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Cardiovascular Health & Anti-inflammatory Benefits: In-Vitro

Displaying 31 - 38 of 38

Composition of a chemopreventive proanthocyanidin-rich fraction from cranberry fruits responsible for the inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity.

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Kandil FE, Smith MA, Rogers RB, Pépin MF, Song LL, Pezzuto JM, Seigler DS
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 50(5):1063-9
Abstract: 

Phenolics from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) were fractionated into a series of proanthocyanidins and other flavonoid compounds by vacuum chromatography on a hydrophilic, porous polyvinylic gel permeation polymer. Antioxidant activity was not restricted to a particular class of components in the extract but was found in a wide range of the fractions. Significant chemopreventive activity, as indicated by an ornithine decarboxylase assay, was localized in one particular proanthocyanidin-rich fraction from the initial fractionation procedure. Further fractionation of the active anticarcinogenic fraction revealed the following components: seven flavonoids, mainly quercetin, myricetin, the corresponding 3-O-glycosides, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and dimers of both gallocatechin and epigallocatechin types, and a series of oligomeric proanthocyanidins.

In vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), plums (Prunus spp.), prunes (Prunus spp.), strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa), cherries (Malpighia punicifolia), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and apples (Malus sylvestris)

Posted: 
November 17, 2010
Authors: 
Kahlon TS, Smith GE
Journal: 
Food Chem 100(3):1182-1187
Abstract: 

The in vitro binding of bile acids by blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), plums (Prunus spp.), prunes (Prunus spp.), strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa), cherries (Malpighia punicifolia) cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and apples (Malus sylvestris) was determined using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two blank incubations were conducted to testing various fresh raw fruits on an equal dry matter basis. Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter (DM), total dietary fibre (TDF) and total polysaccharides (PCH) basis was for blueberries 7%, 47% and 25%; plums 6%, 53% and 50%; prunes 5%, 50% and 14%; strawberries 5%, 23% and 15%; cherries 5%, 37% and 5%; cranberries 4%, 12% and 7%; and apple 1%, 7% and 5%, respectively. Bile acid binding on DM basis for blueberries was significantly (P plums=prunes=strawberries=cherries=cranberries > apples as indicated by their bile acid binding on DM basis. The variability in bile acid binding between the fruits tested maybe related to their phytonutrients (antioxidants, polyphenols, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, catechins), structure, hydrophobicity of undigested fractions, anionic or cationic nature of the metabolites produced during digestion or their interaction with active binding sites. Inclusion of blueberries, plums, prunes, strawberries, cherries and cranberries in our daily diet as health promoting fruits should be encouraged. Animal studies are planned to validate in vitro bile acid binding of fruits observed herein to their potential of atherosclerosis amelioration (lipid and lipoprotein lowering) and cancer prevention (excretion of toxic metabolites).

Cranberry extract inhibits low density lipoprotein oxidation

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Wilson T, Porcari JP, Harbin D
Journal: 
Life Sci 62(24):A381-6
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice consumption is often used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but the effect of cranberry juice on heart disease has not been investigated. We evaluated how a cranberry extract containing 1,548 mg gallic acid equivalents/liter (initial pH=2.50) affected low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation induced by 10 micromolar cupric sulfate. When LDL oxidation took place in the presence of diluted cranberry extracts, the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LDL electrophoretic mobility were reduced. LDL electrophoretic migration was also reduced when the cranberry extract had a pH of 7.00 prior to dilution. This study suggests that cranberry extracts have the ability to inhibit the oxidative modification of LDL particles.

Potential of cranberry-based herbal synergies for diabetes and hypertension management

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Apostolidis E, Kwon YI, Shetty K
Journal: 
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 15(3):433-41
Abstract: 

Water soluble cranberry-based phytochemical combinations with oregano, rosemary, and Rhodiola rosea were evaluated for total phenolic content, related antioxidant activity and inhibition of diabetes management-related alpha -glucosidase, pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibition, and hypertension-related ACE-I inhibitory activities. Water extracts of oregano had 114.9 mg/g DW of phenolics which was highest among all the extracts tested, whereas the 75% cranberry with 25% oregano combinations had the highest phenolics (38.9 mg/g DW) among all the combinations tested. The water extracts of oregano had the highest DPPH radical inhibition activity (73.6 %), whereas among combinations the 75% cranberry and 25% oregano had the highest DPPH radical inhibition activity (50.8 %). These results indicated a correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The water extracts of pure Rhodiola rosea had the highest alpha -glucosidase inhibition, whereas the 75% cranberry and 25% Rhodiola rosea combination had the highest inhibition among the combinations. In the case of alpha -amylase inhibition the water extracts of Rhodiola rosea had the highest inhibition, whereas the 75% cranberry with 25% Rhodiola rosea combination had the highest inhibition among the combinations. All the water extracts tested indicated that they had anti-ACE-I inhibitory activity. More specifically, among the water extracts 100% cranberry had the highest ACE-I inhibitory activity and among the combination the 75% cranberry with 25% rosemary had the highest ACE-I inhibitory activity. The analysis of alpha -glucosidase,alpha -amylase, and ACE-I inhibitory activities suggested that inhibition depend on the phenolic profile of each unique extract and by bringing together synergistic combinations to cranberry, health beneficial functionality was enhanced. This enhanced functionality in terms of high alpha -glucosidase and alpha -amylase inhibitory activities indicate the potential for diabetes management, and high ACE-I inhibitory activity indicates the potential for hypertension management.

Fruit extracts antagonize A beta or DA-induced deficits in Ca2+ flux in M1-transfected COS-7 cells

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Joseph JA, Fisher DR, Carey AN
Journal: 
JAD 6(4):403-411
Abstract: 

Evidence suggests that there is a selective sensitivity to oxidative stress (OSS) among muscarinic receptor (MAChR) subtypes with M1, M2 and M4 showing > OSS than M3 or M5 subtypes in transfected COS-7 cells. This may be important in determining the regional specificity in neuronal aging and Alzheimer disease (AD). We assessed the effectiveness of blueberry (BB) and other high antioxidant (HA) fruit extracts (boysenberry, BY; cranberry, CB; black currant, BC; strawberry, SB; dried plums, DP; and grape, GR) on the toxic effects of Abeta 25-35 (100 microM, 24 hrs) and DA (1 mM, 4 hrs) on calcium buffering (Recovery) following oxotremorine (750 microM) -induced depolarization in M1AChR-transfected COS-7 cells, and on cell viability following DA (4 hrs) exposure. The extracts showed differential levels of Recovery protection in comparisons to the non-supplemented controls that was dependent upon whether DA or Abeta was used as the pretreatment. Interestingly, assessments of DA-induced decrements in viability revealed that all of the extracts had some protective effects. These findings suggest that the putative toxic effects of Abeta or DA might be reduced by HA fruit extracts.

Anti-angiogenic property of edible berries

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Roy S, Khanna S, Alessio HM, Vider J, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Sen CK
Journal: 
Free Radic Res 36(9):1023-31
Abstract: 

Recent studies show that edible berries may have potent chemopreventive properties. Anti-angiogenic approaches to prevent and treat cancer represent a priority area in investigative tumor biology. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role for the vascularization of tumors. The vasculature in adult skin remains normally quiescent. However, skin retains the capacity for brisk initiation of angiogenesis during inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis and skin cancers. We sought to test the effects of multiple berry extracts on inducible VEGF expression by human HaCaT keratinocytes. Six berry extracts (wild blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, elderberry, raspberry seed, and strawberry) and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) were studied. The extracts and uptake of their constituents by HaCaT were studied using a multi-channel HPLC-CoulArray approach. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by ORAC. Cranberry, elderberry and raspberry seed samples were observed to possess comparable ORAC values. The antioxidant capacity of these samples was significantly lower than that of the other samples studied. The ORAC values of strawberry powder and GSPE were higher than cranberry, elderberry or raspberry seed but significantly lower than the other samples studied. Wild bilberry and blueberry extracts possessed the highest ORAC values. Each of the berry samples studied significantly inhibited both H2O2 as well as TNF alpha induced VEGF expression by the human keratinocytes. This effect was not shared by other antioxidants such as alpha-tocopherol or GSPE but was commonly shared by pure flavonoids. Matrigel assay using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells showed that edible berries impair angiogenesis.

Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 50(25):7449-54
Abstract: 

Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

Cranberries inhibit LDL oxidation and induce LDL receptor expression in hepatocytes

Posted: 
November 2, 2010
Authors: 
Chu YF, Liu RH
Journal: 
Life Sci 77(15):1892-901
Abstract: 

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in most industrialized countries. Cranberries were evaluated for their potential roles in dietary prevention of CVD. Cranberry extracts were found to have potent antioxidant capacity preventing in vitro LDL oxidation with increasing delay and suppression of LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of 100 g cranberries against LDL oxidation was equivalent to 1000 mg vitamin C or 3700 mg vitamin E. Cranberry extracts also significantly induced expression of hepatic LDL receptors and increased intracellular uptake of cholesterol in HepG2 cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that cranberries could enhance clearance of excessive plasma cholesterol in circulation. We propose that additive or synergistic effects of phytochemicals in cranberries are responsible for the inhibition of LDL oxidation, the induced expression of LDL receptors, and the increased uptake of cholesterol in hepatocytes.

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