Back to top

Search

Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: In-Vitro

Displaying 101 - 110 of 120

Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices.

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Ofek I, Goldhar J, Zafriri D, Lis H, Adar R, Sharon N.
Journal: 
N Engl J Med 324(22):1599
Abstract: 

No abstract - The high-molecular-weight inhibitor of adhesin was partially purified from cranberry juice by gel-filtration chromatography. The product was heat-stable, resistant to trypsin, and nondialysable, and it inhibited the MR adhesin of al 20 urinary isolates tested in concentrations of 12 to 25 µg per milliliter. On the basis of these results, together with those of earlier studies, we suggest that the antiadhesive agents in juices from vaccinium berries may act in the gut (the source of most uropathogens), in the bladder, or both by preventing colonization of these sites.

Cranberry high molecular weight constituents promote Streptococcus sobrinus desorption from artificial biofilm

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Steinberg D, Feldman M, Ofek I, Weiss EI
Journal: 
Int J Antimicrob Agents 5(3):247-51
Abstract: 

Dental biofilm harbouring oral bacteria is highly correlated with the progression of dental diseases. Disruption of biofilm formation via anti-adhesion agents is an alternative means to the antibacterial approach. Previous studies have shown that high molecular weight non-dialysable material (NDM) derived from cranberry juice inhibits the adhesion of Escherichia coli and the coaggregation of a variety of oral bacteria. In addition, it inhibits the formation of glucans and fructans synthesised by GTF and FTF. In the present study, we examined the anti-adhesion effect of NDM on S. sobrinus. NDM promoted desorption of S. sobrinus from biofilm in the presence and absence of extracellular glucans and fructans, although the effect was more pronounced in the absence of these polysaccharides. Precoating of the bacteria with NDM reduced their ability to form biofilm. Our results indicate that NDM could be exploited as an anti-biofilm agent.

Cranberry juice constituents affect influenza virus adhesion and infectivity

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Weiss EI, Houri-Haddad Y, Greenbaum E, Hochman N, Ofek I, Zakay-Rones Z.
Journal: 
Antiviral Res 66(1):9-12
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice contains high molecular weight materials (NDM) that inhibit bacterial adhesion to host cells as well as the co-aggregation of many oral bacteria. Because of its broad-spectrum activity, we investigated NDM's potential for inhibiting influenza virus adhesion to cells, and subsequent infectivity. Hemagglutination (HA) of red blood cells (RBC) caused by representatives of both influenza virus A subtypes (H1N1)and H3N2) and the B type was inhibited by NDM at concentrations of 125 microg/ml or lower, which is at least 20-fold lower than that usually found in cranberry juice. A dose-response effect of NDM on HA was demonstrated. The infectivity of the A and B types was significantly reduced by preincubation with NDM (250 microg/ml), as reflected by the lack of cytopathic effect on Madine-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the lack of HA activity in the media of infected cells. The effect of NDM was also tested after A or B type viruses were allowed to adsorb to and penetrate the cells. Various levels of reduction in virus tissue culture infective dose TCID50 were observed. The effect was most pronounced when NDM was added several times to the infected MDCK cells. Our cumulative findings indicate that the inhibitory effect of NDM on influenza virus adhesion and infectivity may have a therapeutic potential.

Effect of a high-molecular-weight component of cranberry on constituents of dental biofilm

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Steinberg D, Feldman M, Ofek I, Weiss EI
Journal: 
J Antimicrob Chemother 54(1):86-9
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that high molecular-weight non-dialysable material derived from cranberry juice (NDM) inhibits co-aggregation of a variety of oral bacteria.

OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we examined the effect of NDM on several constituents of the dental biofilm, glucosyltransferase (GTF) and fructosyltransferase (FTF), as well as on the adhesion of Streptococcus sobrinus.

RESULTS: The activity of immobilized and soluble GTF and FTF was inhibited by NDM (P > 0.05). NDM also inhibited adhesion of S. sobrinus to hydroxyapatite (P

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that NDM may affect biofilm formation. One of the proposed mechanisms is via inhibition of extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, which promote the sucrose-dependent adhesion of oral bacteria as S. sobrinus.

Anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis and anti-inflammatory activities of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
La VD, Howell AB, Grenier D
Journal: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54(5):1778-84
Abstract: 

A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) have recently been reported to be beneficial for human health, especially urinary tract health. The effect of these proanthocyanidins on periodontitis, a destructive disease of tooth-supporting tissues, needs to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of AC-PACs on various virulence determinants of Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as on the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells stimulated by this periodontopathogen. We examined the effects of AC-PACs on P. gingivalis growth and biofilm formation, adherence to human oral epithelial cells and protein-coated surfaces, collagenase activity, and invasiveness. We also tested the ability of AC-PACs to modulate the P. gingivalis-induced inflammatory response by human oral epithelial cells. Our results showed that while AC-PACs neutralized all the virulence properties of P. gingivalis in a dose-dependent fashion, they did not interfere with growth. They also inhibited the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) but did not affect the secretion of IL-6 by epithelial cells stimulated with P. gingivalis. This anti-inflammatory effect was associated with reduced activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 pathway. AC-PACs may be potentially valuable bioactive molecules for the development of new strategies to treat and prevent P. gingivalis-associated periodontal diseases.

Cranberry derived proanthocyanidins reduce bacterial adhesion to selected biomaterials.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Eydelnant IA, Tufenkji N
Abstract: 

Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) linked with the uropathogens Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) account for the majority of nosocomial infections acquired in the clinical environment. Because these infections develop following initial adhesion of the bacterial pathogens to the catheter surface, there is increased interest in developing effective methods to inhibit attachment of cells to biomaterials used in the manufacture of indwelling devices. High molecular weight proanthocyanidins (PAC) extracted from the North American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) were examined for their potential to reduce the initial adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria (E. coli CFT073 and E. faecalis 29212) to two model biomaterials, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Well-controlled experiments conducted in a parallel-plate flow chamber (PPFC) demonstrated decreased attachment of both bacteria to PVC and PTFE when either the bacteria, biomaterial or both surfaces were treated with PAC. Most significant inhibition of bacterial adhesion was observed for the condition where both the bacteria and biomaterial surfaces were coated with PAC. Additional experiments conducted with nonbiological model particles demonstrate comparable extents of adhesion inhibition, supporting a nonbiospecific mechanism of PAC action. The results of this study are promising for the implementation of PAC in the clinical milieu for prevention of device associated infection as the proposed functional modification is independent of antibacterial mechanisms that may give rise to resistant strains.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit MMP production and activity

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
La VD, Howell AB, Grenier D
Journal: 
J Dent Res 88(7):627-32
Abstract: 

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by resident and inflammatory cells in response to periodontopathogens play a major role in periodontal tissue destruction. Our aim was to investigate the effects of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on: (i) the production of various MMPs by human monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and (ii) the catalytic activity of recombinant MMP-1 and MMP-9. The effects of AC-PACs on the expression of 5 protein kinases and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) p65 in macrophages stimulated with LPS were also monitored. Our results indicated that AC-PACs inhibited the production of MMPs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of MMP-1 and MMP-9 was also inhibited. The inhibition of MMP production was associated with reduced phosphorylation of key intracellular kinases and the inhibition of NF-kappaB p65 activity. AC-PACs thus show potential for the development of novel host-modulating strategies to inhibit MMP-mediated tissue destruction during periodontitis.

Cytoprotective effect of proanthocyanidin-rich cranberry fraction against bacterial cell wall-mediated toxicity in macrophages and epithelial cells.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
La VD, Labrecque J, Grenier D
Journal: 
Phytother Res 23(10):1449-52
Abstract: 

Recent studies brought evidence regarding the potential beneficial effects of cranberry polyphenols for periodontal infections. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of a proanthocyanidin-rich cranberry fraction to protect macrophages and oral epithelial cells against cytotoxicity induced by bacterial components. U937 cells, differentiated into adherent macrophage-like cells, as well as oral epithelial cells were treated with cell wall or lipopolysaccharide preparations from periodontopathogens. Cell viability was monitored using a commercial MTT (3-[4,5-diethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The cytoprotective effect was evaluated by pre-incubating human cells with a proanthocyanidin-rich cranberry fraction prior to treatment with the bacterial components at toxic concentrations. Among the various bacterial components tested, Peptostreptotoccus micros cell wall was found to be the most toxic for macrophages and epithelial cells and was thus selected for further analyses. Treatment of monocyte-derived macrophages with cell wall of P. micros (20 microg/ml) decreased the cell viability by approximately 50%. Adding the cranberry fraction prior to treating cells with P. micros cell wall dose-dependently protected monocyte-derived macrophages from the toxic effect. A dose-dependent cytoprotective effect of the cranberry fraction was also observed with oral epithelial cells treated with P. micros cell wall. This study suggests that cranberry polyphenols may exert a protective effect for host cells against the toxicity induced by bacterial components

Influence of cranberry juice on glucan-mediated processes involved in Streptococcus mutans biofilm development.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Koo H, Nino de Guzman P, Schobel BD, Vacca Smith AV, Bowen WH.
Journal: 
Caries Res 40(1):20-27
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice (CJ) has biological properties that may provide health benefits. In this study, we investigated the influence of CJ (pH 5.5) on several activities in vitro associated with the development of Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms. The ability of CJ to influence the adherence of S. mutans to either saliva- (sHA) or glucan-coated hydroxyapatite (gsHA), and to inhibit the glucan production by purified glucosyltransferases adsorbed to sHA was determined. For the adherence assays, we used both uncoated and saliva-coated bacterial cells. Furthermore, we examined whether CJ interferes with the viability, development, polysaccharide composition and acidogenicity of S. mutans biofilms. A solution containing equivalent amounts of glucose, fructose and organic acids at pH 5.5 was used as negative control. The adherence of S. mutans (uncoated and saliva-coated) to either sHA or gsHA treated with 25% CJ (v/v) was remarkably reduced (40-85% inhibition compared to control: p

Inhibitory effect of cranberry polyphenol on biofilm formation and cysteine proteases of Porphyromonas gingivalis

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Yamanaka A, Kouchi T, Kasai K, Kato T, Ishihara K, Okuda K.
Journal: 
J Periodontal Res 42(6):589-592
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cranberry polyphenol fraction on biofilm formation and activities of Arg-gingipain and Lys-gingipain in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The polyphenol fraction was prepared by using a glass column packed with Amberlite XAD 7HP and 70% aqueous ethanol as an elution solvent.

RESULTS: Synergistic biofilm formation by P. gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum was significantly inhibited by the polyphenol fraction at a concentration of 250 microg/mL compared with untreated controls (p or = 1 microg/mL (p

CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the polyphenol fraction inhibits biofilm formation and the Arg-gingipain and Lys-gingipain activities of P. gingivalis.

Pages