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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Animal

Displaying 11 - 20 of 25

Attenuation of quorum sensing controlled virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by cranberry.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Harjai K, Gupta RK, Sehgal H
Journal: 
Indian J Med Res 139(3):446-53
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has led to the search for alternative agents for infections control. Natural products have been a good alternative to present antibiotics. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of cranberry in attenuation of virulence of P. aeruginosa in experimental urinary tract infection (UTI) in mouse model. Efforts were also directed to explore the action of cranberry towards virulence of P. aeruginosa through quorum sensing (QS) inhibition.

METHODS: Efficacy of cranberry was evaluated in an experimental UTI mouse model and on production of QS signals, alginate, pyochelin, haemolysin, phospholipase-C, cell-surface hydrophobicity, uroepithelial cell-adhesion assay and biofilm formation by already standardized methods.

RESULTS: Presence of cranberry showed significant decline in the production of QS signals, biofilm formation and virulence factors of P. aeruginosa in vitro (P<0.001). Further, cranberry was found to be useful in prevention of experimental UTI in mouse model as indicated by reduced renal bacterial colonization and kidney tissues destruction.

INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study indicated that cranberry inhibited QS and hence elaboration of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. It also affected the adherence ability of this pathogen. This approach can lead to the discovery of new category of safe anti-bacterial drugs from dietary sources such as cranberry with reduced toxicity without the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Consumption of cranberry beverage improved endogenous antioxidant status and protected against bacteria adhesion in healthy humans: a randomized controlled trial.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Mathison BD, Kimble LL, Kaspar KL, Khoo C, Chew BP
Journal: 
Nutr Res 34(5):420-7
Abstract: 

Consumption of polyphenol-rich foods is associated with lower risk from many chronic diseases. We hypothesized that a single dose of cranberry beverage would improve indices of oxidative stress, inflammation, and urinary antibacterial adhesion activity in healthy humans. Six males and 6 females (18-35 years; body mass index, 19-25 kg/m(2)) consumed placebo, cranberry leaf extract beverage, or low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (LCJC) once in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design trial. The washout period between beverages was 1 week. Blood was collected 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after beverage consumption for measuring oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers. Urine was collected at 0, 0 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, and 24 hours postintervention to assess antibacterial adhesion activity. Consumption of cranberry leaf extract beverage elevated (P < .05) blood glutathione peroxidase activity, whereas LCJC consumption increased (P < .05) glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity compared with placebo. Cranberry leaf extract beverage and LCJC consumption had no effect on the inflammatory biomarkers measured as compared with placebo. At 0 to 3 hours postconsumption, urine from participants who consumed cranberry beverages had higher (P < .05) ex vivo antiadhesion activity against P-fimbriated Escherichia coli compared with placebo. An acute dose of cranberry beverages improved biomarkers of antioxidant status and inhibition of bacterial adhesion in urine. Copyright 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Urine post equivalent daily cranberry juice consumption may opsonize uropathogenicity of Escherichia coli.

Posted: 
February 15, 2014
Authors: 
Chen CS, Ho DR, Chang PJ, Lin WY, Huang YC
Journal: 
J Infect Chemother 19(5):812-7
Abstract: 

Basic studies have proven that cranberries may prevent urinary tract infections through changing the adhesiveness of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to urothelial cells. Various cranberry preparations, including extract powder, capsules, and juice, have been shown to be effective in clinical and epidemiological research. Because cranberries are most commonly consumed as juice in a diluted concentration, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the equivalent daily dose of cranberry juice is sufficient to modify host urine to change the uropathogenicity of E. coli. Urine from rats taking an equivalent daily dose of cranberry juice has been shown to decrease the capability of E. coli in hemagglutination, urothelium adhesion, nematode killing, and biofilm formation. All these changes occurred after E. coli was incubated in cranberry metabolite-containing urine, defined as urine opsonization. Urine opsonization of E. coli resulted in 40.9% (p = 0.0038) decrease in hemagglutination ability, 66.7% (p = 0.0181) decrease in urothelium adhesiveness, 16.7% (p = 0.0004) increase in the 50% lethal time in killing nematodes, and 53.9% (p = 5.9 x 10(-4)) decrease in biofilm formation. Thus, an equivalent daily dose of cranberry juice should be considered sufficiently potent to demonstrate urine opsonization in E. coli.

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of cranberry press cake extracts alone or in combination with -lactams against Staphylococcus aureus

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Diarra MS, Block G, Rempel H, Oomah BD, Harrison J, McCallum J, Boulanger S, Brouillette E, Gattuso M, Malouin F
Journal: 
BMC Complem Altern M 13:90
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Cranberry fruits possess many biological activities partly due to their various phenolic compounds; however the underlying modes of action are poorly understood. We studied the effect of cranberry fruit extracts on the gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus to identify specific cellular processes involved in the antibacterial action.
METHODS: Transcriptional profiles of four S. aureus strains grown in broth supplemented or not with 2 mg/ml of a commercial cranberry preparation (Nutricran90) were compared using DNA arrays to reveal gene modulations serving as markers for biological activity. Ethanol extracted pressed cakes from fresh fruits also produced various fractions and their effects on marker genes were demonstrated by qPCR. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the most effective cranberry fraction (FC111) were determined against multiple S. aureus strains and drug interactions with -lactam antibiotics were also evaluated. Incorporation assays with [(3)H]-radiolabeled precursors were performed to evaluate the effect of FC111 on DNA, RNA, peptidoglycan (PG) and protein biosynthesis.
RESULTS: Treatment of S. aureus with Nutricran90 or FC111 revealed a transcriptional signature typical of PG-acting antibiotics (up-regulation of genes vraR/S, murZ, lytM, pbp2, sgtB, fmt). The effect of FC111 on PG was confirmed by the marked inhibition of incorporation of D-[(3)H]alanine. The combination of -lactams and FC111 in checkerboard assays revealed a synergistic activity against S. aureus including strain MRSA COL, which showed a 512-fold drop of amoxicillin MIC in the presence of FC111 at MIC/8. Finally, a therapeutic proof of concept was established in a mouse mastitis model of infection. S. aureus-infected mammary glands were treated with amoxicillin, FC111 or a combination of both; only the combination significantly reduced bacterial counts from infected glands (P CONCLUSIONS: The cranberry fraction FC111 affects PG synthesis of S. aureus and acts in synergy with -lactam antibiotics. Such a fraction easily obtained from poorly exploited press-cake residues, may find interesting applications in the agri-food sector and help reduce antibiotic usage in animal food production.

Protective potential of non-dialyzable material fraction of cranberry juice on the virulence of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum mixed infection.

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Polak D, Naddaf R, Shapira L, Weiss EI, Houri-Haddad Y
Journal: 
J Periodontol 84(7):1019-25
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a polymicrobial infectious disease. A novel potential chemical treatment modality may lie in bacterial anti-adhesive materials, such as cranberry juice fractions. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of high molecular weight cranberry constituent (non-dialyzable material [NDM]) on the virulence of a mixed infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in mice.
METHODS: In vitro, the anti-adhesive property of NDM was validated on epithelial cell culture, and inhibition of coaggregation was tested using a coaggregation assay. The in vivo effect was tested on the outcome of experimental periodontitis induced by a P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum mixed infection, and also on the local host response using the subcutaneous chamber model of infection. Phagocytosis was also tested on RAW macrophages by the use of fluorescent-labeled bacteria.
RESULTS: NDM was found to inhibit the adhesion of both species of bacteria onto epithelial cells and to inhibit coaggregation in a dose-dependent manner. NDM consumption by mice attenuated the severity of experimental periodontitis compared with a mixed infection without NDM treatment. In infected subcutaneous chambers, NDM alone reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels induced by the mixed infection. In vitro, NDM eliminated TNF-alpha expression by macrophages that were exposed to P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum, without impairing their viability. Furthermore, NDM increased the phagocytosis of P. gingivalis.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the use of NDM may hold potential protective and/or preventive modalities in periodontal disease. Underlying mechanisms for this trait may perhaps be the anti-adhesive properties of NDM or its potential effect on inflammation.

Effects of cranberry extract in the treatment of urinary tract infections in sows

Posted: 
October 30, 2012
Authors: 
Mazutti K, Alberton GC, Ferreira FM, Lunardon I, Zotti E, Weber S
Journal: 
"Arch Vet Sci
Abstract: 

The experiment consisted in assessing the effectiveness of a commercial product based on cranberry extracts (pHDReg.-Biomin LTDA) in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in sows. Were used 42 sows, with gestational ages ranging between 50 and 70 days, either suffering from UTI or not. Healthy animals were differentiated from affected animals by urinalysis and urine culture. The experiment was composed of sows with UTI that received the cranberry extract product in the diet for a period of 14 days; sows negative for UTI (negative controls) and sows positive for UTI (positive controls). The former two groups did not receive the cranberry extract product in the diet. Urine samples were collected on days zero, seven and 14 after initiation of treatment. Complete urinalysis of these samples, urine specific gravity, pH, bacterial count and bacterial isolation were performed. E. coli was the most frequent isolated agent (90.62%). The results showed that the commercial product made with cranberry extract was effective in promoting a reduction of urinary pH, but did not interfere in any other parameters observed.

Do Escherichia coli extract and cranberry exert preventive effects on chronic bacterial prostatitis? Pilot study using an animal model

Posted: 
January 22, 2012
Authors: 
Kim SH, Ha US, Lee HR, Sohn DW, Lee SJ, Kim HW, Han CH, Lee CB, Cho YH
Journal: 
J Infect Chemother 17: 3, 322-326
Abstract: 

Traditional first-line treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is administration of empirical antibiotics. However, the efficacy rate is low and long-term antibiotic therapy can result in adverse events and bacterial resistance. For these reasons, a new treatment or preventive modality that can replace traditional antibiotic therapy is required. There are several reports that E. coli extract has a preventive effect on recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Cranberries are also known to have beneficial effects in preventing UTI. To evaluate the preventive effect of E. coli extract and cranberries on CBP, 48 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups; control, ciprofloxacin, E. coli extract, and cranberry groups. All drug treatments were conducted for 3 weeks, and then we developed a CBP rat model. After 4 weeks, the results of microbiological culture of prostate and urine samples as well as histological findings for the prostate were analyzed for each group. The infection rate in the ciprofloxacin group was significantly lower than that in the control group. The microbiological cultures of the prostate and urine samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Histopathologic examination showed significantly decreased prostatic inflammation in all groups compared with the control group. These results suggest that E. coli extract has a potential preventive effect on the development of CBP, and cranberry also exhibits promising activity in this context

Determination of cranberry phenolic metabolites in rats by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Posted: 
January 17, 2012
Authors: 
Rajbhandari R, Peng N, Moore R, Arabshahi A, Wyss JM, Barnes S, Prasain JK
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 59(12):6682-8
Abstract: 

The glycosides of flavonoid, anthocyanins and A type proanthocyanidins in cranberry concentrate were characterized and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Cranberry concentrate (1 g/body weight) was orally gavaged to Fischer-344 rats (n = 6), and blood and urine samples were collected over 24 h periods. Quercetin, 3'-O-methylquercetin (isorhamnetin), myricetin, kaempferol, and proanthocyanidin dimer A2, together with thirteen conjugated metabolites of quercetin and methylquercetin and intact peonidin 3-O-galactoside and cyanidin 3-O-galactoside were identified in the rat urine after cranberry treatment. Very low levels of isorhamnetin (0.48 +/- 0.09 ng/mL) and proanthocyanidin dimer A2 (0.541 +/- 0.10 ng/mL) were found in plasma samples after 1 h of cranberry administration. Although no quercetin was detected in plasma, MRM analysis of the methanolic extract of urinary bladder showed that chronic administration of cranberry concentrate to rats resulted in accumulation of quercetin and isorhamnetin in the bladder. These results demonstrate that cranberry components undergo rapid metabolism and elimination into the urine of rats and are present in the urinary bladder tissue potentially allowing them to inhibit urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

Effect of american cranberry (Cysticlean) on Escherichia coli adherence to bladder epithelial cells. In vitro and in vivo study.

Posted: 
November 15, 2010
Authors: 
Risco E, Miguelez C, Sanchez de Badajoz E, Rouseaud A
Journal: 
Arch Esp Urol 63(6):422-30
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: The American cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) are the main responsible for its efficacy in urinary tract infections. Their mechanism of action is related to inhibition of Escherichia coli to urothelial cells. Cysticlean contains an extract of American cranberry which provides 118 mg of PACs per dose. The activity of Cysticlean tablets on Escherichia Coli adherence to bladder epithelial cells has been studied in vitro. Moreover, the activity of Cistyclean both in powder for oral suspension and tablets has been compared ex-vivo. METHODS: The rats received both Cysticlean preparations per orem, and urine from each animal was collected during the following 16 hours and preincubated with E. coli. Subsequently, bacteria were incubated with T24 cells. After 1 hour the number of bacteria adhered per cell was calculated. For the in vitro study, E. Coli preincubated at various concentrations of the products were incubated with T24 cells and the same process previously referred was carried out. RESULTS: Urine samples from rats taking Cysticlean powder for oral suspension and tablets (118 mg PACs/animal) showed an important inhibition of E. Coli adherence (83% and 52%respectively). The inferior dose of 59 mg PACs/animal also showed marked inhibition of E. Coli adherence (29% after Cysticlean tablets intake and 40% for powder). In vitro, Cysticlean showed inhibition of bacterial adherence in all tested concentrations: 5, 25 and 75 PACs mg/ml, diminishing the number og bacteria adhered to epithelial cells by 25%, 36% and 34% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cysticlean shows a significant inhibition of E. Coli adherence to urothelial cells. Cysticlean powder for suspensión preparation is more effective tha tablets. Cysticlean powder for suspensión is well tolerated, and compliance has been observed. Its use is very recommendable in pediatric urinary tract infection prophylaxis. Due to the variety of products with American cranberry extracts in the market, with different proanthocyanidins declared content, it would be interesting to compare their activity using established pharmacological methods.

Protective effects of cranberries on infection-induced oxidative renal damage in a rabbit model of vesico-ureteric reflux

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Han CH, Kim SH, Kang SH, Shin OR, Lee HK, Kim HJ and Cho YH
Journal: 
BJU Int 100(5):1172-5
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of cranberry fruit, which have known antioxidant effects, on infection-induced oxidative renal damage in a rabbit model of vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 36 New Zealand male rabbits were divided into five groups, with a sham operation in four rabbits serving as the control (group 1). To create unilateral VUR the roof of the left intravesical ureter was incised, and VUR confirmed 2 weeks after surgery. In all, 32 rabbits with VUR were divided into four groups; 2, VUR alone (with sterile urine); 3, a group infected with Escherichia coli; 4, with intravesical E. coli instillation but fed cranberries; and 5, intravesical E. coli instillation plus an intraperitoneal injection with melatonin group. At 3 weeks after surgery the rabbits were killed, the kidneys obtained and examined histopathologically to evaluate inflammation, fibrosis and tubular changes. Oxidative renal damage was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde in the renal tissue. RESULTS: Grossly, the refluxing kidney was larger than the contralateral normal kidney, and the refluxing ureter was dilated and tortuous. Microscopy of tissues from the kidneys in group 3 showed apparent periglomerular mononuclear cell infiltration, tubular dilatation and atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. The kidneys from groups 2, 4 and 5 showed mild mononuclear cell infiltration with no interstitial fibrosis. The level of malondialdehyde in the kidneys of group 3 was significantly higher than that in group 2, 4 and 5 (P

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