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Oncology/Anti-Cancer

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Cranberry as Promising Natural Source of Potential Anticancer Agents: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Katsargyris A, Tampaki EC, Giaginis C, Theocharis S
Journal: 
Anticancer Agents Med Chem [Epub ahead of print]
Abstract: 

Accumulating evidence suggest that dietary modification can lower the risk for several cancer types' development. Cranberry in particular, has been shown to have anti-oxidative, -inflammatory and -proliferative properties in vitro. To present the latest knowledge regarding the role of cranberry extracts against human cancer several types. A review of the literature documenting both in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of whole cranberry and/or its extracts is conducted; Current data provide evidence for several anti-cancer properties of either whole cranberry and/or its extracts. The discovery of the specific cranberry components and the appropriate concentrations that exert such beneficial effects along with verification of the preliminary in vitro results in in vivo settings could potentially lead to the invention of novel safer and efficient anti-cancer therapeutic agents.

Cranberry Juice Extract, A Mild Prooxidant with Cytotoxic Properties Independent of Reactive Oxygen Species

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Babich H, Ickow IM, Weisburg JH, Zuckerbraun HL, Schuck AG
Journal: 
Phytother Res DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3735
Abstract: 

A cranberry juice extract (CJE), rich in proanthocyanidins, had weak prooxidant properties, generating low
levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide. Generation of H2O2 was pH dependent, increasing at
alkaline pH, and was lowered in the presence of catalase and, to a lesser extent, of superoxide dismutase
(SOD). Growth inhibition and cytotoxicity were noted towards human oral carcinoma HSC-2 cells, with midpoint
cytotoxicity at 200mg/mL CJE, but not towards human gingival HF-1 fibroblasts. Being a mild prooxidant,
CJE toxicity was unaffected by exogenous catalase and pyruvate, scavengers of H2O2, but triggered intracellular
synthesis of reduced glutathione, as confirmed by cell staining with Cell Tracker™ Green. The presence of
exogenous SOD potentiated the toxicity of CJE, possibly by stabilizing the CJE phenols and hindering their
degradative autooxidation. Conversely, ‘spent’ CJE, i.e. CJE added to cell culture medium and incubated for
24 h at 37 C prior to use, was much less toxic to HSC-2 cells than was freshly prepared CJE. These differences
in toxicity between SOD-stabilized CJE, freshly prepared CJE, and ‘spent’ CJE were confirmed in HSC-2 cells
stained with aceto-orcein, which also indicated that the mode of cell death was by the induction of apoptosis.

MicroRNA alterations in Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines following cranberry extract treatment: Insights for chemoprevention

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Kresty LA, Clarke J, Ezell K, Exum A, Howell AB, Guettouche T
Journal: 
J Carcinog 10:34. Epub 2011 Dec 22
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of small noncoding endogenous RNA molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) is documented to occur in multiple cancer types including
esophageal adencarcinoma (EAC) and its only known precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE). Recent studies have linked dysregulation of specific miRNAs to histological
grade, neoplastic progression and metastatic potential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we present a summary of previously reported dysregulated miRNAs in BE and EAC tissues as well as EAC cell lines and evaluate a cranberry proanthocyanidin rich extract's (C-PAC) ability to modulate miRNA expression patterns of three human EAC cell lines (JHEso-Ad-1, OE33 and OE19).
RESULTS: A review of 13 published studies revealed dysregulation of 87 miRNAs in BE and EAC tissues, whereas 52 miRNAs have been reported to be altered in BE or
EAC cell lines, with 48% overlap with miRNA changes reported in tissues. We report for the first time C-PAC-induced modulation of five miRNAs in three EAC
cell lines resulting in 26 validated gene targets and identification of key signaling pathways including p53, angiogenesis, T-cell activation and apoptosis.
Additionally, mutiple cancer related networks were ideintified as modulated by C-PAC utilizing Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER), and MetaCore analysis tools.
CONCLUSIONS: Study results support the cancer inhibitory potential of C-PAC is in part attributable to C-PAC's ability to modify miRNA profiles within EAC cells. A number of C-PAC-modulated miRNAs have been been identified as dysregulated in BE and EAC. Further insights into miRNA dysregulation and modulation by select cancer preventive agents will support improved targeted interventions in
high-risk cohorts.

North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) stimulates apoptotic pathways in DU145 human prostate cancer cells in vitro

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
MacLean MA, Scott BE, Deziel BA, Nunnelley MC, Liberty AM, Gottschall-Pass KT, Neto CC, Hurta RA
Journal: 
Nutr Cancer. 63(1):109-20
Abstract: 

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been shown to improve patient prognosis in a variety of cancers, a benefit partly derived from phytochemicals, many of which target cell death pathways in tumor cells. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a phytochemical-rich fruit containing a variety of polyphenolic compounds. As flavonoids have been shown to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells, this study investigated the hypothesis that cranberry-mediated cytotoxicity in DU145 human prostate adenocarcinoma cells involves apoptosis. The results showed that induction of apoptosis in these cells occurred in response to treatment with whole cranberry extract and occurred through caspase-8 mediated cleavage of Bid protein to truncated Bid resulting in cytochrome-C release from the mitochondria. Subsequent activation of caspase-9 ultimately resulted in cell death as characterized by DNA fragmentation. Increased Par-4 protein expression was observed, and this is suggested to be at least partly responsible for caspase-8 activation. Proanthocyanidin-enriched and flavonol-enriched fractions of cranberry also increased caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity, suggesting that these compounds play a possible role in apoptosis induction. These findings indicate that cranberry phytochemicals can induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro, and these findings further establish the potential value of cranberry phytochemicals as possible agents against prostate cancer.

Ursolic acid and its esters: occurrence in cranberries and other Vaccinium fruit and effects on matrix metalloproteinase activity in DU145 prostate tumor cells.

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Kondo M, MacKinnon SL, Craft CC, Matchett MD, Hurta RAR, Neto CC
Journal: 
J Sci Food Agric 91: 5, 789-796
Abstract: 

Ursolic acid and its cis- and trans-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl esters have been identified as constituents of American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon), which inhibit tumor cell proliferation. Since the compounds may contribute to berry anticancer properties, their content in cranberries, selected cranberry products, and three other Vaccinium species (V. oxycoccus, V. vitis-idaea and V. angustifolium) was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The ability of these compounds to inhibit growth in a panel of tumor cell lines and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity associated with tumor invasion and metastasis was determined in DU145 prostate tumor cells. RESULTS: The highest content of ursolic acid and esters was found in V. macrocarpon berries (0.460-1.090 g ursolic acid and 0.040-0.160 g each ester kg-1 fresh weight). V. vitis-idaea and V. angustifolium contained ursolic acid (0.230-0.260 g kg-1), but the esters were not detected. V. oxycoccus was lowest (0.129 g ursolic acid and esters per kg). Ursolic acid content was highest in cranberry products prepared from whole fruit. Ursolic acid and its esters inhibited tumor cell growth at micromolar concentrations, and inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity at concentrations below those previously reported for cranberry polyphenolics. CONCLUSION: Cranberries (V. macrocarpon) were the best source of ursolic acid and its esters among the fruit and products tested. These compounds may limit prostate carcinogenesis through matrix metalloproteinase inhibition.

Effect of juice processing on the cancer chemopreventive effect of cranberry.

Posted: 
January 22, 2012
Authors: 
Caillet, S. Cote, J. Doyon, G. Sylvain, J. F. Lacroix, M
Journal: 
Food Res Int 44: 4, 902-910
Abstract: 

Cancer chemopreventive properties were evaluated in cranberries and cranberry products (mash, depectinized mash, pomace, raw juice, clarified juice and juice concentrate). Three extracts isolated from frozen cranberries and cranberry solids (mash, depectinized mash and pomace) containing anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds were tested. Cranberry juices and extracts were screened for their ability to induce the phase II xenobiotic detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (QR). The results showed that there was no cytotoxicity against the cells used in the test. All samples stimulated quinone reductase activity except the highest concentrations of the anthocyanin-rich extract of pomace, which inhibited QR activity. Also, the results showed that the QR induction for all samples varied with concentration and that there was an optimal concentration for which the QR induction was maximal. Although the three cranberry extracts were good QR inducers, our results indicated that the phenols present in aqueous extract showed QR inductions which were more important than those obtained with phenols present in solvent extracts. Also, the ability of phenols to stimulate the QR activity has been reduced continuously and significantly (P<=0.05) during the technological process. Especially, it appears that conditions of the evaporation to obtain a juice concentrate exerted a significant effect (P<=0.05) on inducer potencies of bioactive molecules.

Cranberries: ripe for more cancer research?

Posted: 
January 17, 2012
Authors: 
Neto CC
Journal: 
J Sci Food Agric 91: 13, 2303-2307
Abstract: 

Berries have been recognized as a functional food with potential to protect against a variety of health conditions, including some cancers. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) production and consumption have grown in recent years, warranting further evaluation of potential health benefits. Extracts and isolated constituents from cranberry fruit inhibit growth and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro, and recent data from animal studies lend further support to cranberry's reputation as a cancer fighter. Several likely mechanisms of action for cranberry against prostate and other cancers have been identified, including induction of apoptosis and inhibition of events linked to cellular invasion and migration. This article attempts to put into perspective what is known about cranberry's potential chemopreventive properties, what is yet to be determined, and some factors to consider as research moves forward.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins mediate growth arrest of lung cancer cells through modulation of gene expression and rapid induction of apoptosis.

Posted: 
January 17, 2012
Authors: 
Kresty LA, Howell AB, Baird M
Journal: 
Molecules 16(3):2375-90
Abstract: 

Cranberries are rich in bioactive constituents purported to enhance immune function, improve urinary tract health, reduce cardiovascular disease and more recently, inhibit cancer in preclinical models. However, identification of the cranberry constituents with the strongest cancer inhibitory potential and the mechanism associated with cancer inhibition by cranberries remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the ability of a proanthocyanidin rich cranberry fraction (PAC) to alter gene expression, induce apoptosis and impact the cell cycle machinery of human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and five year survival rates remain poor at 16%. Thus, assessing potential inhibitors of lung cancer-linked signaling pathways is an active area of investigation.

Effect of different cranberry extracts and juices during cranberry juice processing

Posted: 
January 17, 2012
Authors: 
Vu KD, Carlettini H, Bouvet J, Côté J, Doyon G, Sylvain J-F, Lacroix M
Journal: 
Food Chemistry 132 (2):959-967
Abstract: 

The effect of cranberry extracts and juices during cranberry juice processing on the antiproliferative properties against colon cancer cells was investigated. Two colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and LS-513 were treated with different concentrations of cranberry phenolic extracts from fruits, puree, depectinised puree and pomace and different concentration of three juices (raw, filtered and concentrated juices). The phenolic extracts consisted of water-soluble phenolic compounds, apolar phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. These phenolic extracts and juices were tested against two cell lines at pH 2.5 (natural
juice pH) and at pH 7.0 (physiological pH). All cranberry extracts and juices could inhibit the growth of both cell lines with the IC50 values (the concentration of phenolic content required to inhibit 50% the growth of cancer cells) varied from 3.8 to 179.2 lg gallic acid equivalent/ml. It was found that three types of extracts from fruit at pH 7.0 were the most effective at inhibiting the growth of HT-29 cell line. Extracts containing anthocyanins from fruit and from pomace were the most and the least efficient, respectively, in inhibiting the growth of both cancer cell lines. Further, three juices at natural pH (pH 2.5) were more effective at inhibiting the growth of two cell lines as compared to juices at pH 7.0. Concentrated juice at both pH values was the most effective at growth inhibition of two cancer cell lines compared to two other juices.

Anti-angiogenic activity of cranberry proanthocyanidins and cytotoxic properties in ovarian cancer cells

Posted: 
January 14, 2012
Authors: 
Kim KK, Singh AP, Singh RK, Demartino A, Brard L, Vorsa N, Lange TS, Moore RG
Journal: 
Int J Oncol 40(1):227-35.
Abstract: 

Cranberry extracts may provide beneficial health effects in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of antineoplastic properties are not understood. We report the effect of a proanthocyanidin (PAC)-rich isolate from cranberry (PAC-1) as a therapeutic agent with dual activity to target both ovarian cancer viability and angiogenesis in vitro. PAC-1 treatment of chemotherapy-resistant SKOV-3 cells blocked cell cycle progression through the G2/M phase, increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induced apoptosis through activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway components. Cytotoxicity of PAC-1 was partially based on ROS generation and could be blocked by co-treatment with antioxidant glutathione. PAC-1 reduced the cell viability of both SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells and HUVEC endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and blocked the activation of the pro-survival factor AKT. Furthermore, PAC-1 blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated receptor phosphorylation in endothelial cells, which correlated with the inhibition of endothelial tube formation in vitro. Our findings suggest that PAC-1 exerts potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic properties and that highly purified PAC from cranberry can be further developed to treat ovarian cancer in combinational or single-agent therapy.

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