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Cardiovascular Health & Anti-inflammatory Benefits: In-Vitro

Displaying 11 - 20 of 40

The cranberry flavonoids PAC DP-9 and quercetin aglycone induce cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest and increase cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Wang Y, Han A, Chen E, Singh RK, Chichester CO, Moore RG, Singh AP, Vorsa N
Journal: 
Int J Oncol 46(5):1924-34
Abstract: 

Cranberry flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols), in addition to their antioxidant properties, have been shown to possess potential in vitro activity against several cancers. However, the difficulty of isolating cranberry compounds has largely limited anticancer research to crude fractions without well-defined compound composition. In this study, individual cranberry flavonoids were isolated to the highest purity achieved so far using gravity and high performance column chromatography and LC-MS characterization. MTS assay indicated differential cell viability reduction of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells treated with individual cranberry flavonoids. Treatment with quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, which exhibited the strongest activity, induced apoptosis, led to caspase-3 activation and PARP deactivation, and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and western blot study revealed reduced expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in PAC DP-9 treated SKOV-3 cells. In addition, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9 deactivated MAPK-ERK pathway, induced downregulation of cyclin D1, DNA-PK, phospho-histone H3 and upregulation of p21, and arrested cell cycle progression. Overall, this study demonstrates promising in vitro cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties of two newly characterized cranberry flavonoids, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, against ovarian cancer cells.

Inhibition of interleukin 1beta-stimulated interleukin-6 production by cranberry components in human gingival epithelial cells: effects on nuclear factor B and activator protein 1 activation pathways

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Tipton DA, Carter TB, Dabbous MKh
Journal: 
J Periodontal Res 49(4):437-47
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In periodontitis, gingival epithelial cells can produce interleukin (IL)-6, a regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, in response to IL-1beta. IL-1beta regulates cytokine expression via signaling pathways, including nuclear factor (NF)-B and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein (AP)-1. Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) inhibit IL-1beta-stimulated IL-6 production, but specific mechanisms are unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine effects of cranberry PACs on NF-B and MAPK/AP-1 activation of IL-1beta-stimulated IL-6 production in gingival epithelial cells.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), rich in PACs, was derived from cranberry juice. Human gingival epithelial cells [Smulow-Glickman (S-G)] were incubated with IL-1beta in the presence or absence of NDM or inhibitors of NF-B, [nemo-binding domain (NBD) peptide] or AP-1 (SP600125), and IL-6 levels were measured by ELISA. Effects of NDM on IL-1beta-activated NF-B and AP-1 and phosphorylated intermediates in both pathways were measured in cell extracts via binding to specific oligonucleotides and specific sandwich ELISAs, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons.

RESULTS: IL-1beta (> 0.1 nm) caused a time- and dose-dependent stimulation of S-G epithelial cell IL-6 production (p

CONCLUSION: In S-G epithelial cells, IL-1beta appeared to upregulate IL-6 production via activation of both NF-B and MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathways because cranberry NDM decreased nuclear levels of IL-1beta-activated NF-B (p65) and AP-1 (phospho-c-Jun) and strongly inhibited IL-6 production. Lack of inhibition of phosphorylation of IBalpha, c-Jun or ERK1/2 suggested that NDM might affect both pathways downstream from those points in S-G cells, such as ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation of IBalpha, or inhibition of nuclear activity of c-Jun and/or ERK1/2. Defining these points of inhibition precisely may help identify molecular targets of cranberry polyphenols. 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Promising results of cranberry in the prevention of oral Candida biofilms.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Girardot M, Guerineau A, Boudesocque L, Costa D, Bazinet L, Enguehard-Gueiffier C, Imbert C
Journal: 
Pathog Dis 70(3):432-9
Abstract: 

In the context of dental caries prevention by natural foodstuff sources, antifungal and antibiofilm activities of dry commercial extracts of cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) and two other red fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Malpighia punicifolia L.) were assessed on Candida albicans and Candida glabrata yeasts. When added to the culture medium, the cranberry extract displayed a significant anti-adhesion activity against Candida spp. when used at low concentrations. In addition, the pretreatment of surfaces with this extract induced an anti-adhesion activity mainly against C. glabrata yeasts and an antibiofilm activity against C. albicans. This activity was dependent on concentration, species, and strain. A phytochemical investigation bioguided by anti-adhesion tests against the two Candida species was carried out on crude cranberry juice to determine the active fractions. Three subfractions enriched in proanthocyanidins showed an anti-adhesion activity at low concentrations. This study investigated for the first time the interest of crude extracts of cranberry and cranberry juice fractions to prevent biofilms of C. glabrata. It highlighted the potency of consuming this fruit and using it as a source of anti-adhesion agents. 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

Inhibition of interleukin-17-stimulated interleukin-6 and -8 production by cranberry components in human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Tipton DA, Cho S, Zacharia N, Dabbous MK
Journal: 
J Periodontal Res 48(5):638-46
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts participate in periodontal inflammation and destruction, producing interleukin (IL)-6, a regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, and the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8. IL-17, a product of T-helper 17 cells, may play a role in periodontitis by stimulating cytokine production by gingival cells. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is rich in polyphenols, particularly proanthocyanidins, which have antioxidant and other beneficial properties. Cranberry components inhibit pro-inflammatory activities of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophages, gingival fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, but little is known of its effects on IL-17-stimulated cytokine production. The objectives were to determine the effects of IL-17 + cranberry components on IL-6 and IL-8 production by human gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, was derived from cranberry juice. Human gingival epithelial cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts were incubated with NDM (5-50 mug/mL), IL-17 (0.5-100 ng/mL), or NDM + IL-17 in serum-free medium for 6 d. IL-6 and IL-8 in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Membrane damage and viability were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase activity released into cell supernatants and activity of a mitochondrial enzyme, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons.

RESULTS: In both cell lines, IL-17 (> ~5-10 ng/mL) significantly stimulated production of IL-6 (p

CONCLUSION: Cranberry NDM inhibition of constitutive and IL-17-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells suggests that cranberry components could be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat periodontitis. 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Relationship between polyphenol content and anti-influenza viral effects of berries.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Sekizawa H, Ikuta K, Mizuta K, Takechi S, Suzutani T
Journal: 
J Sci Food Agric 93(9):2239-41
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Berries are known to have many kinds of biological activities. We focused on their antiviral effect, which has not yet been well evaluated.

RESULTS: We compared the anti-influenza viral effects of berries belonging to the genus Vaccinium - 35 species of blueberry (Vaccinium cyanococcus), the Natsuhaze (Vaccinium oldhamii), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos)- with those belonging to the genus Ribes, i.e. blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum). Only Elliott and Legacy among Northern Highbush varieties but many Rabbiteye varieties such as Austin, Baldwin, Brightblue, Festival, T-100 and Tifblue showed anti-influenza viral activity. Natsuhaze, bilberry, cranberry and blackcurrant had high antiviral effects. A relationship was observed between the antiviral effect and total polyphenol content.

CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral effects were found to differ markedly between berry species. Rabbiteye varieties tended to have higher antiviral effects than Northern, Southern and Half Highbush blueberry varieties. We also found that Natsuhaze, which has recently been harvested in Japan as a potential functional food, had an antiviral effect comparable to that of bilberry, cranberry and blackcurrant. There was a positive relationship between antiviral activity and polyphenol content, indicating the possibility that polyphenol is one of the key factors in the antiviral effects of berries. 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Bioactivities of pilot-scale extracted cranberry juice and pomace.

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Harrison JE, Oomah BD, Diarra MS, Ibarra-Alvarado C
Journal: 
J Food Process Pres 37(4):356-365
Abstract: 

Fresh cranberries were processed by two pilot-scale methods to recover juice and extracts from cranberry pomace. Press cake was extracted with three successive ethanol soaks followed by decanting in trial 1 versus one ethanol soak and solvent removal by decanting and compressing with the bladder press in trial 2. Yields and recoveries of juice, dry juice solids, press cake, press cake extractives (PCEs), polyphenolics and antioxidant capacity were determined relative to the input material of fresh cranberries or press cake. PCEs from both processes exhibited strong dose-dependant vasorelaxant effects on rat aorta rings with EC50 of 2.3-3.9 micro g/mL and Emax of 96-98%. PCEs contained three to four times the phenolic acids, tartaric esters and antioxidant activities plus five to 10 times the flavonols and anthocyanins of their respective juice powders. The polyphenolic levels were 121-142, 7-10, 9-11 and 10-19 mg equivalents of catechin, caffeic acid, quercetin and cyanidin-3-glucoside/g of extract, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the PCEs and juices were 201-296 and 64-75 mg trolox equivalents/g powder. Juice yields of 47-58% accounted for only 18-50% of the bioactives recovered from whole fruit. Sequential extraction of the press cake with 95% ethanol and removal of the extract with the bladder press favored high recoveries of polyphenolics with increased antioxidant and vasorelaxant benefits.

Cranberries and wild blueberries treated with gastrointestinal enzymes positively modify glutathione mechanisms in Caco-2 cells in vitro

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Slemmer JE, Livingston-Thomas JM, Gottschall-Pass KT, Sweeney MI
Journal: 
J Food Sci 78(6):H943-7
Abstract: 

Beneficial health effects of cranberries (CBs) and wild blueberries (BBs), such as reduced levels of oxidative stress, have been demonstrated in feeding studies. These Vaccinium berries contain high levels of flavonoids; however, the bioavailability of flavonoids is generally low. We investigated the in vitro effects of these berries on intestinal cells, focusing on mitigating oxidative stress and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS). First, we simulated the passage of CB and BB through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by treating berry homogenates to a battery of digestive enzymes. Then, Caco-2 cells, a model of small intestine epithelial uptake, were exposed to these homogenates for 60 min. Using a cell-free assay, we found that the antioxidant activity in CB homogenates was not affected by these enzymes, but that BB homogenates treated with gut enzymes had 43% lower free-radical quenching activity (P

Effects of cranberry components on human aggressive periodontitis gingival fibroblasts.

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Tipton DA, Babu JP, Dabbous MKh
Journal: 
J Periodontal Res 48(4):433-42
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) causes rapid periodontal breakdown involving AgP gingival fibroblast production of cytokines [i.e. interleukin (IL)-6, a bone metabolism regulator], and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3. Lipopolysaccharide upregulates fibroblast IL-6 and MMP-3, via transcription factors (i.e. NF-kB). Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibits lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage and normal gingival fibroblast activities, but little is known of its effects on AgP fibroblasts. Objectives of this study are to use AgP fibroblasts, to determine cytotoxicity of cranberry components or periodontopathogen (Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide +/- cranberry components, and effects of cranberry components on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NF-kB activation and IL-6 and MMP-3 production.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: AgP fibroblasts were incubated RESULTS: Short-term exposure to NDM, or lipopolysaccharide +/- NDM caused no membrane damage. NDM ( CONCLUSION: Lack of toxicity of low NDM concentrations, and its inhibition of NF-kB and MMP-3, suggest that cranberry components may regulate AgP fibroblast inflammatory responses. Distinct effects of NDM on AgP and gingival fibroblast production of IL-6 (which can have both positive and negative effects on bone metabolism) may reflect phenotypic differences in IL-6 regulation in the two cell types.

Anti-inflammatory and neuroactive properties of selected fruit extracts

Posted: 
October 30, 2012
Authors: 
Heim KC, Angers P, Léonhart S, Ritz BW
Journal: 
J Med Food 15(9):851-4
Abstract: 

Epidemiological evidence supports inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of
cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Dietary botanicals with salient health benefits include berries and leafy vegetables. Molecular pharmacology research has ascribed these benefits primarily to phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity. The current investigation sought to eluicidate pharmacologic activity of two novel preparations of berry and spinach extracts in vitro. Blueberry and cranberry exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity. In a dose-dependent manner, a proprietary mixture of cranberry and blueberry extracts inhibited inhibitor of jB kinase b, a central node in inflammatory signal transduction. A proprietary mixture of blueberry, strawberry, and spinach extracts inhibited prolyl endopeptidase, a regulator
of central neuropeptide stability and an emerging therapeutic target in neurology and psychiatry. These results indicate specific molecular targets of blended dietary plants with potential relevance to inflammation and neurological health.

Antioxidant activity of polyphenol rich fruits on human erythrocytes

Posted: 
October 30, 2012
Authors: 
Widen C, Ekholm A, Piwowar-Zali D, Rumpunen K
Journal: 
Acta Hort 926, 669-674
Abstract: 

Diets rich in fruit and vegetables promote health and delay the onset of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The benefit, especially of different berries, has been largely attributed to their content of numerous phytochemicals, and their effects in terms of antioxidant capacity are often evaluated chemically by different methods. We have instead used a highly relevant biological model, a modified CAP-e assay (Cell-based Antioxidant Protection in erythrocytes), to evaluate bioefficacy of antioxidants in Swedish berries. Extracts of twelve fruit and berries were analysed both by chemical and biological analyses: apple (Malus domestica, peel), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), purple chokeberry (Aronia x prunifolia), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), rose hips (Rosa spp.), sea buckthorn (Hippohae rhamnoides), sloe (Prunus spinosa) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Purple chokeberry, sloe and rose hips showed high antioxidant capacity in the chemical assays. Rose hips showed the highest degree of antioxidant protection also in the biological model, however, chokeberry and sloe showed medium or low protection. Furthermore, strawberry showed overall high protection in the biological assay but low antioxidant capacity in the chemical assays. The chemical and biological models showed different results and future studies of the biological model and in vivo situations are necessary.

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