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2015

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Comparative assessment of Cranberry and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on streptococcal colonization among dental students: A randomized parallel clinical trial.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Khairnar MR, Karibasappa GN, Dodamani AS, Vishwakarma P, Naik RG, Deshmukh MA
Journal: 
Contemp Clin Dent 6(1):35-9
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash has earned an eponym of the gold standard against oral infections, but with certain limitations. There is no effective alternative to Chlorhexidine. Cranberry is known to inhibit bacterial adhesion in various systemic infections and acts as a strong antioxidant. However, it is less explored for its dental use. Hence, there is a need to evaluate its effect against oral infections.
AIM: The aim was to compare the efficacy of 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash with 0.6% Cranberry mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized parallel group clinical trial. Total sample of 50 subjects, aged 18-20 years, were randomly divided into two groups, Group A (25) and Group B (25) were given 10 mL of Chlorhexidine mouthwash and Cranberry mouthwash twice daily, respectively, for 14 days each. The plaque samples, which were taken from the subjects on 1(st) day and 14(th) day, were inoculated on blood agar plates and incubated at 37degreeC for 24-48 h. Number of streptococcal colony forming units were calculated using digital colony counter. The data were subjected to paired t-test and unpaired t-test at a 5% significance level.
RESULTS: (1) Chlorhexidine mouthwash showed 69% reduction whereas Cranberry mouthwash showed 68% reduction in S. mutans count. (2) No significant difference was seen between Chlorhexidine and Cranberry mouthwash on streptococci.
CONCLUSION: Cranberry mouthwash is equally effective as Chlorhexidine mouthwash with beneficial local and systemic effect. Hence, it can be used effectively as an alternative to Chlorhexidine mouthwash.

Comparative in vitro fermentations of cranberry and grape seed polyphenols with colonic microbiota.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Sanchez-Patan F, Barroso E, van de Wiele T, Jimenez-Giron A, Martin-Alvarez PJ, Moreno-Arribas MV, Martinez-Cuesta MC, Pelaez C, Requena T, Bartolome B
Journal: 
Food Chem 183:273-82,
Abstract: 

In this study, we have assessed the phenolic metabolism of a cranberry extract by microbiota obtained from the ascending colon and descending colon compartments of a dynamic gastrointestinal simulator (SHIME). For comparison, parallel fermentations with a grape seed extract were carried out. Extracts were used directly without previous intestinal digestion. Among the 60 phenolic compounds targeted, our results confirmed the formation of phenylacetic, phenylpropionic and benzoic acids as well as phenols such as catechol and its derivatives from the action of colonic microbiota on cranberry polyphenols. Benzoic acid (38.4mug/ml), 4-hydroxy-5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid (26.2mug/ml) and phenylacetic acid (19.5mug/ml) reached the highest concentrations. Under the same conditions, microbial degradation of grape seed polyphenols took place to a lesser extent compared to cranberry polyphenols, which was consistent with the more pronounced antimicrobial effect observed for the grape seed polyphenols, particularly against Bacteroides, Prevotella and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale.

Cranberries (Oxycoccus quadripetalus) inhibit lipid metabolism and modulate leptin and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Kowalska K, Olejnik A, Rychlik J, Grajek W
Journal: 
Food Chem 185:383-8
Abstract: 

It has previously been shown that lyophilized cranberries (LCB) decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and inhibited preadipocyte differentiation by down-regulation of the expression of key transcription factors (PPARgamma, C/EBPalpha, SREBP1) of the adipogenesis pathway. To elucidate the molecular basis of anti-lipogenic activity of LCB, the expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin 1 (PLIN1), was examined in the present study. Additionally, the effects of LCB on adiponectin and leptin expression and protein secretion were also investigated. LCB reduced lipid accumulation during preadipocyte differentiation by down-regulation of the mRNA level of aP2, FAS, LPL, HSL and PLIN1. Moreover, LCB decreased leptin gene expression and increased adiponectin gene expression and protein secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore cranberries could be considered as bioactive factors, which are effective in the inhibition of adipose tissue mass production.

Cranberry flavonoids prevent toxic rat liver mitochondrial damage in vivo and scavenge free radicals in vitro.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Lapshina EA, Zamaraeva M, Cheshchevik VT, Olchowik-Grabarek E, Sekowski S, Zukowska I, Golovach NG, Burd VN, Zavodnik IB
Journal: 
Cell Biochem Funct 33(4):202-10
Abstract: 

The present study was undertaken for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid biological activity, focusing on the antioxidative and protective effects of cranberry flavonoids in free radical-generating systems and those on mitochondrial ultrastructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication. Treatment of rats with cranberry flavonoids (7mg/kg) during chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication led to prevention of mitochondrial damage, including fragmentation, rupture and local loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In radical-generating systems, cranberry flavonoids effectively scavenged nitric oxide (IC50 =4.4+/-0.4micro g/ml), superoxide anion radicals (IC50 =2.8+/-0.3micro g/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50 =53+/-4micro g/ml). The IC50 for reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) was 2.2+/-0.3micro g/ml. Flavonoids prevented to some extent lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes and glutathione oxidation in erythrocytes treated with UV irradiation or organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased the rigidity of the outer leaflet of the liposomal membranes. The hepatoprotective potential of cranberry flavonoids could be due to specific prevention of rat liver mitochondrial damage. The mitochondria-addressed effects of flavonoids might be related both to radical-scavenging properties and modulation of various mitochondrial events.

Cranberry fruit powder (Flowens™)improves lower urinary tract symptoms in men: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Vidlar A, Student Jr V, Vostalova J, Fromentin E, Roller M, Simanek V, Student V
Journal: 
World J Urol DOI 10.1007/s00345-015-1611-7
Abstract: 

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia increase with age. To date, several medications are available to treat LUTS, including herbal remedies which offer less side effects but lack robust efficacy studies.
This 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed at evaluating the dose effect of 250 or 500 mg cranberry powder (Flowens™) on LUTS and uroflowmetry in men over the age of 45. A total of 124 volunteers with PSA levels After 6 months, subjects in both Flowens™ groups had a lower IPSS (-3.1 and -4.1 in the 250- and 500-mg groups, p = 0.05 and p Flowens™ showed a clinically relevant, dose-dependent, and significant reduction in LUTS in men over 45.

Cranberry juice capsules and urinary tract infection after surgery: results of a randomized trial

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Foxman B, Cronenwett AE, Spino C, Berger MB, Morgan DM
Journal: 
Am J Obstet Gynecol 213(2):194.e1-8
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: The risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women undergoing elective gynecological surgery during which a catheter is placed is high: 10-64% following catheter removal. We conducted the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the therapeutic efficacy of cranberry juice capsules in preventing UTI after surgery.
STUDY DESIGN: We recruited patients from a single hospital between August 2011 and January 2013. Eligible participants were undergoing elective gynecological surgery that did not involve a fistula repair or vaginal mesh removal. One hundred sixty patients were randomized and received 2 cranberry juice capsules 2 times a day, equivalent to 2 8 ounce servings of cranberry juice, for 6 weeks after surgery or matching placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who experienced clinically diagnosed and treated UTI with or without positive urine culture. Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank tests compared the 2 treatment groups.
RESULTS: The occurrence of UTI was significantly lower in the cranberry treatment group compared with the placebo group (15 of 80 [19%] vs 30 of 80 [38%]; odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.79; P = .008). After adjustment for known confounders, including the frequency of intermittent self-catheterization in the postoperative period, the protective effects of cranberry remained (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.94). There were no treatment differences in the incidence of adverse events, including gastrointestinal upset (56% vs 61% for cranberry vs placebo).
CONCLUSION: Among women undergoing elective benign gynecological surgery involving urinary catheterization, the use of cranberry extract capsules during the postoperative period reduced the rate of UTI by half.

Cranberry juice consumption lowers markers of cardiometabolic risk, including blood pressure and circulating C-reactive protein, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations in adults

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Novotny JA, Baer DJ, Khoo C, Gebauer SK, Charron CS
Journal: 
J Nutr 145(6):1185-93
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic risk is the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or stroke, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the potential of low-calorie cranberry juice (LCCJ) to lower cardiometabolic risk.
METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted with controlled diets. Thirty women and 26 men (mean baseline characteristics: 50 y; weight, 79 kg; body mass index, 28 kg/m(2)) completed an 8-wk intervention with LCCJ or a flavor/color/energy-matched placebo beverage. Twice daily volunteers consumed 240 mL of LCCJ or the placebo beverage, containing 173 or 62 mg of phenolic compounds and 6.5 or 7.5 g of total sugar per 240-mL serving, respectively.
RESULTS: Fasting serum triglycerides (TGs) were lower after consuming LCCJ and demonstrated a treatment x baseline interaction such that the participants with higher baseline TG concentrations were more likely to experience a larger treatment effect (1.15 +/- 0.04 mmol/L vs. 1.25 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.027). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower for individuals consuming LCCJ than for individuals consuming the placebo beverage [ln transformed values of 0.522 +/- 0.115 ln(mg/L) vs. 0.997 +/- 0.120 ln(mg/L), P = 0.0054, respectively, and equivalent to 1.69 mg/L vs. 2.71 mg/L back-transformed]. LCCJ lowered diastolic blood pressure (BP) compared with the placebo beverage (69.2 +/- 0.8 mm Hg for LCCJ vs. 71.6 +/- 0.8 mm Hg for placebo; P = 0.048). Fasting plasma glucose was lower (P = 0.03) in the LCCJ group (5.32 +/- 0.03 mmol/L) than in the placebo group (5.42 +/- 0.03 mmol/L), and LCCJ had a beneficial effect on homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance for participants with high baseline values (P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: LCCJ can improve several risk factors of CVD in adults, including circulating TGs, CRP, and glucose, insulin resistance, and diastolic BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01295684.

Cranberry supplementation in the prevention of non-severe lower urinary tract infections: a pilot study.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Ledda A, Bottari A, Luzzi R, Belcaro G, Hu S, Dugall M, Hosoi M, Ippolito E, Corsi M, Gizzi G, Morazzoni P, Riva A, Giacomelli L, Togni S
Journal: 
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 19(1):77-80,
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: Cranberry extracts have been tested as a nutritional supplementation in the prevention of recurrent lower-urinary tract infections (R-UTIs), with mixed results. This pilot, registry study evaluates the prophylactic effects of oral supplementation with a new well-standardized cranberry extract in patients with R-UTI, over a 2-month follow-up.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: All subjects were suggested to take one capsule containing a cranberry extract (AnthocranTM) for 60 days and were also given lifestyle advice. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients on cranberry extracts and those who don't take this supplementation.
RESULTS: In total, 22 subjects completed the study in each of the two groups. In the cranberry group, the reduction in the frequency of UTI episodes during the study period compared with the two months before the inclusion was 73.3% (p CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results, obtained in a field-practice setting, indicates the effectiveness and safety of a well-standardized cranberry extract in the prevention of R-UTI.

Cranberry Xyloglucan Structure and Inhibition of Escherichia coli Adhesion to Epithelial Cells.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Hotchkiss AT Jr, Nunez A, Strahan GD, Chau HK, White AK, Marais JP, Hom K, Vakkalanka MS, Di R, Yam KL, Khoo C
Journal: 
J Agric Food Sci 63(23):5622-33
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice has been recognized as a treatment for urinary tract infections on the basis of scientific reports of proanthocyanidin anti-adhesion activity against Escherichia coli as well as from folklore. Xyloglucan oligosaccharides were detected in cranberry juice and the residue remaining following commercial juice extraction that included pectinase maceration of the pulp. A novel xyloglucan was detected through tandem mass spectrometry analysis of an ion at m/z 1055 that was determined to be a branched, three hexose, four pentose oligosaccharide consistent with an arabino-xyloglucan structure. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis provided through-bond correlations for the alpha-l-Araf (1->2) alpha-d-Xylp (1->6) beta-d-Glcp sequence, proving the S-type cranberry xyloglucan structure. Cranberry xyloglucan-rich fractions inhibited the adhesion of E. coli CFT073 and UTI89 strains to T24 human bladder epithelial cells and that of E. coli O157:H7 to HT29 human colonic epithelial cells. SSGG xyloglucan oligosaccharides represent a new cranberry bioactive component with E. coli anti-adhesion activity and high affinity for type 1 fimbriae.

Depolymerisation optimisation of cranberry procyanidins and transport of resultant oligomers on monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Ou K, Gu L
Journal: 
Food Chem 167:45-51
Abstract: 

Procyanidins in cranberries are predominantly polymers (>85%). The objective of this study was to optimise the depolymerisation of polymers and to investigate the absorption of resultant oligomers on Caco-2 cell monolayers. Depolymerisation conditions were optimised using response surface methodology. Depolymerisation, with or without added epicatechin, yielded 644 mug and 202 mug of oligomers (monomer through tetramers) per mg of partially purified polymers (PP), respectively. Oligomers (yielded from both methods) were transported through Caco-2 cell monolayer despite absorption rates being low. With the aid of response surface methodology, the optimum depolymerisation conditions were determined to be 60degreeC, 0.1M HCl in methanol and 3h without added epicatechin. The predicted maximum yield was 364 mug oligomers per mg of PP. The optimum depolymerisation condition with added epicatechin shared the same temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, in addition to an epicatechin/PP mass ratio of 2.19. Its predicted maximum oligomer yield was 1,089 mug/mg. The predicted yields were verified by experimental data.

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