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Oncology/Anti-Cancer

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In vivo inhibition of growth of human tumor lines by flavonoid fractions from cranberry extract.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Ferguson PJ, Kurowska EM, Freeman DJ, Chambers AF and Koropatnick J
Journal: 
Nutr Cancer 56(1):86-94
Abstract: 

Edible fruits and berries may serve as sources for novel anticancer agents, given that extracts of these foods have demonstrated cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines. Semipurified, flavonoid-rich extracts of cranberry (Vaccinia macrocarpa) were shown previously to arrest proliferation of tumor cells and induce apoptosis. However, the ability of cranberry flavonoids to inhibit tumor growth in vivo has not been reported other than in a preliminary report. As model systems for testing this activity, human tumor cell lines representative of three malignancies were chosen: glioblastoma multiforme (U87), colon carcinoma (HT-29), and androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (DU145). A flavonoid-rich fraction 6 (Fr6) and a more purified proanthocyanidin (PAC)-rich fraction were isolated from cranberry presscake and whole cranberry, respectively, by column chromatography. Fr6 and PAC each significantly slowed the growth of explant tumors of U87 in vivo, and PAC inhibited growth of HT-29 and DU145 explants (P

Selected fruits reduce azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in Fisher 344 male rats.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Boateng J, Verghese M, Shackelford L, Walker LT, Khatiwada J, Ogutu S, Williams DS, Jones J, Guyton M, Asiamah D, Henderson F, Grant L, DeBruce M, Johnson A, Washington S, Chawan CB.
Journal: 
Food Chem Toxicol 45(5):725-32
Abstract: 

Phytochemicals contribute to the vibrant colors of fruits and it is suggested that the darker the fruit the higher the antioxidative or anticarcinogenic properties. In this study we investigated the possible effects of blueberries (BLU), blackberries (BLK), plums (PLM), mangoes (MAN), pomegranate juice (POJ), watermelon juice (WMJ) and cranberry juice (CBJ) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in Fisher 344 male rats. Forty-eight male Fisher 344 rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n=6). The groups were fed AIN-93G as a control (C) diet, the rats fed fruits received AIN-93G+5% fruits and the groups that were given fruits juices received 20% fruit juice instead of water. The rats received subcutaneous injections of AOM at 16 mg/kg body weight at seventh and eighth weeks of age. At 17th week of age, the rats were killed by CO(2) asphyxiation. Total ACF numbers (mean+/-SEM) in the rats fed CON, BLU, BLK, PLM, MNG, POJ, WMJ and CBJ were 171.67+/-5.6, 11.33+/-2.85, 24.0+/-0.58, 33.67+/-0.89, 28.67+/-1.33, 15.67+/-1.86, 24.33+/-3.92 and 39.0+/-15.31. Total glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity (mICROmol/mg) in the liver of the rats fed fruits (except BLK) and fruit juices were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the rats fed fruits and fruit juices compared with the control. Our findings suggest that among the fruits and fruit juices, BLU and POJ contributed to significant (P<0.05) reductions in the formation of AOM-induced ACF.

Anticancer activities of cranberry phytochemicals: an update

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Neto CC, Amoroso JW and Liberty AM
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 52(Suppl 1):S18-27
Abstract: 

Studies employing mainly in vitro tumor models show that extracts and compounds isolated from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibit the growth and proliferation of several types of tumor including breast, colon, prostate, and lung. Proanthocyanidin oligomers, flavonol and anthocyanin glycosides and triterpenoids are all likely contributors to the observed anticancer properties and may act in a complementary fashion to limit carcinogenesis. Possible chemopreventive mechanisms of action by cranberry phytochemicals include induction of apoptosis in tumor cells, reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases associated with prostate tumor metastasis, and anti-inflammatory activities including inhibition of cyclooxygenases. A review of recent studies suggests a potential role for cranberry as a dietary chemopreventive and provides direction for future research.

Cranberry and its phytochemicals: a review of in vitro anticancer studies

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Neto CC
Journal: 
J Nutr 137(1 Suppl):186S-193S
Abstract: 

This article reviews the existing research on the anticancer properties of cranberry fruit and key phytochemicals that are likely contributors to chemoprevention. Results from in vitro studies using a variety of tumor models show that polyphenolic extracts from Vaccinium macrocarpon inhibit the growth and proliferation of breast, colon, prostate, lung, and other tumors, as do flavonols, proanthocyanidin oligomers, and triterpenoids isolated from the fruit. The unique combination of phytochemicals found in cranberry fruit may produce synergistic health benefits. Possible chemopreventive mechanisms of action by cranberry phytochemicals include induction of apoptosis in tumor cells, reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases associated with prostate tumor metastasis, and antiinflammatory activities including inhibition of cyclooxygenases. These findings suggest a potential role for cranberry as a dietary chemopreventive and provide direction for future research.

Cranberry juice constituents impair lymphoma growth and augment the generation of antilymphoma antibodies in syngeneic mice

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Hochman N, Houri-Haddad Y, Koblinski J, Wahl L, Roniger M, Bar-Sinai A, Weiss EI, Hochman J
Journal: 
Nutr Cancer 60(4):511-7
Abstract: 

In addition to its nutritional value, cranberry juice has been effective in treating urinary tract infections. Various reports have also demonstrated its potential for inhibiting in vitro growth of transformed cell lines. Here we show that a fraction [nondialyzable material (NDM) of a molecular weight range 12,000-30,000 (NDM 12-30K)] derived from cranberry juice impairs in vitro growth and invasion through extracellular matrix of Rev-2-T-6 murine lymphoma cells. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of this fraction at nontoxic doses both inhibits the growth of Rev-2-T-6 tumors in vivo and enhances the generation of antilymphoma antibodies. These findings demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of cranberry components against malignant lymphoma in immune competent hosts.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis and inhibit acid-induced proliferation of human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Kresty LA, Howell AB, Baird M
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 56(3):676-80
Abstract: 

The occurrence of esophageal adenocarcinoma and its only recognized precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, has rapidly increased during the past three decades. The precise reason for the rise remains to be elucidated, but increasing rates have been linked to multiple nutritional factors. Plant-based diets have generally been associated with a reduction of risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma and those of animal origin with risk escalation. Moreover, a number of recent in vitro and limited in vivo investigations have reported that cranberry extracts affect multiple cancer-associated processes in breast, colon, prostate, and other cancer cell lines of epithelial origin. Thus, this study sought to investigate the chemopreventive potential of a cranberry proanthocyanidin rich extract (PAC) in SEG-1 human esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells. PAC pretreatment significantly inhibited the viability and proliferation of EAC cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PAC (50 microg/mL) significantly inhibited acid-induced cell proliferation of SEG-1 cells. PAC treatment induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint and significantly reduced the percentage of SEG-1 cells in S-phase following 24 and 48 h of exposure. PAC treatment also resulted in significant induction of apoptosis. Thus, PAC modulates cell cycle regulation, aberrant proliferation, and apoptosis, all key biological processes altered during progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. These findings support that further mechanistic studies are warranted to more fully elucidate the inhibitory potential of PAC against esophageal cancer.

Blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Seeram NP, Adams LS, Zhang Y, Lee R, Sand D, Scheuller HS, Heber D
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 54(25):9329-39
Abstract: 

Berry fruits are widely consumed in our diet and have attracted much attention due to their potential human health benefits. Berries contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-neurodegerative, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, extracts of six popularly consumed berries--blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry and strawberry--were evaluated for their phenolic constituents using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) detection. The major classes of berry phenolics were anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. The berry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of human oral (KB, CAL-27), breast (MCF-7), colon (HT-29, HCT116), and prostate (LNCaP) tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 micro g/mL. With increasing concentration of berry extract, increasing inhibition of cell proliferation in all of the cell lines were observed, with different degrees of potency between cell lines. The berry extracts were also evaluated for their ability to stimulate apoptosis of the COX-2 expressing colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Black raspberry and strawberry extracts showed the most significant pro-apoptotic effects against this cell line. The data provided by the current study and from other laboratories warrants further investigation into the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of berries using in vivo models.

Effect of cranberry juice concentrate on chemically-induced urinary bladder cancers.

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Prasain JK, Jones K, Moore R, Barnes S, Leahy M, Roderick R, Juliana MM, Grubbs CJ
Journal: 
Oncol Rep 19(6):1565-70
Abstract: 

The chemopreventive efficacy of cranberry juice concentrate in an experimental model of urinary bladder cancer was evaluated using female Fischer-344 rats. The animals received N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for a period of eight weeks. Cranberry juice concentrate was administered at doses of 1.0 or 0.5 ml/rat/day beginning one week after the final OH-BBN treatment and continuing until the end of the study. The urinary bladders of all the rats were weighed and examined grossly for lesions, and all masses were submitted for pathological evaluation. A dose-dependent preventive effect of cranberry treatment was observed, with a reduced number of urinary bladder cancers (38%) in the 1.0 ml/rat/day group versus the control group. The cranberry extract neither affected body weight gain nor caused other signs of toxicity. For the metabolic studies, serum and urine were collected at 4 and 12 h after the administration of the cranberry juice concentrate and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Quercetin and its methylated derivative were detected in the urine samples. However, no quercetin was detected in the serum samples, indicating its poor bioavailability. These data suggest that components of cranberries may be effective in preventing urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

Total cranberry extract versus its phytochemical constituents: antiproliferative and synergistic effects against human tumor cell lines

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Seeram NP, Adams LS, Hardy ML, Heber D
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 52(9):2512-7
Abstract: 

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are an excellent dietary source of phytochemicals that include flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), and organic and phenolic acids. Using C-18 and Sephadex Lipophilic LH-20 column chromatography, HPLC, and tandem LC-ES/MS, the total cranberry extract (TCE) has been analyzed, quantified, and separated into fractions enriched in sugars, organic acids, total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins (39.4, 30.0, 10.6, 5.5, and 1.2% composition, respectively). Using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay, the antiproliferative effects of TCE (200 microg/mL) versus all fractions were evaluated against human oral (KB, CAL27), colon (HT-29, HCT116, SW480, SW620), and prostate (RWPE-1, RWPE-2, 22Rv1) cancer cell lines. The total polyphenol fraction was the most active fraction against all cell lines with 96.1 and 95% inhibition of KB and CAL27 oral cancer cells, respectively. For the colon cancer cells, the antiproliferative activity of this fraction was greater against HCT116 (92.1%) than against HT-29 (61.1%), SW480 (60%), and SW620 (63%). TCE and all fractions showed >/=50% antiproliferative activity against prostate cancer cells with total polyphenols being the most active fraction (RWPE-1, 95%; RWPE-2, 95%; 22Rv1, 99.6%). Cranberry sugars (78.8 microg/mL) did not inhibit the proliferation of any cancer cell lines. The enhanced antiproliferative activity of total polyphenols compared to TCE and its individual phytochemicals suggests synergistic or additive antiproliferative interactions of the anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonol glycosides within the cranberry extract.

Antioxidant activities and antitumor screening of extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Yan X, Murphy BT, Hammond GB, Vinson JA, Neto CC
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 50(21):5844-9
Abstract: 

Polyphenolic compounds in cranberries have been investigated to determine their role in protection against cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Extracts of whole fruit were assayed for radical-scavenging activity and tumor growth inhibition using seven tumor cell lines. Selective inhibition of K562 and HT-29 cells was observed from a methanolic extract in the range of 16-125 microg/mL. Radical-scavenging activity was greatest in an extract composed primarily of flavonol glycosides. Seven flavonol glycosides were isolated and purified from whole fruit for further evaluation; the anthocyanin cyanidin 3-galactoside was also purified for comparison with the flavonoids. Three flavonol monoglycosides were newly identified by (13)C NMR as myricetin 3-alpha-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-xyloside, and 3-methoxyquercetin 3-beta-galactoside (isorhamnetin); the other four isolated were the previously identified myricetin 3-beta-galactoside, quercetin 3-beta-galactoside, quercetin 3-alpha-arabinofuranoside, and quercetin 3-alpha-rhamnopyranoside. These compounds were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. Most of the flavonol glycosides showed antioxidant activity comparable or superior to that of vitamin E; cyanidin 3-galactoside showed activity superior to that of the flavonoids as well as vitamin E or Trolox in both antioxidant assays.

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