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2015

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Standardized cranberry capsules for radiation cystitis in prostate cancer patients in New Zealand: a randomized double blinded, placebo controlled pilot study

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Hamilton K, Bennett NC, Purdie G, Herst PM
Journal: 
Support Care Cancer 23(1):95-102
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: Acute radiation cystitis, inflammation of the bladder, is a common side effect in men receiving external beam radiation for prostate cancer. Although several treatments provide symptomatic relief, there is no effective treatment to prevent or treat radiation cystitis. Cranberry products have been associated with urinary tract health. This study aimed to determine the effect of highly standardized cranberry capsules (containing 72 mg proanthocyanidins [PACS]) compared with that of placebo capsules on the incidence and severity of radiation cystitis.
METHODS: Forty-one men with prostate cancer participated in a double blinded randomized placebo controlled study. Men took one capsule a day at breakfast during treatment and for 2 weeks after treatment completion. Severity of urinary symptoms and the bother these caused were measured using the individual items of the urinary domain of the Modified Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC).
RESULTS: The incidence of cystitis was lower in men taking cranberry capsules (65%) compared with those that took placebo capsules (90%) (p=0.058); severe cystitis was seen in 30% of men in the cranberry arm and 45% in the placebo arm (p=0.30). Overall, the incidence of pain/burning was significantly lower in the cranberry cohort (p=0.045). Men on the low hydration regimen who took cranberry had less pain/burning (p=0.038), stronger urine steam (p=0.030) and used significantly fewer pads/liners (p=0.042), which was significantly different from those on the high hydration regimen (p=0.028).
CONCLUSION: Men receiving radiation therapy for prostate cancer may benefit from using cranberry capsules, particularly those on low hydration regimens or with baseline urinary symptoms.

The cranberry flavonoids PAC DP-9 and quercetin aglycone induce cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest and increase cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Wang Y, Han A, Chen E, Singh RK, Chichester CO, Moore RG, Singh AP, Vorsa N
Journal: 
Int J Oncol 46(5):1924-34
Abstract: 

Cranberry flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols), in addition to their antioxidant properties, have been shown to possess potential in vitro activity against several cancers. However, the difficulty of isolating cranberry compounds has largely limited anticancer research to crude fractions without well-defined compound composition. In this study, individual cranberry flavonoids were isolated to the highest purity achieved so far using gravity and high performance column chromatography and LC-MS characterization. MTS assay indicated differential cell viability reduction of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells treated with individual cranberry flavonoids. Treatment with quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, which exhibited the strongest activity, induced apoptosis, led to caspase-3 activation and PARP deactivation, and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and western blot study revealed reduced expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in PAC DP-9 treated SKOV-3 cells. In addition, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9 deactivated MAPK-ERK pathway, induced downregulation of cyclin D1, DNA-PK, phospho-histone H3 and upregulation of p21, and arrested cell cycle progression. Overall, this study demonstrates promising in vitro cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties of two newly characterized cranberry flavonoids, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, against ovarian cancer cells.

A polyphenol-rich cranberry extract protects from diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance and intestinal inflammation in association with increased Akkermansia spp. population in the gut microbiota of mice.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Anhê FF, Roy D, Pilon G, Dudonné S, Matamoros S, Varin TV, Garofalo C, Moine Q, Desjardins Y, Levy E, Marette A
Journal: 
Gut pii: gutjnl-2014-307142
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) demonstrates the failure of conventional treatments to curb these diseases. The gut microbiota has been put forward as a key player in the pathophysiology of
diet-induced T2D. Importantly, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) is associated with a number of beneficial health effects. We aimed to investigate the metabolic impact of a cranberry extract (CE) on high fat/high sucrose (HFHS)-fed mice and to determine whether its consequent antidiabetic effects are related to modulations in the gut microbiota.
DESIGN: C57BL/6J mice were fed either a chow or a HFHS diet. HFHS-fed mice were gavaged daily either with vehicle (water) or CE (200 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. The composition of the gut microbiota was assessed by analysing 16S rRNA gene
sequences with 454 pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: CE treatment was found to reduce HFHS-induced weight gain and visceral obesity. CE treatment also decreased liver weight and triglyceride accumulation in association with blunted hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation. CE
administration improved insulin sensitivity, as revealed by improved insulin tolerance, lower homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and decreased glucose-induced hyperinsulinaemia during an oral glucose tolerance test. CE treatment was found to lower intestinal triglyceride content and to alleviate intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress. Interestingly, CE treatment markedly increased the proportion of the mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia in
our metagenomic samples.
CONCLUSIONS: CE exerts beneficial metabolic effects through improving HFHS
diet-induced features of the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with a
proportional increase in Akkermansia spp. population.

Cranberry extract standardized for proanthocyanidins promotes the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK pathway and HSF-1.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Dinh J, Angeloni JT, Pederson DB, Wang X, Cao M, Dong Y
Journal: 
PLoS One 9(7):e103290.
Abstract: 

Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry
phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP), a major component of
cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype)) infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but
upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs), may play an important role in enhancing the host innate
immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins have anti-biofilm properties against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Ulrey RK, Barksdale SM, Zhou W, van Hoek ML
Journal: 
BMC Complement Altern Med 14:499.
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Bacteria within a biofilm are phenotypically more resistant to antibiotics, desiccation, and the host immune system, making it an important virulence factor for many microbes. Cranberry juice has long been used to prevent
infections of the urinary tract, which are often related to biofilm formation. Recent studies have found that the A-type proanthocyanidins from cranberries have anti-biofilm properties against Escherichia coli.
METHODS: Using crystal violet biofilm staining, resazurin metabolism assays, and confocal imaging, we examined the ability of A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) to disrupt the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We used mass spectrometry to analyze the proteomic effects of PAC treatment. We also performed synergy assays and in vitro and in vivo infections to determine whether PACs, alone and in combination with gentamicin, could contribute to the killing of P. aeruginosa and the survival of cell lines and G. mellonella. RESULTS: Cranberry PACs reduced P. aeruginosa swarming motility. Cranberry PACs significantly disrupted the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Proteomics analysis revealed significantly different proteins expressed following PAC treatment. In addition, we found that PACs potentiated the antibiotic activity of gentamicin in an in vivo model of infection using G. mellonella. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that A-type proanthocyanidins may be a useful therapeutic against the biofilm-mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa and
should be further tested.

Cranberry versus placebo in the prevention of urinary infections in multiple sclerosis: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Gallien P, Amarenco G, Benoit N, Bonniaud V, Donzé C, Kerdraon J, de Seze M, Denys P, Renault A, Naudet F, Reymann JM.
Journal: 
Mult Scler 20(9):1252-1259.
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the usefulness of cranberry extract in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffering from urinary disorders.
METHODS: In total, 171 adult MS outpatients with urinary disorders presenting at eight centers were randomized (stratification according to center and use of clean intermittent self-catheterization) to cranberry versus placebo in a 1-year,
prospective, double-blind study that was analyzed using a sequential method on an intent-to-treat basis. An independent monitoring board analyzed the results of the analyses each time 40 patients were assessed on the main endpoint. Cranberry extract (36 mg proanthocyanidins per day) or a matching placebo was taken by participants twice daily for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the time to first symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), subject to validation by a validation committee.
RESULTS: The second sequential analyses allowed us to accept the null hypothesis (no difference between cranberry and placebo). There was no difference in time to first symptomatic UTI distribution across 1 year, with an estimated hazard ratio
of 0.99, 95% CI [0.61, 1.60] (p = 0.97). Secondary endpoints and tolerance did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSION: Taking cranberry extract versus placebo twice a day did not prevent UTI occurrence in MS patients with urinary disorders. Trial Registration NCT00280592.

Effect of standardized cranberry extract on the activity and expression of selected biotransformation enzymes in rat liver and intestine.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Bártíková H, Boušová I, Jedličková P, Lněničková K, Skálová L, Szotáková B
Journal: 
Molecules 19(9):14948-60.
Abstract: 

The use of dietary supplements containing cranberry extract is a common way to prevent urinary tract infections. As consumption of these supplements containing a mixture of concentrated anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins has increased, interest in their possible interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes has grown. In this in vivo study, rats were treated with a standardized cranberry extract
(CystiCran®) obtained from Vaccinium macrocarpon in two dosage schemes (14 days, 0.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day; 1 day, 1.5 mg of proanthocyanidins/kg/day). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins contained in this extract on the activity and expression of
intestinal and hepatic biotransformation enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B and CYP3A), carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT). Administration of cranberry extract led to moderate increases in the activities of hepatic CYP3A (by 34%), CYP1A1 (by 38%), UGT (by 40%), CBR1 (by 17%) and GST (by 13%), while activities of these enzymes in the small intestine were unchanged. No changes in the relative amounts of these proteins were found. Taken together, the interactions of cranberry extract with simultaneously administered drugs seem not to be serious.

Effectiveness of an association of a cranberry dry extract, D-mannose, and the two microorganisms actobacillus plantarum LP01 and actobacillus paracasei LPC09 in women affected by cystitis: a pilot study.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Vicariotto F
Journal: 
J Clin Gastroenterol 48 Suppl 1:S96-101.
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection in women. Most UTIs are acute uncomplicated cystitis caused by Escherichia coli (86%). This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of an association of a cranberry dry extract, D-mannose, a gelling complex composed of the exopolysaccharides produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST10 (DSM 25246) and tara gum, as well as the 2 microorganisms Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) and Lactobacillus paracasei LPC09 (DSM 24243) in women affected by acute uncomplicated cystitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three premenopausal, nonpregnant women diagnosed with acute uncomplicated cystitis were enrolled in a pilot prospective study and
completed the treatment protocol. Subjects were instructed to take 2 doses per day during the first month, and then to continue with 1 sachet per day until the sixtieth day. Nitrites and leukocyte esterase on urine dipstick testing were used
as indicators of cystitis, with analysis performed at enrollment, after 30 and 60 days, and after 1 month of follow-up. Typical UTI symptoms, namely dysuria, frequent voiding of small volumes, urinary urgency, suprapubic pain, and gross
hematuria were scored 0 to 3 and evaluated at each visit.
RESULTS: Positive results for the presence of nitrites and leukocyte esterase were found in 14 and 20 subjects after 30 days and in 9 and 14 women after 60 days, respectively (P results for nitrites and leukocyte esterase were recorded in only 4 and 3 of 24 and 19 subjects (16.7%, P=0.103; 15.8%, P=0.325, respectively), with negative results after 60 days. Typical symptoms of cystitis, specifically dysuria, frequent voiding, urgency, and suprapubic pain were significantly improved as well. No significant differences were recorded in the incidence and severity of hematuria at any visit.
CONCLUSION: The long-term ability of an association of cranberry, D-mannose, an innovative gelling complex, and the 2 microorganisms tested to significantly improve the uncomfortable symptoms reported by women with acute cystitis has been suggested.

Efficient and cost-effective alternative treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections and interstitial cystitis in women: a two-case report.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Mansour A, Hariri E, Shelh S, Irani R, Mroueh M
Journal: 
Case Rep Med 2014:698758.
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent
UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance.

Evaluation of the effect of cranberry juice on symptoms associated with a urinary tract infection.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Bass-Ware A, Weed D, Johnson T, Spurlock A.
Journal: 
Urol Nurs 34(3):121-7
Abstract: 

The purpose of this research was to correlate daily consumption of cranberry juice and symptoms of a diagnosed UTI among 26 volunteer adult female patients

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