Back to top

Search

Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Animal

Displaying 21 - 25 of 25

Effect of cranberry juice concentrate on chemically-induced urinary bladder cancers.

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Prasain JK, Jones K, Moore R, Barnes S, Leahy M, Roderick R, Juliana MM, Grubbs CJ
Journal: 
Oncol Rep 19(6):1565-70
Abstract: 

The chemopreventive efficacy of cranberry juice concentrate in an experimental model of urinary bladder cancer was evaluated using female Fischer-344 rats. The animals received N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for a period of eight weeks. Cranberry juice concentrate was administered at doses of 1.0 or 0.5 ml/rat/day beginning one week after the final OH-BBN treatment and continuing until the end of the study. The urinary bladders of all the rats were weighed and examined grossly for lesions, and all masses were submitted for pathological evaluation. A dose-dependent preventive effect of cranberry treatment was observed, with a reduced number of urinary bladder cancers (38%) in the 1.0 ml/rat/day group versus the control group. The cranberry extract neither affected body weight gain nor caused other signs of toxicity. For the metabolic studies, serum and urine were collected at 4 and 12 h after the administration of the cranberry juice concentrate and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Quercetin and its methylated derivative were detected in the urine samples. However, no quercetin was detected in the serum samples, indicating its poor bioavailability. These data suggest that components of cranberries may be effective in preventing urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

Preventive effect of a pectic polysaccharide of the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Popov SV, Markov PA, Nikitina IR, Petrishev S, Smirnov V, Ovodov YS
Journal: 
World J Gastroenterol 12(41):6646-51
Abstract: 

AIM: To study isolation and chemical characterization of pectin derived from the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (oxycoccusan OP) and the testing of its preventive effect on experimental colitis.

METHODS: Mice were administrated orally with OP two days prior to a rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 h later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury and enhanced levels of myeloperoxidase activity measured spectrophotometrically with o-phenylene diamine as the substrate. The mucus contents of the colon were determined by the Alcian blue dye binding method. Vascular permeability was estimated using 4% Evans blue passage after i.p. injection of 0.05 mol/L acetic acid.

RESULTS: In the mice treated with OP, colonic macroscopic scores (1.1+/-0.4 vs 2.7, P

CONCLUSION: Thus, a preventive effect of pectin from the common cranberry, namely oxycoccusan OP, on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice was detected. A reduction of neutrophil infiltration and antioxidant action may be implicated in the protective effect of oxycoccusan.

Urinary Excretion of (Epi)catechins in Rats Fed Different Berries or Berry Products

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Khanal RC, Howard LR, Wilkes SE, Rogers TJ, Prior RL
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 58:11257-11264
Abstract: 

(Epi)catechins are associated with many health benefits in humans. However, their bioavailability, excretory pattern, and extent of conjugation in animals fed different sources or levels in the diet are not well documented. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the urinary excretion of (epi)catechins after feeding of different types of berries or different levels of the same berry source to rats. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of feeding a commercially available concentrated cranberry powder (CCP) at three different levels, 3.3, 6.6, and 33 g/kg of diet, whereas experiment 2 investigated the effect of feeding freeze-dried whole cranberry (CB), blueberry (BB), or black raspberry (BRB) powder at 50 g/kg of diet. Both experiments had an AIN-93-based control and a high-fructose diet (53-65% of the diet) to which was added three levels of CCP in experiment 1 and CB, BB, and BRB in experiment 2. (Epi)catechins were excreted as free and conjugated in both intact and methylated forms. Excretion of conjugated (epi)catechins was as high as 60% of the total consumed in some cases. A majority of both catechins and epicatechins excreted in the urine was in a methylated form. Excretion of epicatechins, including their methylated forms, ranged from 30 to 47% of the ingested amount, whereas that of catechins, including their methylated forms, ranged from 9 to 31%. Urinary excretion of (epi)catechins was dose dependent and increased with the amount of (epi)catechins present in the diet. On the basis of the excretory pattern of (epi)catechins in the urine, data suggested that the bioavailability of epicatechins may be higher than that of catechins and that (epi)catechins may be more available from blueberries compared to cranberries.

Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Prior RL, Rogers TR, Khanal RC, Wilkes SE, Wu X, Howard LR
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 58(7):3940-9
Abstract: 

Dietary flavonoids can be converted into phenolic acids by colonic microflora. Phenolic acids can then be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the health-promoting effects of the parent compounds. Phenolic acids can be further metabolized in other tissues via methylation and conjugation with glucuronide or sulfate. The objectives of this study were to identify and quantify the urinary excretion of 19 phenolic acids and their conjugates in rats fed three levels of a concentrated cranberry powder (3.3, 6.6, and 33 mg/kg of diet). The basic diet used was AIN93G diet containing very low amounts of any polyphenolic compounds. Of the phenolic acids studied, the amounts excreted varied by 4 orders of magnitude, with hippuric acid being excreted in the highest quantities. Amounts of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4HPAA), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3HPAA), 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (3HPPA), and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4HCA) excreted were in the range of 18-33 microg/mg creatinine in animals fed the highest level of cranberry powder, whereas phenylacetic acid (PAA), gallic acid (GA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (34HPAA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (34HBA), 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (34HCA), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (FA) were excreted in the urine in concentrations of 0.1-2 microg/mg creatinine. As the amount of cranberry in the diet was increased, the amount of 4HPAA excreted decreased but the percentage of conjugated 4HPAA excreted increased (from 57 to 91%). For other phenolic acids analyzed, the percentage excreted in the conjugated form was approximately constant across levels of cranberry in the diet and ranged from 65 to 100% for the individual phenolic acids. Studies of bioactivity and health effects need to consider more than just the compound(s) in the food, because they can be metabolized to other lower molecular weight compounds, which in turn may also be methylated or conjugated in some form that may affect the perceived health effects.

Influence of cranberry proanthocyanidins on formation of biofilms by Streptococcus mutans on saliva-coated apatitic surface and on dental caries development in vivo.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Koo H, Duarte S, Murata RM, Scott-Anne K, Gregoire S, Watson GE, Singh AP, Vorsa N.
Journal: 
Caries Res 44(2):116-126
Abstract: 

Cranberry crude extracts, in various vehicles, have shown inhibitory effects on the formation of oral biofilms in vitro. The presence of proanthocyanidins (PAC) in cranberry extracts has been linked to biological activities against specific virulence attributes of Streptococcus mutans, e.g. the inhibition of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of a highly purified and chemically defined cranberry PAC fraction on S. mutans biofilm formation on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface, and on dental caries development in Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, we examined the ability of specific PAC (ranging from low-molecular-weight monomers and dimers to high-molecular-weight oligomers/polymers) to inhibit GtfB activity and glycolytic pH drop by S. mutans cells, in an attempt to identify specific bioactive compounds. Topical applications (60-second exposure, twice daily) with PAC (1.5 mg/ml) during biofilm formation resulted in less biomass and fewer insoluble polysaccharides than the biofilms treated with vehicle control had (10% ethanol, v/v; p

Pages