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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: In-Vitro

Displaying 91 - 100 of 120

Antiviral effects on bacteriophages and rotavirus by cranberry juice.

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Lipson SM, Sethi L, Cohen P, Gordon RE, Tan IP, Burdowski A, Stotzky G.
Journal: 
Phytomedicine 14(1):23-30
Abstract: 

Studies were undertaken to investigate the antiviral effects of comestible juices, especially cranberry juice, on non-related viral species. After exposure of bacteriophage T2 to a commercially available cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice cocktail (CJ), virus infectivity titer was no longer detectible. After a 60-min exposure to orange (OJ) and grapefruit juices (GJ), phage infectivity was reduced to 25-35% of control, respectively. Similar data were observed for the bacteriophage T4. CJ inactivation of phage T4 was rapid, dose-dependent, and occurred at either 4 or 23 degrees C. Neither pH nor differences in sugar/carbohydrate levels among the juices may be ascribed to the recognized antiviral effects. Further studies were performed to identify the occurrence of antiviral activity by CJ to a mammalian enteric virus. The treatment of the simian rotavirus SA-11 with a 20% CJ suspension was sufficient to inhibit hemagglutination. Under scanning and transmission electron microscopy, CJ was observed to inhibit the adsorption of phage T4 to its bacterial host cells and prevented the replication of rotavirus in its monkey kidney (MA-104) host cells, respectively. The data suggest, for the first time, a non-specific antiviral effect towards unrelated viral species (viz., bacteriophages T2 and T4 and the simian rotavirus SA-11) by a commercially available cranberry fruit juice drink.

Impact of cranberry on Escherichia coli cellular surface characteristics

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Johnson BJ, Lin B, Dinderman MA, Rubin RA, Malanoski AP, Ligler FS
Journal: 
Biochem Biophys Res Comm 377(3):992-4
Abstract: 

The anti-adhesive effects of cranberry have been attributed to both interactions of its components with the surface of bacterial cells and to inhibition of p-fimbriae expression. Previous reports also suggested that the presence of cranberry juice changed the Gram stain characteristics of Escherichia coli. Here, we show that the morphology of E. coli is changed when grown in the presence of juice or extract from Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry). Gene expression analysis indicates the down regulation of flagellar basal body rod and motor proteins. Consistent with this finding and previous reports, the SEM images indicate a decrease in the visible p-fimbriae. The iodine used in Gram-staining protocols was found to interact differently with the bacterial membrane when cells were cultured in spiked media. Slight alterations in the Gram stain protocol demonstrated that culturing in the presence of cranberry juice does not change the Gram stain characteristics contradicting other reports.

An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Schmidt DR, Sobota AE
Journal: 
Microbios 55(224-225):173-81
Abstract: 

In a previous investigation it was demonstrated that cranberry juice cocktail was able to inhibit adherence in 77 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from patients with diagnosed urinary tract infections. This work has been extended to include clinical isolates of E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas isolated from urine, sputum, wound and stool. Bacterial strains isolated from urine adhere in greater numbers to urinary tract epithelial cells than organisms isolated from sputum, stool and wound sources. E. coli, isolated from urine, adheres to urinary epithelial cells, in numbers three times greater than E. coli isolated from other clinical sources, and thus appears to represent a unique population of cells in terms of adherence. Cranberry juice cocktail and urine and urinary epithelial cells obtained after drinking the cocktail all demonstrate antiadherence activity against Gram-negative rods isolated from urine and other clinical sources. Drinking the cocktail may be useful in managing urinary tract infections in certain patients.

Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. coli and adhesion with uroepithelial cells

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Liu Y, Gallardo-Moreno AM, Pinzon-Arango PA, Reynolds Y, Rodriguez G, Camesano TA.
Journal: 
Colloids Surface B 65(1):35-42
Abstract: 

Cranberries have been suggested to decrease the attachment of bacteria to uroepithelial cells (UC), thus preventing urinary tract infections, although the mechanisms are not well understood. A thermodynamic approach was used to calculate the Gibbs free energy of adhesion changes (DeltaG(adh)) for bacteria-UC interactions, based on measuring contact angles with three probe liquids. Interfacial tensions and DeltaG(adh) values were calculated for Escherichia coli HB101pDC1 (P-fimbriated) and HB101 (non-fimbriated) exposed to cranberry juice (0-27 wt.%). HB101pDC1 can form strong bonds with the Gal-Gal disaccharide receptor on uroepithelial cells, while HB101-UC interactions are only non-specific. For HB101 interacting with UC, DeltaG(adh) was always negative, suggesting favorable adhesion, and the values were insensitive to cranberry juice concentration. For the HB101pDC1-UC system, DeltaG(adh) became positive at 27wt.% cranberry juice, suggesting that adhesion was unfavorable. Acid-base (AB) interactions dominated the interfacial tensions, compared to Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) interactions. Exposure to cranberry juice increased the AB component of the interfacial tension of HB101pDC1. LW interactions were small and insensitive to cranberry juice concentration. The number of bacteria attached to UC was quantified in batch adhesion assays and quantitatively correlated with DeltaG(adh). Since the thermodynamic approach should not agree with the experimental results when specific interactions are present, such as HB101pDC-UC ligand-receptor bonds, our results may suggest that cranberry juice disrupts bacterial ligand-UC receptor binding. These results help form the mechanistic explanation of how cranberry products can be used to prevent bacterial attachment to host tissue, and may lead to the development of better therapies based on natural products.

Direct adhesion force measurements between E. coli and human uroepithelial cells in cranberry juice cocktail

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Liu Y, Pinzón-Arango PA, Gallardo-Moreno AM, Camesano TA
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 54(12):1744-1752
Abstract: 

Scope: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to directly measure the nanoscale adhesion forces between P-fimbriated Escherichia coli (E. coli) and human uroepithelial cells exposed to cranberry juice, in order to reveal the molecular mechanisms by which cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) affects bacterial adhesion.Methods and results: Bacterial cell probes were created by attaching P-fimbriated E. coli HB101pDC1 or non-fimbriated E. coli HB101 to AFM tips, and the cellular probes were used to directly measure the adhesion forces between E. coli and uroepithelial cells in solutions containing: 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 27 wt% CJC. Macroscale attachment of E. coli to uroepithelial cells was measured and correlated to nanoscale adhesion force measurements. The adhesion forces between E. coli HB101pDC1 and uroepithelial cells were dose-dependent, and decreased from 9.32+/-2.37 nN in the absence of CJC to 0.75+/-0.19 nN in 27 wt% CJC. Adhesion forces between E. coli HB101 and uroepithelial cells were low in buffer (0.74+/-0.18 nN), and did not change significantly in CJC (0.78+/-0.18 nN in 27 wt% CJC; P=0.794).Conclusion: Our study shows that CJC significantly decreases nanoscale adhesion forces between P-fimbriated E. coli and uroepithelial cells.

Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and associated urease by oregano and cranberry phytochemical synergies.

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Lin YT, Kwon YI, Labbe RG, Shetty K
Journal: 
Appl Environ Microbiol 71(12):8558-64
Abstract: 

Ulcer-associated dyspepsia is caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori is linked to a majority of peptic ulcers. Antibiotic treatment does not always inhibit or kill H. pylori with potential for antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for using phenolic phytochemical extracts to inhibit H. pylori in a laboratory medium. Our approach involved the development of a specific phenolic profile with optimization of different ratios of extract mixtures from oregano and cranberry. Subsequently, antimicrobial activity and antimicrobial-linked urease inhibition ability were evaluated. The results indicated that the antimicrobial activity was greater in extract mixtures than in individual extracts of each species. The results also indicate that the synergistic contribution of oregano and cranberry phenolics may be more important for inhibition than any species-specific phenolic concentration. Further, based on plate assay, the likely mode of action may be through urease inhibition and disruption of energy production by inhibition of proline dehydrogenase at the plasma membrane.

Role of cranberry juice on molecular-scale surface characteristics and adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli.

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Liu Y, Black MA, Caron L, Camesano TA
Journal: 
Biotechnol Bioeng 93(2):297-305
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice has long been believed to benefit the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). As the first step in the development of infection, bacterial adhesion is of great research interest, yet few studies have addressed molecular level adhesion in this context. P-fimbriated Escherichia coli play a major role in the development of a serious type of UTI, acute pyelonephritis. Experiments were conducted to investigate the molecular-scale effects of cranberry juice on two E. coli strains: HB101, which has no fimbriae, and the mutant HB101pDC1 which expresses P-fimbriae. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate both bacterial surface characteristics and adhesion forces between a probe surface (silicon nitride) and the bacteria, providing a direct evaluation of bacterial adhesion and interaction forces. Cranberry juice affected bacterial surface polymer and adhesion behavior after a short exposure period (

Berry phenolics selectively inhibit the growth of intestinal pathogens

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Puupponen-Pimiä R, Nohynek L, Hartmann-Schmidlin S, Kähkönen M, Heinonen M, Määttä-Riihinen K, Oksman-Caldentey KM.
Journal: 
J Appl Microbiol 98(4):991-1000
Abstract: 

AIMS: To investigate the effects of berries and berry phenolics on pathogenic intestinal bacteria and to identify single phenolic compounds being responsible for antimicrobial activity.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of eight Nordic berries and their phenolic extracts and purified phenolic fractions were measured against eight selected human pathogens. Pathogenic bacterial strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were selectively inhibited by bioactive berry compounds. Cloudberry and raspberry were the best inhibitors, and Staphylococcus and Salmonella the most sensitive bacteria. Phenolic compounds, especially ellagitannins, were strong inhibitory compounds against Staphylococcus bacteria. Salmonella bacteria were only partly inhibited by the berry phenolics, and most of the inhibition seemed to originate from other compounds, such as organic acids. Listeria strains were not affected by berry compounds, with the exception of cranberry. Phenolic compounds affect the bacteria in different mechanisms.

CONCLUSIONS: Berries and their phenolics selectively inhibit the growth of human pathogenic bacteria.

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Antimicrobial properties of berries could be utilized in functional foods. Furthermore these compounds would be of high interest for further evaluation of their properties as natural antimicrobial agents for food and pharmaceutical industry

Fighting infectious diseases with inhibitors of microbial adhesion to host tissues

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Sharon N, Ofek I
Journal: 
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 42(3 Suppl):267-72
Abstract: 

The majority of infectious diseases are initiated by the adhesion of pathogenic organisms to the tissues of the host. In many cases this adhesion is mediated by lectins present on the surface of the infectious organism that bind to complementary carbohydrates on the surface of the host tissues. Soluble carbohydrates recognized by the bacterial lectins block the adhesion of the bacteria to animal cells in vitro. Moreover, such carbohydrates have been shown to protect against experimental infection by lectin-carrying bacteria of different mammals, such as mice, rabbits, calves, and monkeys. Agents other than carbohydrates also block adhesion, as demonstrated with cranberry juice as well as with low and high molecular weight preparations isolated from the juice. Both kinds of preparation inhibited the adhesion in vitro of Escherichia coli to different animal cells. In addition, the high molecular weight material acted similarly on the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gasrointenstinal cells, and on the coaggregation of oral bacteria. Furthermore, in limited clinical studies regular drinking of cranberry juice had a significant preventive effect on bacteriuria, and the high molecular weight constituent of the juices was also effective in decreasing the salivary level of Streptococus mutans, the major cause of tooth decay. Because the inhibitors of adhesion examined are not bactericidal, the selection of resistant inhibitor strains is unlikely to occur. Together, these findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies that are in dire need because of the world-wide increase in antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori isolates to the antiadhesion activity of a high-molecular-weight constituent of cranberry

Posted: 
November 6, 2010
Authors: 
Shmuely H, Burger O, Neeman I, Yahav J, Samra Z, Niv Y, Sharon N, Weiss E, Athamna A, Tabak M, Ofek I
Journal: 
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 50(4):231-5
Abstract: 

The sensitivity of a large number of antibiotic-resistant and nonresistant Helicobacter pylori isolates to the antiadhesion effect of a high-molecular-mass, nondialysable constituent of cranberry juice was tested. Confluent monolayers of gastric cell line in microtiter plate wells were exposed to bacterial suspensions prepared from 83 H. pylori isolates from antibiotic-treated and untreated patients in the presence and absence of the cranberry constituent. Urease assay was used to calculate the percentage of adhesion inhibition. In two thirds of the isolates, adhesion to the gastric cells was inhibited by 0.2 mg/mL of the nondialysable material. There was no relationship between the antiadhesion effect of the cranberry material and metronidazole resistance in isolates from either treated or untreated patients (N=35). Only 13 isolates (16%) were resistant to both the nondialysable material and metronidazole, and 30 (36%) were resistant to the nondialysable material alone. There was no cross-resistance to the nondialysable material and metronidazole. These data suggest that a combination of antibiotics and a cranberry preparation may improve H. pylori eradication.

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