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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Review

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Cranberry Reduces the Risk of Urinary Tract Infection Recurrence in Otherwise Healthy Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Fu Z, Liska D, Talan D, Chung M
Journal: 
Journal of Nutrition. 147(12):2282-2288
Abstract: 

Background: Cranberry (Vaccinium spp.) has been advocated for treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI); however, its efficacy is controversial. Women have a 50% risk of UTI over their lifetime, and ~20-30% experience a subsequent UTI recurrence.Objective: We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the effect of cranberry on the risk of UTI recurrence in otherwise healthy women.Methods: Literature published before January 2011 was obtained from 2 published systematic reviews, and we conducted updated searches in EMBASE and MEDLINE (through July 2017). We included randomized controlled trials that were conducted in generally healthy nonpregnant women aged >=18 y with a history of UTI, compared cranberry intervention to a placebo or control, and reported the outcome as the number of participants experiencing a UTI. Two researchers conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias assessments independently, and discrepancies were resolved by group consensus. Meta-analyses were performed by using Stata SE software (version 13). We employed a fixed-effect model using the Mantel-Haenszel method to estimate the summary risk if the heterogeneity was low to moderate (I2 300 participants.Conclusion: These results suggest that cranberry may be effective in preventing UTI recurrence in generally healthy women; however, larger high-quality studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Effectiveness of Dietary Supplements in Spinal Cord Injury Subjects.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Navarrete-Opazo A; Cuitino P; Salas I.
Journal: 
Disability & Health Journal. 10(2):183-197
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) consume more dietary supplements than the general population. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical effectiveness of dietary supplements in SCI population. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness of dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of health-related conditions associated with SCI. METHODS: Randomized or non-randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, comparing the effect of any dose and form of a dietary supplement (defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), with either no treatment, placebo, or other medication. Data Sources included the Cochrane Database, DARE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OTSeeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey. Two reviewers independently classified articles from January 1970 through October 2015, and 18 articles were selected. RESULTS: Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. However, high-quality evidence showed that cranberry supplementation is not effective for prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in SCI. Moderate-quality evidence supported a beneficial effect of vitamin D, alpha-lipoic acid, and omega-3 supplementation, although replication of results is needed. There were conflicting results for the effect of creatine supplementation on improvement of motor outcomes. Low-quality evidence does not permit assessment of the effectiveness of melatonin, whey protein, vitamin C, and Chinese herb in SCI. CONCLUSIONS: There is sufficient data suggesting that cranberry supplementation is ineffective for prevention of UTIs in individuals with SCI. There is insufficient data to support or refute the use of any other dietary supplement in individuals with SCI.

Can Cranberries Contribute to Reduce the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis of Clinical Trials.

Posted: 
August 15, 2017
Authors: 
Luis A; Domingues F; Pereira L.
Journal: 
Journal of Urology https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2017.03.078
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: We sought to clarify the association between cranberry intake and the prevention of urinary tract infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review, which complies with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) statement, was done as a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of clinical trials. RESULTS: The findings clearly showed the potential use of cranberries for the clinical condition of urinary tract infection. Cranberry products significantly reduced the incidence of urinary tract infections as indicated by the weighted risk ratio (0.6750, 95% CI 0.5516-0.7965, p <0.0001). The results of subgroup analysis demonstrated that patients at some risk for urinary tract infections were more susceptible to the effects of cranberry ingestion. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study could be used by physicians to recommend cranberry ingestion to decrease the incidence of urinary tract infections, particularly in individuals with recurrent urinary tract infections. This would also reduce the administration of antibiotics, which could be beneficial since antibiotics can lead to the worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms.

Cranberries and urinary tract infections: how can the same evidence lead to conflicting advice?

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Liska, D. J. Kern, H. J. Maki, K. C.
Journal: 
Advances in Nutrition; 2016. 7(3):498-506.
Abstract: 

Cranberry has been used traditionally to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs), primarily among generally healthy women prone to recurrent UTIs. Results from a number of published clinical studies have supported this benefit; however, meta-analyses on cranberry and UTI prevention have reported conflicting conclusions. This article explores the methodological differences that contributed to these disparate findings. Despite similar research questions, the meta-analyses varied in the studies that were included, as well as the data that were extracted. In the 2 most comprehensive systematic reviews, heterogeneity was handled differently, leading to an I2 of 65% in one and 43% in the other. Most notably, the populations influencing the conclusions varied. In one analysis, populations with pathological/physiological conditions contributed 75.6% of the total weight to the summary risk estimate (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.04); another weighted the evidence relatively equally across UTI populations (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.80); and a third included only women with recurrent UTIs (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.83). Because women with recurrent UTIs are the group to whom most recommendations regarding cranberry consumption is directed, inclusion of other groups in the efficacy assessment could influence clinical practice quality. Therefore, conclusions on cranberry and UTIs should consider differences in results across various populations studied when interpreting results from meta-analyses.

The effects of cranberries on preventing urinary tract infections.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Shin CN
Journal: 
Clin Nurs Res 23(1):54-79.
Abstract: 

Despite considerable controversy about their effects, cranberries in various forms have been used widely for several decades to prevent as well as treat urinary tract infections (UTIs). The purpose of this article is to present a review of research-based information regarding the ability of cranberries to prevent UTIs in adults at risk for UTIs. Current evidence suggests that cranberries decrease bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells and thus decrease
the incidence of UTIs without adverse effects in most individuals. Thus clinicians may safely advise patients that cranberries are helpful in preventing UTIs. Cranberries may be a viable adjunct to antibiotics for patients with repeated UTIs.

Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections - 2012

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC.
Journal: 
Cochrane Database Syst Rev doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001321.pub5.
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND:
Cranberries have been used widely for several decades for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs). This is the third update of our review first published in 1998 and updated in 2004 and 2008.
OBJECTIVES:
To assess the effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing UTIs in susceptible populations.
SEARCH METHODS:
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library) and the Internet. We contacted companies involved with the promotion and distribution of cranberry preparations and checked reference lists of review articles and relevant studies.Date of search: July 2012
SELECTION CRITERIA:
All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of cranberry products for the prevention of UTIs.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:
Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Information was collected on methods, participants, interventions and outcomes (incidence of symptomatic UTIs, positive culture results, side effects, adherence to therapy). Risk ratios (RR) were calculated where appropriate, otherwise a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool.
MAIN RESULTS:
This updated review includes a total of 24 studies (six cross-over studies, 11 parallel group studies with two arms; five with three arms, and two studies with a factorial design) with a total of 4473 participants. Ten studies were included in the 2008 update, and 14 studies have been added to this update. Thirteen studies (2380 participants) evaluated only cranberry juice/concentrate; nine studies (1032 participants) evaluated only cranberry tablets/capsules; one study compared cranberry juice and tablets; and one study compared cranberry capsules and tablets. The comparison/control arms were placebo, no treatment, water, methenamine hippurate, antibiotics, or lactobacillus. Eleven studies were not included in the meta-analyses because either the design was a cross-over study and data were not reported separately for the first phase, or there was a lack of relevant data. Data included in the meta-analyses showed that, compared with placebo, water or not treatment, cranberry products did not significantly reduce the occurrence of symptomatic UTI overall (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.04) or for any the subgroups: women with recurrent UTIs (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.31); older people (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.44); pregnant women (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.17); children with recurrent UTI (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.22); cancer patients (RR 1.15 95% CI 0.75 to 1.77); or people with neuropathic bladder or spinal injury (RR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.20). Overall heterogeneity was moderate (I² = 55%). The effectiveness of cranberry was not significantly different to antibiotics for women (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.85, 2.02) and children (RR 0.69 95% CI 0.32 to 1.51). There was no significant difference between gastrointestinal adverse effects from cranberry product compared to those of placebo/no treatment (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.27). Many studies reported low compliance and high withdrawal/dropout problems which they attributed to palatability/acceptability of the products, primarily the cranberry juice. Most studies of other cranberry products (tablets and capsules) did not report how much of the 'active' ingredient the product contained, and therefore the products may not have had enough potency to be effective.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:
Prior to the current update it appeared there was some evidence that cranberry juice may decrease the number of symptomatic UTIs over a 12 month period, particularly for women with recurrent UTIs. The addition of 14 further studies suggests that cranberry juice is less effective than previously indicated. Although some of small studies demonstrated a small benefit for women with recurrent UTIs, there were no statistically significant differences when the results of a much larger study were included. Cranberry products were not significantly different to antibiotics for preventing UTIs in three small studies. Given the large number of dropouts/withdrawals from studies (mainly attributed to the acceptability of consuming cranberry products particularly juice, over long periods), and the evidence that the benefit for preventing UTI is small, cranberry juice cannot currently be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Other preparations (such as powders) need to be quantified using standardised methods to ensure the potency, and contain enough of the 'active' ingredient, before being evaluated in clinical studies or recommended for use.

Cranberry and recurrent cystitis: more than marketing?.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Micali S, Isgro G, Bianchi G, Miceli N, Calapai G, Navarra M
Journal: 
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54(8):1063-75
Abstract: 

Epidemiologic studies indicate that millions of people suffer from recurrent cystitis, a pathology requiring antibiotic prophylaxis and entailing high social costs. Cranberry is a traditional folk remedy for cystitis and, which, in the form of a variety of products and formulations has over several decades undergone extensive evaluation for the management of urinary tract infections (UTI). The aim of this retrospective study is to summarize and review the most relevant and recent preclinical and clinical studies on cranberries for the treatment of UTIs. The scientific literature selected for this review was identified by searches of Medline via PubMed. A variety of recent experimental evidence has shed light on the mechanism underlying the anti-adhesive properties of proanthrocyanidins, their structure-activity relationships, and pharmacokinetics. Analysis of clinical studies and evaluation of the cranberry efficacy/safety ratio in the prevention of UTIs strongly support the use of cranberry in the prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs in young and middle-aged women. However, evidence of its clinical use among other patients remains controversial.

Exploring the role of cranberry polyphenols in periodontits: A brief review.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Mukherjee M, Bandyopadhyay P, Kundu D
Journal: 
J Indian Soc Periodontol 18(2):136-9
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice polyphenols have gained importance over the past decade due to their promising health benefits. The bioactive component, proanthocyanidins is mainly responsible for its protective effect. A lot has been said about its role in urinary tract infection and other systemic diseases, but little is known about its oral benefits. An extensive search was carried out in the PubMed database using the terms "cranberry polyphenols" and "periodontitis" together. The institute library was also thoroughly scrutinized for all relevant information. Thus, a paper was formulated, the aim of which was to review the role of high molecular weight cranberry fraction on oral tissues and periodontal diseases.

Prevention of urinary tract infections with Vaccinium products.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Davidson E, Zimmermann BF, Jungfer E, Chrubasik-Hausmann S
Journal: 
Phytother Res 28(3):465-70
Abstract: 

Cranberries exert a dose-dependent inhibition of the adherence of E. coli fimbriae to uroepithelial cells. This was demonstrated in vitro but also ex vivo in vitro with urine from cranberry consumers. The active principle has not been identified in detail but type-A proanthocyanidins (PAC) play an important role in the mechanism of action. Since the three species, American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), European cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) and/or lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), have different patterns of type-A PACs, results from one species cannot be transferred to the others. It seems likely that most of the studies with monopreparations from V. macrocarpon were underdosed. Whereas photometric PAC quantification may overestimate the true content on co-active compounds, reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatograpy may underestimate them. Recent studies with PAC doses in the upper range (DMAC method) or declared type-A PAC content in the daily dose reveal a dose-dependent trend of clinical effectiveness, however, with a possible ceiling effect. In order to clarify this, future three-arm studies should investigate Vaccinium preparations with higher type-A PAC doses than previously used. We analysed two popular European vitis-idaea products, a mother juice and a proprietary extract. Both preparations may be appropriate to confirm the Vaccinium urinary tract infection-preventive effect beyond doubt.

Cranberries and their bioactive constituents in human health.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Blumberg JB, Camesano TA, Cassidy A, Kris-Etherton P, Howell A, Manach C, Ostertag LM, Sies H, Skulas-Ray A, Vita JA
Journal: 
Adv Nutr 4(6):618-32
Abstract: 

Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears to be due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from that of other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in contrast to the B-type PACs present in most other fruit. Basic research has suggested a number of potential mechanisms of action of cranberry bioactives, although further molecular studies are necessary. Human studies on the health effects of cranberry products have focused principally on urinary tract and cardiovascular health, with some attention also directed to oral health and gastrointestinal epithelia. Evidence suggesting that cranberries may decrease the recurrence of urinary tract infections is important because a nutritional approach to this condition could lower the use of antibiotic treatment and the consequent development of resistance to these drugs. There is encouraging, but limited, evidence of a cardioprotective effect of cranberries mediated via actions on antioxidant capacity and lipoprotein profiles. The mixed outcomes from clinical studies with cranberry products could result from interventions testing a variety of products, often uncharacterized in their composition of bioactives, using different doses and regimens, as well as the absence of a biomarker for compliance to the protocol. Daily consumption of a variety of fruit is necessary to achieve a healthy dietary pattern, meet recommendations for micronutrient intake, and promote the intake of a diversity of phytochemicals. Berry fruit, including cranberries, represent a rich source of phenolic bioactives that may contribute to human health.

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