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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: In-Vitro

Displaying 81 - 90 of 121

Effects of a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction on growth, biofilm formation and adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Labrecque J, Bodet C, Chandad F, Grenier D
Journal: 
J Antimicrob Chemother 58(2):439-43
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major aetiological agent of periodontitis, a destructive disease affecting the tooth-supporting tissues. Recent reports have indicated that high-molecular-weight molecules from cranberry juice concentrate can prevent the attachment of human pathogens to host tissues.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of non-dialysable material (NDM) prepared from cranberry juice concentrate on growth, biofilm formation and adherence properties of P. gingivalis.

METHODS: The effect of cranberry NDM on biofilm formation was studied using a polystyrene microplate assay and by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of cranberry NDM on the attachment properties of P. gingivalis was evaluated by a microplate assay in which mammalian proteins were immobilized into wells.

RESULTS: Our results indicated that cranberry NDM is a potent inhibitor of biofilm formation by P. gingivalis. However, it has no effect on growth and viability of bacteria. Cranberry NDM also prevented significantly the attachment of P. gingivalis to surfaces coated with type I collagen, fibrinogen or human serum.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that cranberry constituents may have a beneficial effect for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis by reducing the capacity of P. gingivalis to colonize periodontal sites.

Inhibiting interspecies coaggregation of plaque bacteria with a cranberry juice constituent

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Weiss EI, Lev-Dor R, Kashamn Y, Goldhar J, Sharon N, Ofek I
Journal: 
J Am Dent Assoc 129(12):1719-23
Abstract: 

Dental plaque stability depends on bacterial adhesion to acquired pellicle, and on interspecies adhesion (or coaggregation). A high-molecular-weight cranberry constituent at 0.6 to 2.5 milligrams per milliliter reversed the coaggregation of 49 (58 percent) of 84 coaggregating bacterial pairs tested. It acted preferentially on pairs in which one or both members are gram-negative anaerobes frequently involved in periodontal diseases. Thus, the anticoaggregating cranberry constituent has the potential for altering the subgingival microbiota, resulting in conservative control of gingival and periodontal diseases. However, the high dextrose and fructose content of the commercially available cranberry juice makes it unsuitable for oral hygiene use, and the beneficial effect of the high-molecular-weight constituent requires animal and clinical studies.

Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus by a high-molecular-weight constituent of cranberry juice.

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Burger O, Weiss E, Sharon N, Tabak M, Neeman I and Ofek I
Journal: 
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 42(3 Suppl):279-84
Abstract: 

A high-molecular-weight constituent of cranberry juice has been found to inhibit the sialyllactose specific adhesion of Helicobacter pylori strains to immobilized human mucus, erythrocytes, and cultured gastric epithelial cells. Different isolates of H. pylori differ in their affinity to the cranberry juice constituent. Cranberry juice may also inhibit adhesion of bacteria to the stomach in vivo, and may prove useful for the prevention of stomach ulcer that is caused by H. pylori.

Inhibition of host extracellular matrix destructive enzyme production and activity by a high-molecular-weight cranberry fraction

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Bodet C, Chandad F, Grenier D
Journal: 
J Periodontal Res 42(2):159-68
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontal diseases are a group of inflammatory disorders that are initiated by specific gram-negative bacteria and lead to connective tissue destruction. Proteolytic enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and elastase, produced by resident and inflammatory cells in response to periodontopathogens and their products, play a major role in gingival tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-molecular-weight fraction prepared from cranberry juice concentrate on MMP-3, MMP-9 and elastase activities, as well as on MMP production by human cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: MMP-3 and MMP-9 production by gingival fibroblasts and macrophages treated with the cranberry fraction and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MMP-3, MMP-9 and elastase activities in the presence of the cranberry fraction were evaluated using colorimetric or fluorogenic substrates. The changes in expression and phosphorylation state of fibroblast intracellular signaling proteins induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide and the cranberry fraction were characterized by antibody microarrays.

RESULTS: The lipopolysaccharide-induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 responses of fibroblasts and macrophages were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the cranberry fraction. This fraction was found to inhibit fibroblast intracellular signaling proteins, a phenomenon that may lead to a down-regulation of activating protein-1 activity. MMP-3, MMP-9 and elastase activities were also efficiently inhibited by the cranberry fraction, even when it was used at low concentrations.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that cranberry compounds offer promising perspectives for the development of novel host-modulating strategies for an adjunctive treatment of periodontitis.

Inhibition of periodontopathogen-derived proteolytic enzymes by a high-molecular-weight fraction isolated from cranberry

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Bodet C, Piché M, Chandad F, Grenier D
Journal: 
J Antimicrob Chemother 57(4):685-90
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola are three major aetiological agents of chronic periodontitis. The strong proteolytic activities of these bacteria are critical to their survival since their energy source is obtained from peptides and amino acids derived from proteins. In addition, proteases are important factors contributing to periodontal tissue destruction by a variety of mechanisms, including direct tissue degradation and modulation of host inflammatory responses.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of non-dialysable material (NDM) prepared from cranberry juice concentrate on the proteolytic activities of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola.

METHODS: The effect of NDM on gingipain and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities of P. gingivalis, trypsin-like activity of T. forsythia and chymotrypsin-like activity of T. denticola was evaluated using synthetic chromogenic peptides. In addition, the capacity of P. gingivalis to degrade fluorescein-labelled type I collagen and fluorescein-labelled transferrin in the presence of NDM was evaluated by fluorometry.

RESULTS: NDM dose-dependently inhibited the proteinases of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola as well as type I collagen and transferrin degradation by P. gingivalis.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that NDM has the potential to reduce either the proliferation of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola in periodontal pockets or their proteinase-mediated destructive process occurring in periodontitis.

Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells

Posted: 
November 13, 2010
Authors: 
Zafriri D, Ofek I, Adar R, Pocino M, Sharon N
Abstract: 

Inhibition of bacterial adherence to bladder cells has been assumed to account for the beneficial action ascribed to cranberry juice and cranberry juice cocktail in the prevention of urinary tract infections (A. E. Sobota, J. Urol. 131:1013-1016, 1984). We have examined the effect of the cocktail and juice on the adherence of Escherichia coli expressing surface lectins of defined sugar specificity to yeasts, tissue culture cells, erythrocytes, and mouse peritoneal macrophages. Cranberry juice cocktail inhibited the adherence of urinary isolates expressing type 1 fimbriae (mannose specific) and P fimbriae [specific for alpha-D-Gal(1----4)-beta-D-Gal] but had no effect on a diarrheal isolate expressing a CFA/I adhesin. The cocktail also inhibited yeast agglutination by purified type 1 fimbriae. The inhibitory activity for type 1 fimbriated E. coli was dialyzable and could be ascribed to the fructose present in the cocktail; this sugar was about 1/10 as active as methyl alpha-D-mannoside in inhibiting the adherence of type 1 fimbriated bacteria. The inhibitory activity for the P fimbriated bacteria was nondialyzable and was detected only after preincubation of the bacteria with the cocktail. Cranberry juice, orange juice, and pineapple juice also inhibited adherence of type 1 fimbriated E. coli, most likely because of their fructose content. However, the two latter juices did not inhibit the P fimbriated bacteria. We conclude that cranberry juice contains at least two inhibitors of lectin-mediated adherence of uropathogens to eucaryotic cells. Further studies are required to establish whether these inhibitors play a role in vivo.

A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins and uropathogenic bacterial anti-adhesion activity

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Howell AB, Reed JD, Krueger CG, Winterbottom R, Cunningham DG, Leahy M
Journal: 
Phytochemistry 66(18):2281-91
Abstract: 

Clinical, epidemiological and mechanistic studies support the role of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) in maintaining urinary tract health. Cranberry proanthocyanidins contain A-type linkages and have been associated with preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells. It is not known if the presence of the A-type linkage is a prerequisite for anti-adhesion activity. Other commercial sources of proanthocyanidins with all B-type linkages have not previously been screened for this activity. The goals of this study were to compare the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry juice cocktail with the anti-adhesion activities of B-linked proanthocyanidins from commercial grape and apple juices, green tea and dark chocolate, and determine if anti-adhesion activity is detectable in human urine following consumption of single servings of each commercial food product. Structural heterogeneity and presence of the A-type linkage in cranberry proanthocyanidins was confirmed utilizing MALDI-TOF/MS and DI/ESI MS, as was the presence of all B-type linkages in the proanthocyanidins from the other commercial products. The isolated A-type proanthocyanidins from cranberry juice cocktail elicited in vitro anti-adhesion activity at 60 microg/ml, the B-type proanthocyanidins from grape exhibited minor activity at 1200 microg/ml, while other B-type proanthocyanidins were not active. Anti-adhesion activity in human urine was detected following cranberry juice cocktail consumption, but not after consumption of the non-cranberry food products. Results suggest that presence of the A-type linkage in cranberry proanthocyanidins may enhance both in vitro and urinary bacterial anti-adhesion activities and aid in maintaining urinary tract health.

Cranberry products inhibit adherence of p-fimbriated Escherichia coli to primary cultured bladder and vaginal epithelial cells.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Gupta K, Chou MY, Howell A, Wobbe C, Grady R, Stapleton AE
Journal: 
J Urol 177(6):2357-60
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: Cranberry proanthocyanidins have been identified as possible inhibitors of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial cells. However, little is known about the dose range of this effect. Furthermore, it has not been studied directly in the urogenital system. To address these issues we tested the effect of a cranberry powder and proanthocyanidin extract on adherence of a P-fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli isolate to 2 new urogenital model systems, namely primary cultured bladder epithelial cells and vaginal epithelial cells.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: E. coli IA2 was pre-incubated with a commercially available cranberry powder (9 mg proanthocyanidin per gm) or with increasing concentrations of proanthocyanidin extract. Adherence of E. coli IA2 to primary cultured bladder epithelial cells or vaginal epithelial cells was measured before and after exposure to these products.

RESULTS: Cranberry powder decreased mean adherence of E. coli IA2 to vaginal epithelial cells from 18.6 to 1.8 bacteria per cell (p

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry products can inhibit E. coli adherence to biologically relevant model systems of primary cultured bladder and vaginal epithelial cells. This effect occurs in a dose dependent relationship. These findings provide further mechanistic evidence and biological plausibility for the role of cranberry products for preventing urinary tract infection.

Effects of cranberry juice on uropathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro biofilm formation

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Di Martino P, Agniel R, Gaillard JL, Denys P
Journal: 
J Chemother 17(5):563-5
Abstract: 

No abstract

Influence of cranberry phenolics on glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferases and Streptococcus mutans acidogenicity

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Gregoire S, Singh AP, Vorsa N, Koo H
Journal: 
J Appl Microbiol 103(5):1960-8
Abstract: 

"AIMS: To investigate the influence of several phenolic compounds isolated from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon) on some of the virulence properties of Streptococcus mutans associated with glucan synthesis and acidogenicity.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Individual phenolic acids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were isolated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography from fresh cranberry fruit. Flavonols and proanthocyanidins (at 500 micromol l(-1)) moderately inhibited the activity of surface-adsorbed glucosyltransferases (GTFs) B and C and F-ATPases (15-35% inhibition; P

CONCLUSIONS: Specific flavonoids from cranberries exhibit statistically significant but moderate biological activity against S. mutans. The biological activity of cranberry extracts may be a result from the complex mixture of flavonoids rather than a single active compound.

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: This is the first study to identify the bioactive constituents in cranberry against an oral bacterium using highly purified isolated compounds. The combined effects of specific flavonols and proanthocyanidins from cranberry on GTFs activity, acid production and acid tolerance of S. mutans make them attractive compounds to fully explore for their anti-biofilm and cariostatic properties."

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