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Methods to determine effects of cranberry proanthocyanidins on extraintestinal infections: Relevance for urinary tract health.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Feliciano RP, Krueger CG, Reed JD
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 59(7):1292-306,
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most frequent extraintestinal infections caused by Escherichia coli (ExPEC). Cranberry juice has been used for decades to alleviate symptoms and prevent recurrent UTI. The putative compounds in cranberries are proanthocyanidins (PAC), specifically PAC with "A-type" bonds. Since PAC are not absorbed, their health benefits in UTI may occur through interactions at the mucosal surface in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent research showed that higher agglutination of ExPEC and reduced bacterial invasion are correlated with higher number of "A-type" bonds and higher degree of polymerization of PAC. An understanding of PAC structure-activity relationship is becoming feasible due to advancements, not only in obtaining purified PAC fractions that allow accurate estimation, but also in high-resolution MS methodologies, specifically, MALDI-TOF MS. A recent MALDI-TOF MS deconvolution method allows quantification of the ratios of "A-type" to "B-type" bonds enabling characteristic fingerprints. Moreover, the generation of fluorescently labeled PAC allows visualization of the interaction between ExPEC and PAC with microscopy. These tools can be used to establish structure-activity relationships between PAC and UTI and give insight on the mechanism of action of these compounds in the gut without being absorbed.

Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: fruits

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Vinson JA, Su X, Zubik L, Bose P
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 49(11):5315-21
Abstract: 

The free and bound phenols have been measured in 20 fruits commonly consumed in the American diet. Phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with catechin as the standard after correction for ascorbic acid contribution. On a fresh weight basis, cranberry had the highest total phenols, and was distantly followed by red grape. Free and total phenol quality in the fruits was analyzed by using the inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation promoted by cupric ion. Ascorbate had only a minor contribution to the antioxidants in fruits with the exception of melon, nectarine, orange, white grape, and strawberry. The fruit extracts' antioxidant quality was better than the vitamin antioxidants and most pure phenols, suggesting synergism among the antioxidants in the mixture. Using our assay, fruits had significantly better quantity and quality of phenol antioxidants than vegetables. Fruits, specifically apples and cranberries, have phenol antioxidants that can enrich lower density lipoproteins and protect them from oxidation. The average per capita consumption of fruit phenols in the U.S. is estimated to be 255 mg/day of catechin equivalents.

Prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the intestine by different cranberry phenolic fractions

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Denis MC, Desjardins Y, Furtos A, Marcil V, Dudonne S, Montoudis A, Garofalo C, Delvin E, Marette A, Levy E
Journal: 
Clinical Science 128(3):197-212
Abstract: 

Cranberry fruit has been reported to have high antioxidant effectiveness that is potentially linked to its richness in diversified polyphenolic content. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cranberry polyphenolic fractions in oxidative stress (OxS), inflammation and mitochondrial functions using intestinal Caco-2/15 cells. The combination of HPLC and UltraPerformance LC-tandem quadrupole (UPLC-TQD) techniques allowed us to characterize the profile of low, medium and high molecular mass polyphenolic compounds in cranberry extracts. The medium molecular mass fraction was enriched with flavonoids and procyanidin dimers whereas procyanidin oligomers (DP > 4) were the dominant class of polyphenols in the high molecular mass fraction. Pre-incubation of Caco-2/15 cells with these cranberry extracts prevented iron/ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation and counteracted lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation as evidenced by the decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and interleukin-6), cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. Cranberry polyphenols (CP) fractions limited both nuclear factor kappaB activation and Nrf2 down-regulation. Consistently, cranberry procyanidins alleviated OxS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunctions as shown by the rise in ATP production and the up-regulation of Bcl-2, as well as the decline of protein expression of cytochrome c and apoptotic-inducing factor. These mitochondrial effects were associated with a significant stimulation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1-alpha, a central inducing factor of mitochondrial biogenesis and transcriptional co-activator of numerous downstream mediators. Finally, cranberry procyanidins forestalled the effect of iron/ascorbate on the protein expression of mitochondrial transcription factors (mtTFA, mtTFB1, mtTFB2). Our findings provide evidence for the capacity of CP to reduce intestinal OxS and inflammation while improving mitochondrial dysfunction.

Cranberry extract standardized for proanthocyanidins promotes the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK pathway and HSF-1.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Dinh J, Angeloni JT, Pederson DB, Wang X, Cao M, Dong Y
Journal: 
PLoS One 9(7):e103290.
Abstract: 

Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry
phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP), a major component of
cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype)) infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but
upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs), may play an important role in enhancing the host innate
immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms.

Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

Posted: 
April 1, 2015
Authors: 
Naito Y, Marotta F, Kantah MK, Zerbinati N, Kushugulova A, Zhumadilov Z, Illuzzi N, Sapienza C, Takadanohara H, Kobayashi R, Catanzaro R.
Journal: 
Rejuvenation Res 17(2):184-7.
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to
healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as
compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

Analysis of A-type and B-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins and their biological activities as nutraceuticals.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Yokota K, Kimura H, Ogawa S, Akihiro T
Journal: 
J Chem DOI: 10.1155/2013/352042
Abstract: 

Proanthocyanidins have a series of heteroflavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin/(-)-epicatechin units, which are linked through a single B-type linkage and a doubly linked A-type linkage. Recently, we have performed the structural characterization of seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut and fruits of blueberry and cranberry. The molecular sizes of them were higher in the order of blueberry > cranberry > seed shells of the Japanese horse chestnut between the respective fractions. For the analysis of terminal and extension units in those proanthocyanidins, the isolated fractions were subjected to the thiolytic cleavage of the B-type linkages using 1-dodecanethiol, and the resulting degradation products were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses provided fast and good resolution of the degradation products and revealed higher proportions of A-type linkages compared with B-type linkages in both isolated fractions in the order of the seed shells > cranberry > blueberry. Moreover, the isolated fractions with higher molecular sizes and those more abundant in the proportions of A-type linkages were found to be more effective in the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. The results suggest that A-type highly polymeric proanthocyanidins are promising for the attenuation of lipid digestion as dietary supplements.

Antioxidant effects of cranberry powder in lipopolysaccharide treated hypercholesterolemic rats.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Kim MJ, Kim JH, Kwak HK
Journal: 
Prev Nutr Food Sci 19(2):75-81
Abstract: 

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cranberry power on antioxidant defense system in rats fed an atherogenic diet and injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 5 groups: normal diet+saline (NS), atherogenic diet+saline (AS), atherogenic diet+LPS (AL), atherogenic diet with 5% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C5), and atherogenic diet with 10% cranberry powder+LPS (AL-C10). Total antioxidant status measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly reduced by LPS injection (24%) and was restored by the cranberry powder treatment (P

Lifespan extension by cranberry supplementation partially requires SOD2 and is life stage independent.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Sun Y, Yolitz J, Alberico T, Sun X, Zou S
Journal: 
Exp Gerontol 50:57-63
Abstract: 

Many nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals have been shown to promote healthspan and lifespan. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of prolongevity interventions and the time points at which interventions should be implemented to achieve beneficial effects are not well characterized. We have previously shown that a cranberry-containing nutraceutical can promote lifespan in worms and flies and delay age-related functional decline of pancreatic cells in rats. Here we investigated the mechanism underlying lifespan extension induced by cranberry and the effects of short-term or life stage-specific interventions with cranberry on lifespan in Drosophila. We found that lifespan extension induced by cranberry was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK, a component of oxidative stress response MAPK signaling, and slightly increased phosphorylation of AKT, a component of insulin-like signaling. Lifespan extension was also associated with a reduced level of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, a biomarker of lipid oxidation. Moreover, lifespan extension induced by cranberry was partially suppressed by knockdown of SOD2, a major mitochondrial superoxide scavenger. Furthermore, cranberry supplementation was administered in three life stages of adult flies, health span (3-30 days), transition span (31-60 days) and senescence span (61 days to the end when all flies died). Cranberry supplementation during any of these life stages extended the remaining lifespan relative to the non-supplemented and life stage-matched controls. These findings suggest that cranberry supplementation is sufficient to promote longevity when implemented during any life stage, likely through reducing oxidative damage. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Modulation of strawberry/cranberry phenolic compounds glucuronidation by co-supplementation with onion: characterization of phenolic metabolites in rat plasma using an optimized micro SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS method.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Dudonne S, Dube P, Pilon G, Marette A, Jacques H, Weisnagel J, Desjardins Y
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 62(14):3244-56
Abstract: 

Plant phenolic compounds are suggested to exert pharmacological activities in regards to obesity and type-2 diabetes, but their mode of action is poorly understood due to a lack of information about their bioavailability. This work aimed to study the bioavailability of GlucoPhenol phenolic compounds, a strawberry-cranberry extracts blend, by characterizing plasma phenolic profile in obese rats. A comparison was performed by co-supplementation with an onion extract. Using an optimized micro SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS method, 21 phenolic metabolites were characterized, mostly conjugated metabolites and microbial degradation products of the native phenolic compounds. Their kinetic profiles revealed either an intestinal or hepatic formation. Among identified metabolites, isorhamnetin glucuronide sulfate was found in greater amount in plasma. Three glucuronidated conjugates of strawberry-cranberry phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucuronide, catechins glucuronide, and methyl catechins glucuronide were found in higher quantities when GlucoPhenol was ingested together with onion extract (+252%, +279%, and +118% respectively), suggesting a possible induction of glucuronidation processes by quercetin. This work allowed the characterization of actual phenolic metabolites generated in vivo following a phenolic intake, the analysis of their kinetics and suggested a possible synergistic activity of phenolic compounds for improving bioavailability.

Supplement timing of cranberry extract plays a key role in promoting Caenorhabditis elegans healthspan.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Guha S, Natarajan O, Murbach CG, Dinh J, Wilson EC, Cao M, Zou S, Dong Y
Journal: 
Nutrients 6(2):911-21
Abstract: 

Consumption of nutraceuticals is a major and potent dietary intervention for delaying aging. As the timing of administration is critical for the efficacy of bioactive compounds in medicine, the effectiveness of nutraceuticals may also be dramatically affected by the timing of supplementation. Cranberry exact (CBE), rich in polyphenols, is consumed as a nutraceutical, and possesses anti-aging properties. Here, we examined the influence of timing on the beneficial effects of CBE supplementation in C. elegans. The prolongevity effect of CBE in different aged worms, young adults, middle-age adults, and aged adults, was determined. Early-start intervention with CBE prolonged the remaining lifespan of worms of different ages more robustly than late-start intervention. The effectiveness of CBE on stress responses and physiological behaviors in different aged worms was also investigated. The early-start intervention prominently promoted motility and resistance to heat shocks and V. cholera infection, especially in aged worms. Together, these findings suggest that the timing of CBE supplementation critically influences its beneficial effects on C. elegans lifespan and healthspan. It is of interest to further investigate whether the similar results would occur in humans.

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