 
Br J Nutr 99(2):352-9
Abstract: 

Elevated circulating concentrations of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) and cell adhesion molecules are considered to be relevant markers of oxidative stress and endothelial activation which are implicated in the development of CVD. On the other hand, it has been suggested that dietary flavonoid consumption may be cardioprotective through possible favourable impacts on LDL particle oxidation and endothelial activation. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of the daily consumption of low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail on plasma OxLDL, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin concentrations in men. Thirty men (mean age 51 (sd 10) years) were recruited and asked to consume increasing daily doses of cranberry juice cocktail (125, 250 and 500 ml/d) over three successive periods of 4 weeks. Plasma OxLDL and adhesion molecule concentrations were measured by ELISA before and after each phase. We noted a significant decrease in plasma OxLDL concentrations following the intervention (P

Plasma matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels are reduced following low-calorie cranberry juice supplementation in men

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B and Couillard C
Journal: 
J Am Coll Nutr 28(6):694-701
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, also known as gelatinase B, is implicated in the development of hypertension and atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability to rupture, an important step in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested that flavonoid consumption may be cardioprotective, and its favorable impact on circulating MMP-9 concentrations could partly explain this association. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of consuming increasing daily doses of low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) on plasma MMP-9 concentrations of abdominally obese men.
METHODS: Thirty men (mean age +/- SD: 51 +/- 10 years) consumed increasing doses of CJC during 3 successive periods of 4 weeks (weeks 1-4: 125 ml/day, weeks 5-8: 250 ml/day, and weeks 9-12: 500 ml/day). Before the study and after each phase, a series of physical and metabolic variables were measured, including MMP-9.
RESULTS: We found that CJC supplementation significantly decreased plasma MMP-9 concentrations (mean +/- SEM: -36% +/- 9%, p CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that daily CJC consumption is associated with a decrease in plasma MMP-9 concentrations in abdominally obese men. We hypothesize that polyphenolic compounds from cranberries may be responsible for this effect, supporting the notion that the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods can exert cardioprotective effects.

Cranberries and cranberry products: powerful in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo sources of antioxidants.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Vinson JA, Bose P, Proch J, Al Kharrat H, Samman N
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 56(14):5884-91
Abstract: 

Cranberry products and especially cranberry juice (CJ) have been consumed for health reasons primarily due to their effect on urinary tract infections. We investigated the quantity of both free and total (after hydrolysis) phenolic antioxidants in cranberry products using the Folin assay. The order of amount of total polyphenols in cranberry foods on a fresh weight basis was as follows: dried > frozen > sauce > jellied sauce. On a serving size basis for all cranberry products, the order was as follows: frozen > 100% juice > dried > 27% juice > sauce > jellied sauce. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a major source of sugar consumption in the U.S. and contains both glucose and fructose, potential mediators of oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of the consumption of HFCS and ascorbate with CJ antioxidants or without CJ (control) given to 10 normal individuals after an overnight fast. Plasma antioxidant capacity, glucose, triglycerides, and ascorbate were measured 6 times over 7 h after the consumption of a single 240 mL serving of the two different beverages. The control HFCS caused a slight decrease in plasma antioxidant capacity at all time points and thus an oxidative stress in spite of the presence of ascorbate. CJ produced an increase in plasma antioxidant capacity that was significantly greater than control HFCS at all time points. Postprandial triglycerides, due to fructose in the beverages, were mainly responsible for the oxidative stress and were significantly correlated with the oxidative stress as measured by the antioxidant capacity. Cranberries are an excellent source of high quality antioxidants and should be examined in human supplementation studies.

Effect of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with Type 2 diabetes

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Lee IT, Chan YC, Lin CW, Lee WJ, Sheu WH
Journal: 
Diabet Med 25(12):1473-7
Abstract: 

AIM: To examine the effect of cranberry ingestion on lipid profiles in Type 2 diabetic patients taking oral glucose-lowering drugs.

METHODS: Thirty Type 2 diabetic subjects (16 males and 14 females; mean age 65 +/- 1 years) who were taking oral glucose-lowering medication regularly were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Changes in lipid profiles, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), glycaemic control, components of the metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein (CRP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were assessed after cranberry or placebo treatment for 12 weeks.

RESULTS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased significantly in the cranberry group (from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.005) and the decrease was significantly greater than that in the placebo group (-0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry supplements are effective in reducing atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles, including LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels, as well as total : HDL cholesterol ratio, and have a neutral effect on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetic subjects taking oral glucose-lowering agents.

The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers.

Posted: 
November 2, 2010
Authors: 
Duthie SJ, Jenkinson AM, Crozier A, Mullen W, Pirie L, Kyle J, Yap LS, Christen P, Duthie GG
Journal: 
Eur J Nutr 45(2):113-22
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease and cancer. This has been ascribed in part to antioxidants in these foods inactivating reactive oxygen species involved in initiation or progression of these diseases. Non-nutritive anthocyanins are present in significant amounts in the human diet. However, it is unclear whether they have health benefits in humans.

AIM: To determine whether daily consumption of anthocyanin-rich cranberry juice could alter plasma antioxidant activity and biomarkers of oxidative stress.

METHODS: 20 healthy female volunteers aged 18-40 y were recruited. Subjects consumed 750 ml/day of either cranberry juice or a placebo drink for 2 weeks. Fasted blood and urine samples were obtained over 4 weeks. The total phenol, anthocyanin and catechin content of the supplements and plasma were measured. Anthocyanin glycosides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). Vitamin C, homocysteine (tHcy) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured by HPLC. Total antioxidant ability was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry and by the FRAP assay. Plasma total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) were measured. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in erythrocytes. Urine was collected for analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) by ELISA. Endogenous and induced DNA damage were measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) in lymphocytes.

RESULTS: Vitamin C, total phenol, anthocyanin and catechin concentrations and FRAP and ESR values were significantly higher in the cranberry juice compared with the placebo. Cyanidin and peonidin glycosides comprised the major anthocyanin metabolites [peonidin galactoside (29.2%) > cyanidin arabinoside (26.1%) > cyanidin galactoside (21.7%) > peonidin arabinoside (17.5%) > peonidin glucoside (4.1%) > cyanidin glucoside (1.4 %)]. Plasma vitamin C increased significantly (P

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry juice consumption did not alter blood or cellular antioxidant status or several biomarkers of lipid status pertinent to heart disease. Similarly, cranberry juice had no effect on basal or induced oxidative DNA damage. These results show the importance of distinguishing between the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of dietary anthocyanins in relation to human health.

Pages