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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: In-Vitro

Displaying 31 - 40 of 111

Antimicrobial effects of fractions from cranberry products on the growth of seven

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Caillet S, Côté J, Sylvain JF, Lacroix M
Journal: 
Food Control 23;419-428
Abstract: 

The antimicrobial effect of thirty HPLC fractions of different polarity obtained from two cranberry juices and three extracts (anthocyanins, water-soluble and apolar phenolic compounds) isolated from frozen cranberries and pomace was investigated against seven bacterial strains Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin (ERV), Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Listeria monocytogenes HPB 2812, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442; Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the maximal tolerated concentration (MTC) of each fraction were determined for each pathogen using a 96-well microtiter plate method. The results, reported in mg phenol/mL, indicated that all the bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by the cranberry phenolic compounds. All pathogens were very sensitive to at least seven fractions with MTCs below 2 mg phenol/mL and five fractions with MICs below 10 mg phenol/mL. In addition, four fractions rich in apolar phenolic compounds were very efficient against all bacteria with MICs below 10 mg phenol/mL, and twenty five fractions completely inhibited microbial growth with MICs below100 mg phenol/well. L. monocytogenes exhibited the highest sensitivity with twelve very active fractions (MTCs and MICs below 1 and
10 mg phenol/mL, respectively) while E. coli O157H7 was the least sensitive to twenty seven fractions (with the highest MICs). Also, it appears that the technological process to manufacture cranberry juice can reduce the antimicrobial activity of phenolic fractions.

Comprehensive assessment of the quality of commercial cranberry products. Phenolic characterization and in vitro bioactivity

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Sánchez-Patán F, Bartolomé B, Martín-Alvarez PJ, Anderson M, Howell A, Monagas M
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 60(13):3396-408
Abstract: 

Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) products have been widely recommended in traditional American medicine for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI). A total of 19 different commercial cranberry products from American and European markets have been analyzed by different global phenolic methods and by UPLC-DAD-ESI-TQ MS. In addition, in vitro antioxidant capacity and uropathogenic bacterial antiadhesion activity tests have been performed. Results revealed that products found in the market widely differed in their phenolic content and distribution, including products completely devoid of flavan-3-ols to highly purified ones, either in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) or in anthocyanins. The product presentation form and polyphenolic profile widely affected the antiadhesion activity, ranging from a negative (nulel) effect to a MIC = 0.5 mg/mL for cranberry powders and a MIC=112 mg/mL for gel capsule samples. Only 4 of 19 products would provide the recommended dose of intake of 36 mg total PACs/day. Of most importance was the fact that this dose would actually provide as low as 0.00 and up to 205 μg/g of procyanidin A2, indicating the lack of product standardization and incongruence between global and individual compound analysis.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the adherence properties of Candida albicans

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Feldman M, Tanabe S, Howell A, Grenier D
Journal: 
BMC Complement Altern Med 16;12(1):6
Abstract: 

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Oral candidiasis is a common fungal disease mainly caused by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on pathogenic properties of C. albicans as well as on the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells induced by this oral pathogen. METHODS: Microplate dilution assays were performed to determine the effect of AC-PACs on C. albicans growth as well as biofilm formation stained with crystal violet. Adhesion of FITC-labeled C. albicans to oral epithelial cells and to acrylic resin disks was monitored by fluorometry. The effects of AC-PACs on C. albicans-induced cytokine secretion, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 activation and kinase phosphorylation in oral
epithelial cells were determined by immunological assays. RESULTS: Although AC-PACs did not affect growth of C. albicans, it prevented biofilm formation and reduced adherence of C. albicans to oral epithelial cells and saliva-coated acrylic resin discs. In addition, AC-PACs significantly decreased the secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 by oral epithelial cells stimulated with C. albicans. This
anti-inflammatory effect was associated with reduced activation of NF-kappaB p65 and phosphorylation of specific signal intracellular kinases. CONCLUSION: AC-PACs by affecting the adherence properties of C. albicans and attenuating the inflammatory response induced by this pathogen represent potential novel therapeutic agents for the prevention/treatment of oral candidiasis.

Inhibition of adherence of multi-drug resistant E. coli by proanthocyanidin

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Gupta A, Dwivedi M, Mahdi AA, Nagana Gowda GA, Khetrapal CL, Bhandari M
Journal: 
Urol Res 40(2):143-50
Abstract: 

Proanthocyanidin is commonly used for inhibiting urinary tract infection (UTI) of sensitive strains of Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proanthocyanidin on adherence of uropathogenic multi-drug resistant E. coli to uroepithelial cells, which has not yet been investigated so far. Extracts of the purified proanthocyanidin were prepared from dried cranberry juice. Purity and structural assignment of proanthocyanidin was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Subsequently, its affect on multi-drug resistant bacteria as well as quantification of anti-adherence bioactivity on human vaginal and bladder epithelial cells was appraised. Inhibition of adherence to an extent of about 70% with multi-drug resistant E. coli strains was observed on uroepithelial cell. The anti-adherence bioactivity of the proanthocyanidin was detected at concentrations of 10-50 µg/ml with significant bacteriuria. Probable proanthocyanidin through A-type linkages either combines to P-fimbriae of bacterial cells or modifies the structural entity of P-fimbriae and inhibits bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells. The proanthocyanidin exhibited anti-adherence property with multi-drug resistant strains of uropathogenic P-fimbriated E. coli with in vitro study. Hence proanthocyanidin may be considered as an inhibitory agent for multi-drug resistant strains of E. coli adherence to uroepithelial cells.

Inhibition of Streptococcus gordonii metabolic activity in biofilm by cranberry juice high-molecular-weight component

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Babu J, Blair C, Jacob S, Itzhak O.
Journal: 
J Biomed Biotechnol 2012:590384
Abstract: 

Previous studies demonstrated that a cranberry high-molecular-mass, nondialyzable material (NDM) can inhibit adhesion of numerous species of bacteria and prevents bacterial coaggregation of bacterial pairs. Bacterial coaggregation leads to plaque formation leading to biofilm development on surfaces of oral cavity. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of low concentrations of NDM on Streptococcus gordonii metabolic activity and biofilm formation on restorative dental surfaces. We found that the NDM selectively inhibited metabolic activity of S. gordonii, without affecting bacterial viability. Inhibiting the metabolic activity of bacteria in biofilm may benefit the health of the oral cavity.

Study on the influence of cranberry extract Żuravit S·O·S(®) on the properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, their ability to form biofilm and its antioxidant properties.

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Wojnicz D, Sycz Z, Walkowski S, Gabrielska J, Aleksandra W, Alicja K, Anna SŁ, Hendrich AB
Journal: 
Phytomedicine 19(6):506-14
Abstract: 

Consumption of cranberries is known to exert positive health effects, especially against urinary tract infections. For this reason, presumably, they are widely used in folk medicine. Different aspects of cranberry phenolics activity were studied in individual papers but complex study in this matter is missing. The aim of the present study is to provide complex data concerning various aspects of cranberry extract activity. We studied the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of commercially available extract (Żuravit S·O·S(®)) against two Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine of patients with pyelonephritis. Additionally the main extract anthocyanins were characterized. The activity of extract against lipid peroxidation and its radical scavenging ability were also assessed. Żuravit S·O·S(®) decreased the hydrophobicity of one of the studied E. coli strains, reduced swimming motility and adhesion to epithelial cells of both studied strains, it also limited the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. Expression of curli was not affected by cranberry extract, the assessment of P fimbriae expression was not reliable due to extract-induced agglutination of erythrocytes. Cranberry extract caused filamentation in both studied E. coli strains. It also showed pronounced antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. The properties of the studied cranberry extract show that it could be effectively used in prevention and/or elimination of urinary tract infections, specially the recurrent ones.

The antimicrobial effects of cranberry against Staphylococcus aureus

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Lian PY, Maseko T, Rhee M, Ng K.
Journal: 
Food Sci Technol Int 18(2):179-86
Abstract: 

The antimicrobial effects of the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on a major food-borne pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, were investigated using commercially obtained Lakewood® organic cranberry juice and Ocean Spray® cranberry juice cocktail and four other berry fruit extracts (acai berry, strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry). The results showed that cranberry is a potent antimicrobial against S. aureus and the most potent among the berries studied. The order of percentage inhibition of bacterial growth at the same concentration of phenolic materials as gallic acid equivalents was Lakewood cranberry juice > Ocean Spray cranberry juice ≫ blueberry > acai berry ≫ raspberry ≫ strawberry. The antimicrobial effect was not due to the acidity of the berries as NaOH-neutralized samples were almost as effective in terms of percentage inhibition of viable cell growth. Solid-phase extraction of cranberry juice using C18 solid phase showed that the antimicrobial effects reside exclusively with the C18-bound materials.

Inhibition of Adhesion of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Bacteria to Uroepithelial Cells by Extracts from Cranberry

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Ermel G, Georgeault S, Inisan C, Besnard M
Journal: 
J Med Food 15(2):126-34
Abstract: 

ABSTRACT Cranberry extract has been reported as a therapeutic agent, mainly in urinary tract infections due to its antiadhesive capacity. In order to compare the effects of proanthocyanidin (procyanidin) (PAC)-standardized cranberry extracts and commercial PAC A2, we first investigated the presence of genes encoding known adhesins on 13 strains of uropathogenic strains coming from patients with cystisis. After this characterization, the anti-adhesive effects of PAC A2 were assayed on selected uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains before testing cranberry extracts. Before checking inhibitory effect on bacterial adhesion to cells, we showed that neither PAC A2 or three cranberry extracts (A, B, and C) specifically inhibited the growth and did not supply any potential nutrient to E. coli strains, including the unrelated control strain. PAC A2 exhibited an inhibitory effect on the adhesion of two selected uropathogenic strains of E. coli. This work also showed that a preliminary exposure of bacteria to PAC A2 significantly reduced the adhesion. This phenomenon has been also observed with a lesser impact when uroepithelial cells were pretreated with PAC A2. Moreover, the assays were more robust when bacteria were in fast growing conditions (exponential phase): the adhesion to uroepithelial cells was greater. Significant reduction of adhesion to urepithelial cells was observed: around 80% of inhibition of adhesion with the cranberry extracts at equivalent PAC concentration of 50 µg/mL. The effects of the different assayed extracts were not obviously different except for extract B, which inhibited approximately 55% of adhesion at an equivalent PAC concentration of 5 µg/mL

Proanthocyanidin-rich Extracts from Cranberry Fruit ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) Selectively Inhibit the Growth of Human Pathogenic Fungi Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Patel KD. Scarano FJ. Kondo M. Hurta RA. Neto CC.
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 59(24):12864-73
Abstract: 

Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) has been shown in clinical studies to reduce infections caused by Escherichia coli and other bacteria, and proanthocyanidins are believed to play a role. The ability of cranberry to inhibit the growth of opportunistic human fungal pathogens that cause oral, skin, respiratory, and systemic infections has not been well-studied. Fractions from whole cranberry fruit were screened for inhibition of five Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans , a causative agent of fungal meningitis. Candida glabrata , Candida lusitaniae , Candida krusei , and Cryptococcus neoformans showed significant susceptibility to treatment with cranberry proanthocyanidin fractions in a broth microdilution assay, with minimum inhibitory concentrations as low as 1 mug/mL. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of subfractions detected epicatechin oligomers of up to 12 degrees of polymerization. Those containing larger oligomers caused the strongest inhibition. This study suggests that cranberry has potential as an antifungal agent.

The effect of nondialyzable material (NDM) cranberry extract on formation of contact lens biofilm by Staphylococcus epidermidis

Posted: 
January 26, 2012
Authors: 
Leshem R, Maharshak I, Ben Jacob E, Ofek I, Kremer I
Journal: 
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(7):4929-34
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of NDM from cranberries on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formed on soft contact lenses.

METHODS: Soft contact lenses were incubated in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) together with S. epidermidis (ATCC35984/RP62A) and various concentrations of NDM, and inspected by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The TSB was collected after sonification and monitored turbidometrically.

RESULTS: NDM at >=500 mug/mL concentration caused a significant (P

CONCLUSIONS: NDM reduces formation of biofilm on soft contact lenses. This has important implications for the prevention of contact lens-related corneal infections caused by S. epidermidis.

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