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2015

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Effect of high-molecular-weight component of Cranberry on plaque and salivary Streptococcus mutans counts in children: an in vivo study.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Gupta A, Bansal K, Marwaha M
Journal: 
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 33(2):128-33
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Previous investigations showed that a high-molecular-weight, nondialyzable material (NDM) from cranberries inhibits the adhesion of a number of bacterial species and prevents the coaggregation of many oral bacterial pairs.
AIM: In the present study, the effect of mouthrinse containing high-molecular-weight component of cranberry was evaluated on colonization of Streptococcus mutans in children and compared it with a control mouthrinse without high-molecular-weight component on Streptococcus mutans counts.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A high-molecular-weight NDM was isolated from cranberry juice concentrate after the dialysis of the cranberry concentrate; followed by lyophilization. A mouthwash was prepared especially for the study having NDM in the concentration of 3 mg/ml. Following 4 weeks of daily usage of cranberry-containing mouthwash by the children of an experimental group (n = 20), the Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque and saliva were compared with that in control group using placebo mouthwash (n = 20) with the help of Dentocult SM strips.
RESULTS: There was a highlysignificant reduction in Streptococcus mutans counts in saliva and plaque of children using mouthwash containing cranberry NDM (P CONCLUSION: The data suggest that the high-molecular-weight cranberry extract in mouthwash has a significant potential in reducing the Streptococcus counts in the oral environment.

Effects of Proanthocyanidins on Adhesion, Growth, and Virulence of Highly Virulent Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Argue for Its Use to Treat Oropharyngeal Colonization and Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Margetis D, Roux D, Gaudry S, Messika J, Bouvet O, Branger C, Ponnuswamy P, Oufella HA, Dreyfuss D, Denamur E, Ricard JD
Journal: 
Crit Care Med 43(6):e170-8,
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: In the context of increasing microbial resistance and limited new antimicrobials, we aimed to study the antimicrobial effects of cranberry proanthocyanidin extracts on Escherichia coli growth, adhesion to epithelial cells, and lung infection.
DESIGN: Experimental in vitro and in vivo investigation.
SETTING: University research laboratory.
SUBJECTS: Seventy-eight 6- to 8-week-old male Balb/C mice.
INTERVENTIONS: In vitro, the effect of increasing concentrations of cranberry proanthocyanidin on bacterial growth of different clinical E. coli isolates was evaluated. Ex vivo, adhesion of E. coli to fresh human buccal epithelial cells was measured in the presence or absence of cranberry proanthocyanidin using microscopy. In vivo, lung bacterial count, pulmonary immune response (neutrophil murine chemokine keratinocyte-derived cytokine measurement and polymorphonuclear recruitment in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid), and lethality were evaluated in a pneumonia mouse model with E. coli precultured with or without cranberry proanthocyanidin. E. coli isolates originated from ventilated ICU patients with respiratory tract colonization or ventilator- associated pneumonia. They differed in number of virulence genes.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A significant inhibition of bacterial growth was observed with increasing concentration of cranberry proanthocyanidin, affecting both time to maximal growth and maximal growth rate (p CONCLUSION: Cranberry proanthocyanidins exhibit potent effects on growth, adhesion, and virulence of oropharyngeal and lung isolates of E. coli, suggesting that cranberry proanthocyanidin could be of clinical interest to reduce oropharyngeal colonization and prevent lung infection.

Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
McKay DL, Chen CY, Zampariello CA, Blumberg JB
Journal: 
Food Chem 168:233-40
Abstract: 

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults 50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2mug/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8mug/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults.

Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Auger C, Pollet B, Arnold C, Marx C, Schini-Kerth VB
Journal: 
J Med Food 18(1):128-36
Abstract: 

Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate and cranberry proanthocyanidins act in synergy with cathelicidin (LL-37) to reduce the LPS-induced inflammatory response in a three-dimensional co-culture model of gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Lombardo Bedran TB, Palomari Spolidorio D, Grenier D
Journal: 
Arch Oral Biol 60(6):845-53
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: The human antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (LL-37) possesses anti-inflammatory properties that may contribute to attenuating the inflammatory process associated with chronic periodontitis. Plant polyphenols, including those from cranberry and green tea, have been reported to reduce inflammatory cytokine secretion by host cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) and green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) act in synergy with LL-37 to reduce the secretion of inflammatory mediators by oral mucosal cells.
METHODS: A three-dimensional (3D) co-culture model of gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of AC-PACs (25 and 50 mug/ml), EGCG (1 and 5 mug/ml), and LL-37 (0.1 and 0.2 muM) individually and in combination (AC-PACs+LL-37 and EGCG+LL-37) were stimulated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Multiplex ELISA assays were used to quantify the secretion of 54 host factors, including chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).
RESULTS: LL-37, AC-PACs, and EGCG, individually or in combination, had no effect on the regulation of MMP and TIMP secretion but inhibited the secretion of several cytokines. AC-PACs and LL-37 acted in synergy to reduce the secretion of CXC-chemokine ligand 1 (GRO-alpha), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and had an additive effect on reducing the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in response to LPS stimulation. EGCG and LL-37 acted in synergy to reduce the secretion of GRO-alpha, G-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10, and had an additive effect on MCP-1 secretion.
CONCLUSION: The combination of LL-37 and natural polyphenols from cranberry and green tea acted in synergy to reduce the secretion of several cytokines by an LPS-stimulated 3D co-culture model of oral mucosal cells. Such combinations show promising results as potential adjunctive therapies for treating inflammatory periodontitis.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

In vivo and in vitro antibacterial activities of cranberry extract against E. coli O157:H7 in urinary tract infected rats.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Ibrahim OMS, Sarhan SR, Hameed AA
Journal: 
Adv Anim Vet Sci 3(4):233-244
Abstract: 

The objective of this study was to determine the in-vitro and in-vivo activity of cranberry extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7. This strain of E. coli was the most common etiologic agent of urinary tract infections isolated from patients. Filter sterilized aqueous and methanol extract of cranberry was prepared and used in the present study. The aqueous extract of cranberry produced inhibition zone ranging from (10.8-23.8) mm against the tested bacteria. While the methanol extract produces larger zones of inhibition (12.1-24.2) mm against the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the methanol and aqueous extract was 0.35 and 0.625 mg/ml, respectively. In vivo study involved inducing UTI in rats and then treated with (200 mg/kg B.W) aqueous and methanol extract and compared with Gentamicin treatment at a dose of (2 mg/kg B.W) subcutaneously for 14 days. Methanol extract succeeded in treated UTI caused by Escherichia coli in the infected rats and prevented infection comparing with aqueous extract and Gentamicin. Food, water intake, body weight, pH and creatinine level returned to normal values after treatment with methanol extract of Cranberry fruit (200 mg/Kg.B.W) comparing with aqueous extract of Cranberry fruit and 2 mg/Kg.B.W. of Gentamicin. These parameters used in this current study as indicator for curing from infection. These findings indicated that cranberry extract was effective at all levels in inhibiting E. coli O157:H7; thus it possesses antimicrobial activity and hold great promise as an antimicrobial agent.

Methods to determine effects of cranberry proanthocyanidins on extraintestinal infections: Relevance for urinary tract health.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Feliciano RP, Krueger CG, Reed JD
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 59(7):1292-306,
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most frequent extraintestinal infections caused by Escherichia coli (ExPEC). Cranberry juice has been used for decades to alleviate symptoms and prevent recurrent UTI. The putative compounds in cranberries are proanthocyanidins (PAC), specifically PAC with "A-type" bonds. Since PAC are not absorbed, their health benefits in UTI may occur through interactions at the mucosal surface in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent research showed that higher agglutination of ExPEC and reduced bacterial invasion are correlated with higher number of "A-type" bonds and higher degree of polymerization of PAC. An understanding of PAC structure-activity relationship is becoming feasible due to advancements, not only in obtaining purified PAC fractions that allow accurate estimation, but also in high-resolution MS methodologies, specifically, MALDI-TOF MS. A recent MALDI-TOF MS deconvolution method allows quantification of the ratios of "A-type" to "B-type" bonds enabling characteristic fingerprints. Moreover, the generation of fluorescently labeled PAC allows visualization of the interaction between ExPEC and PAC with microscopy. These tools can be used to establish structure-activity relationships between PAC and UTI and give insight on the mechanism of action of these compounds in the gut without being absorbed.

Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: fruits

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Vinson JA, Su X, Zubik L, Bose P
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 49(11):5315-21
Abstract: 

The free and bound phenols have been measured in 20 fruits commonly consumed in the American diet. Phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with catechin as the standard after correction for ascorbic acid contribution. On a fresh weight basis, cranberry had the highest total phenols, and was distantly followed by red grape. Free and total phenol quality in the fruits was analyzed by using the inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation promoted by cupric ion. Ascorbate had only a minor contribution to the antioxidants in fruits with the exception of melon, nectarine, orange, white grape, and strawberry. The fruit extracts' antioxidant quality was better than the vitamin antioxidants and most pure phenols, suggesting synergism among the antioxidants in the mixture. Using our assay, fruits had significantly better quantity and quality of phenol antioxidants than vegetables. Fruits, specifically apples and cranberries, have phenol antioxidants that can enrich lower density lipoproteins and protect them from oxidation. The average per capita consumption of fruit phenols in the U.S. is estimated to be 255 mg/day of catechin equivalents.

Prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the intestine by different cranberry phenolic fractions

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Denis MC, Desjardins Y, Furtos A, Marcil V, Dudonne S, Montoudis A, Garofalo C, Delvin E, Marette A, Levy E
Journal: 
Clinical Science 128(3):197-212
Abstract: 

Cranberry fruit has been reported to have high antioxidant effectiveness that is potentially linked to its richness in diversified polyphenolic content. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cranberry polyphenolic fractions in oxidative stress (OxS), inflammation and mitochondrial functions using intestinal Caco-2/15 cells. The combination of HPLC and UltraPerformance LC-tandem quadrupole (UPLC-TQD) techniques allowed us to characterize the profile of low, medium and high molecular mass polyphenolic compounds in cranberry extracts. The medium molecular mass fraction was enriched with flavonoids and procyanidin dimers whereas procyanidin oligomers (DP > 4) were the dominant class of polyphenols in the high molecular mass fraction. Pre-incubation of Caco-2/15 cells with these cranberry extracts prevented iron/ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation and counteracted lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation as evidenced by the decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and interleukin-6), cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. Cranberry polyphenols (CP) fractions limited both nuclear factor kappaB activation and Nrf2 down-regulation. Consistently, cranberry procyanidins alleviated OxS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunctions as shown by the rise in ATP production and the up-regulation of Bcl-2, as well as the decline of protein expression of cytochrome c and apoptotic-inducing factor. These mitochondrial effects were associated with a significant stimulation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1-alpha, a central inducing factor of mitochondrial biogenesis and transcriptional co-activator of numerous downstream mediators. Finally, cranberry procyanidins forestalled the effect of iron/ascorbate on the protein expression of mitochondrial transcription factors (mtTFA, mtTFB1, mtTFB2). Our findings provide evidence for the capacity of CP to reduce intestinal OxS and inflammation while improving mitochondrial dysfunction.

Preventive effects of cranberry products on experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium in mice

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Xiao X, Kim J, Sun Q, Kim D, Park CS, Lu TS, Park Y
Journal: 
Food Chem 167:438-46
Abstract: 

With the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its associated risk for development of colorectal cancer, it is of great importance to prevent and treat IBD. However, due to the complexity of etiology and potentially serious adverse effects, treatment options for IBD are relatively limited. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a safe food-based approach for the prevention and treatment of IBD. In this study, we tested the effects of cranberry products on preventing dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis. Our results suggest that both cranberry extract and dried cranberries-fed groups had a significantly reduced disease activity index, where dried cranberries were more effective in preventing colitis than cranberry extract. Shortening of colon length, colonic myeloperoxidase activity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines were attenuated in animals fed dried cranberries compared to the controls. The current report suggests that cranberries can be applied to prevent and reduce the symptoms of IBD.

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