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2015

Displaying 41 - 46 of 46

Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Choi EJ, Park JB, Yoon KD, Bae SK
Journal: 
Food Chem Toxicol 72:13-9.
Abstract: 

In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also
investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries.

Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Naito Y, Marotta F, Kantah MK, Zerbinati N, Kushugulova A, Zhumadilov Z, Illuzzi N, Sapienza C, Takadanohara H, Kobayashi R, Catanzaro R.
Journal: 
Rejuvenation Res 17(2):184-7.
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to
healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as
compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 adhesion to and invasion of A549 lung epithelial cells by natural extracts.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Ahmed GF, Elkhatib WF, Noreddin AM
Journal: 
J Infect Public Health 7(5):436-44.
Abstract: 

Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes the lungs in cystic fibrosis (CF) and mechanically ventilated patients by binding to the cellular receptors on the surface of the lung epithelium. Studies have shown that blocking this interaction could be achieved with sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance is a probable drawback of such an intervention. The use of natural extracts to interfere with bacterial adhesion and invasion has recently gained substantial attention and is
hypothesized to inhibit bacterial binding and consequently prevent or reduce pathogenicity. This study used an A549 lung epithelial cell infection model, and the results revealed that a combination of aqueous cranberry extract with ciprofloxacin could completely prevent the adhesion and invasion of P. aeruginosa PAO1 compared to the untreated control. All of the natural extracts (cranberry, dextran, and soybean extracts) and ciprofloxacin showed a significant reduction (P cells relative to the control. The cranberry, dextran, and soybean extracts could substantially increase the anti-adhesion and anti-invasion effects of ciprofloxacin to the averages of 100% (P (P as potential anti-adhesion and anti-invasion remedies, could be valuable in preventing or reducing P. aeruginosa lung infections.

Microbial catabolism of procyanidins by human gut microbiota.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Ou K, Sarnoski P, Schneider KR, Song K, Khoo C, Gu L
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 58(11):2196-205.
Abstract: 

SCOPE: A major portion of ingested procyanidins is degraded by human microbiota in the colon into various phenolic compounds. These microbial metabolites are thought to contribute to the health benefits of procyanidins in vivo. The
objective of this study was to identify and quantify the microbial metabolites of procyanidins after anaerobic fermentation with human microbiota.
METHODS AND RESULTS: (-)-Epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin A2, partially purified apple and cranberry procyanidins were incubated with human
microbiota at a concentration equivalent to 0.5 mM epicatechin. GC-MS analysis showed that common metabolites of all six substrates were benzoic acid, 2-phenylacetic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, 2-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid,
2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid, 3-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and hydroxyphenylvaleric acid. 5-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactones and 5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactones were identified as the microbial metabolites of epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin B2, and apple procyanidins but not from the procyanidin A2 or cranberry procyanidin ferments. 2-(3',4'-Dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid was only found in the fermented broth of procyanidin B2, A2, apple, and cranberry procyanidins. The mass recoveries of microbial metabolites range from 20.0 to 56.9% for the six substrates after 24 h
of fermentation.
CONCLUSION: Procyanidins, both B-type and A-type can be degraded by human gut microbiota. The microbial metabolites may contribute to the bioactivities of procyanidins.

Non-toxic plant metabolites regulate Staphylococcus viability and biofilm formation: a natural therapeutic strategy useful in the treatment and prevention of skin infections.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Morán A, Gutiérrez S, Martínez-Blanco H, Ferrero MA, Monteagudo-Mera A, Rodríguez-Aparicio LB.
Journal: 
Biofouling 30(10):1175-82.
Abstract: 

In the present study, the efficacy of generally recognised as safe (GRAS) antimicrobial plant metabolites in regulating the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis was investigated. Thymol, carvacrol and eugenol showed the
strongest antibacterial action against these microorganisms, at a subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of ≤ 50 μg ml(-1). Genistein, hydroquinone and resveratrol showed antimicrobial effects but with a wide concentration range (SIC = 50-1,000 μg ml(-1)), while catechin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and cranberry extract were the most biologically compatible molecules (SIC ≥ 1000 μg ml(-1)). Genistein, protocatechuic acid, cranberry extract, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and resveratrol also showed anti-biofilm activity against S. aureus, but not against S. epidermidis in which, surprisingly, these metabolites stimulated biofilm formation (between 35% and 1,200%). Binary combinations of cranberry extract and resveratrol with genistein, protocatechuic or p-hydroxibenzoic acid enhanced the stimulatory effect on S. epidermidis biofilm formation and maintained or even increased S. aureus anti-biofilm
activity.

The effects of cranberries on preventing urinary tract infections.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Shin CN
Journal: 
Clin Nurs Res 23(1):54-79.
Abstract: 

Despite considerable controversy about their effects, cranberries in various forms have been used widely for several decades to prevent as well as treat urinary tract infections (UTIs). The purpose of this article is to present a review of research-based information regarding the ability of cranberries to prevent UTIs in adults at risk for UTIs. Current evidence suggests that cranberries decrease bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells and thus decrease
the incidence of UTIs without adverse effects in most individuals. Thus clinicians may safely advise patients that cranberries are helpful in preventing UTIs. Cranberries may be a viable adjunct to antibiotics for patients with repeated UTIs.

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