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Miscellaneous: Review

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Cranberry Polyphenols: Natural Weapons Against Dental Caries.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Philip N; Walsh LJ.
Journal: 
Dentistry Journal. 7(1)
Abstract: 

Bioactive polyphenol components of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are known to have virulence attenuating effects against several cariogenic virulence properties responsible for dental caries pathogenesis. In particular, cranberry A-type proanthocyanidins and flavonols have demonstrated potent inhibitory effects against cariogenic virulence targets such as bacterial acidogenicity, aciduricity, glucan synthesis, and hydrophobicity. Cranberry phenols have the ability to disrupt these cariogenic virulence properties without being bactericidal, a key quality essential for retaining the benefits of the symbiotic resident oral microbiome and preventing the emergence of resistant microbes. This review discusses the cariostatic mechanisms of specific cranberry phytochemicals and their potential use as therapeutic agents against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention and control of dental caries.

Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Rocha DMUP; Caldas APS; da Silva BP; Hermsdorff HHM; Alfenas RCG.
Journal: 
Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition. 59(11):1816-1828
Abstract: 

The metabolic effects of cranberry and blueberry consumption on glycemic control have been evaluated in vitro and in animal models as well as in human studies, although findings have not been systematically reviewed yet. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out of relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in order to assess the effect of berries (blueberry and cranberry) consumption on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) glycemic control. Some evidences were also discussed on the anti-diabetic mechanisms exerted by berries polyphenols. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases: LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Three authors independently searched and extracted RCTs in which the effect of berries (cranberry or blueberry) consumption on T2DM glycemic control was assessed. A total of 7 RCTs, involving 270 adults with type 2 diabetes were included. Despite the heterogeneity of the administration forms (in natura, dried, extract, preparations - juice), dosage, duration of the intervention and type of population of the studies involving these two berries some studies highlight the potential benefit of berries, especially of blueberry, on glucose metabolism in T2DM subjects. Daily cranberry juice (240 mL) consumption for 12 weeks and blueberry extract or powder supplementation (9.1 to 9.8 mg of anthocyanins, respectively) for 8 to 12 weeks showed a beneficial effect on glucose control in T2DM subjects. Those results indicate a promising use of these berries in T2DM management; although more studies are required to better understand the mechanisms involved.

Oral Health Benefits of Cranberry: A Review

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
B Alexander, S John
Journal: 
IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS) Volume 18, Issue 1 Ver. 2 (January. 2019), PP 41-44
Abstract: 

Cranberry has a unique combination of phytochemicals which are used for treatment of various systemic diseases including oral diseases like caries,periodontitis and oral cancer. Many in vitro studies have outlined the potential health benefits of cranberry but in vivo studies are still inconclusive. Cranberry inhibit acid production, attachment and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans thereby being an effective anticaries agent. It also inhibits host inflammatory response and adherance of periodontal pathogens on tooth surfaces. Proanthocyanidins in cranberries demonstrate significant cancer prevention. The review aims to well into the potential benefits of cranberry in improving oral health as well as a peep into the still unexplored facets of natural medicaments in oral disease prevention.

American Cranberries and Health Benefits - An Evolving Story of 25 Years.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Zhao S; Liu H; Gu L.
Journal: 
Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture. 10.1002/jsfa.8882 [doi]
Abstract: 

Cranberries contain various types of bioactive components. Scientists have been studying cranberries' beneficial effects on urinary tract health since the 20th century. In the 21st century, the protection provided by cranberry phytochemicals against cancer and vascular diseases has drawn more attention from researchers. Anthocyanins, procyanidins, and flavonols in cranberries were all documented to have potential effects on cancer prevention. The cardiometabolic effects of cranberries have been investigated in several clinical trials. It was found that cranberries positively affect atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles and that they reduced several cardiometabolic risk factors. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests other important roles of cranberries in maintaining digestive health. Cranberry juice or cranberries have been shown to inhibit the colonization of H. pylori in stomach, and protect against intestinal inflammation. For future research, clinical trials with improved study design are urgently needed to demonstrate cranberries' benefits on urinary tract health and cardiometabolic diseases. Hypothesis-driven studies using animals or cell culture are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of cranberries' effects on digestive health.

Dietary Polyphenols and Periodontitis-A Mini-Review of Literature.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Basu A; Masek E; Ebersole JL
Journal: 
Molecules. 23(7)
Abstract: 

Periodontitis, which is a chronic infection and disease of the periodontium, is a significant global health burden and is linked to other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary polyphenols present in a wide variety of plant-based foods, herbs, and botanicals have been shown to exert antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and reduced osteoclast and alveolar bone loss activities in animal models of periodontitis. Polyphenol-containing beverages and foods especially green tea and its active catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate, cranberries, pomegranates, and fruit and vegetable extracts have reported bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity against microbial species such as P. gingivalis and shown total bacterial burden in clinical studies. These polyphenols also exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, which have the potential to impact various biological mechanisms for reducing the initiation and progression of periodontitis. The main objective of this mini-review is to focus on the mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols in improving the pathophysiology underlying chronic inflammatory diseases like periodontitis based on pre-clinical and clinical models.

Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Consumption on Type 2 Diabetes Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Rocha DMUP; Caldas APS; da Silva BP; Hermsdorff HHM; Alfenas RCG.
Journal: 
Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition. 1-13. 10.1080/10408398.2018.1430019 [doi]
Abstract: 

The metabolic effects of cranberry and blueberry consumption on glycemic control have been evaluated in vitro and in animal models as well as in human studies, although findings have not been systematically reviewed yet. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out of relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in order to assess the effect of berries (blueberry and cranberry) consumption on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) glycemic control. Some evidences were also discussed on the anti-diabetic mechanisms exerted by berries polyphenols. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases: LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Three authors independently searched and extracted RCTs in which the effect of berries (cranberry or blueberry) consumption on T2DM glycemic control was assessed. A total of 7 RCTs, involving 270 adults with type 2 diabetes were included. Despite the heterogeneity of the administration forms (in natura, dried, extract, preparations - juice), dosage, duration of the intervention and type of population of the studies involving these two berries some studies highlight the potential benefit of berries, especially of blueberry, on glucose metabolism in T2DM subjects. Daily cranberry juice (240 mL) consumption for 12 weeks and blueberry extract or powder supplementation (9.1 to 9.8 mg of anthocyanins, respectively) for 8 to 12 weeks showed a beneficial effect on glucose control in T2DM subjects. Those results indicate a promising use of these berries in T2DM management; although more studies are required to better understand the mechanisms involved.

Effects of Superfoods on Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome: a Systematic Review of Human Intervention Trials.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
van den Driessche JJ; Plat J; Mensink RP.
Journal: 
Food & Function. 9(4):1944-1966
Abstract: 

Functional foods can be effective in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and subsequently the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. More recently, however, another term was introduced to describe foods with additional health benefits: "superfoods", for which, to date, no generally accepted definition exists. Nonetheless, their consumption might contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, for example due to the presence of potentially bioactive compounds. This review provides an overview of controlled human intervention studies with foods described as "superfoods" and their effects on metabolic syndrome parameters. First, an Internet search was performed to identify foods described as superfoods. For these superfoods, controlled human intervention trials were identified until April 2017 investigating the effects of superfood consumption on metabolic syndrome parameters: waist circumference or BMI, blood pressure, or concentrations of HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol or glucose. Seventeen superfoods were identified, including a total of 113 intervention trials: blueberries (8 studies), cranberries (8), goji berries (3), strawberries (7), chili peppers (3), garlic (21), ginger (10), chia seed (5), flaxseed (22), quinoa (1), cocoa (16), maca (1), spirulina (7), wheatgrass (1), acai berries (0), hemp seed (0) and bee pollen (0). Overall, only limited evidence was found for the effects of the foods described as superfoods on metabolic syndrome parameters, since results were not consistent or the number of controlled intervention trials was limited. The inconsistencies might have been related to intervention-related factors, such as duration or dose. Furthermore, conclusions may be different if other health benefits are considered.

Proanthocyanidins-Will they Effectively Restrain Conspicuous Bacterial Strains Devolving on Urinary Tract Infection?

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Jagannathan V; Viswanathan P.
Journal: 
Journal of Basic Microbiology. 58(7):567-578
Abstract: 

Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies. It predominantly contains proanthocyanidins that belong to the class of polyphenols with repeating catechin and epicatechin monomeric units. Numerous studies have correlated proanthocyanidin consumption and prevention of bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Quorum sensing (QS) is the prime mechanism that drives bacteria to coordinate biofilm development and virulence expression. Reports have shown that proanthocyanidins are effective in disrupting cell-cell communication by quenching signal molecules. Overall, this review assesses the merits of proanthocyanidins and its effective oppression on adherence, motility, QS, and biofilm formation of major UTI strains such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis by comparing and evaluating results from many significant findings.

The Impact of Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and Cranberry Products on Each Component of the Metabolic Syndrome: a Review

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Thimóteo NSB, Scavuzzi BM, Simão ANC, Dichi I.
Journal: 
Nutrire 42:25, https://doi.org/10.1186/s41110-017-0048-8
Abstract: 

Background: Some studies have shown that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has beneficial effects on the components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a condition characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors such as central obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose homeostasis, elevated triglycerides, and decreased HDL cholesterol levels. Cranberry is very rich in polyphenols, which may significantly reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Main body of the abstract: Nutritional intervention studies have indicated that the intake of cranberries and cranberry products may have the following impact on metabolic health: (1) attenuate markers of obesity such as body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference; (2) reduce systolic and diastolic pressures; (3) decrease plasma concentrations of triglycerides and oxidized LDL-cholesterol, as well as increase HDL cholesterol; and (4) promote glucose homeostasis. In addition, nutritional intervention with cranberries could confer antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and the ability to reduce biomarkers of atherosclerosis associated with the MetS, such as homocysteine. Short conclusion: Although there has been promising results, particularly related to lipid profile and blood pressure, further research is needed to support the recommendation of cranberry intake as a nutritional intervention for the treatment of MetS.

Beneficial effects of cranberry in the prevention of obesity and related complications: metabolic syndrome and diabetes - a review.

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Kowalska, K. Olejnik, A.
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods; 2016. 20:171-181
Abstract: 

In recent years, obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Recent experimental and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health benefits of cranberry consumption in obesity and metabolic syndrome, which appear to be associated with the phytochemical composition of this fruit. Interestingly, cranberry administration has been reported to ameliorate dyslipidemia, hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the recent findings regarding beneficial effects of cranberry on obesity and metabolic syndrome, and discusses its potential mechanisms of action. The results of studies presented in this review have demonstrated that cranberry ameliorates insulin resistance and plasma lipid profile, decreases diet-induced weight gain and visceral obesity, and diminishes blood markers of oxidative stress. Thus, cranberry could be an effective and safe component of functional foods addressed for individuals with metabolic complications.

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