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Comparison of Health-Relevant Flavanoids in Commonly Consumed Cranberry Products

Posted: 
October 30, 2012
Authors: 
Grace MH, Massey AR, Mbeunkui F, Yousef GG, Lila MA
Journal: 
J Food Sci 77(8):H176-83
Abstract: 

The human health benefits from consumption of cranberry products have been associated with the fruits’ unique flavonoid composition, including a complex profile of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. However, when
processed by techniques such as pressing, canning, concentrating, or drying, a number of these natural components may be compromised or inactivated due to physical separation, thermal degradation, or oxidation. Fresh cranberries were compared to freeze-dried berries and individual fruit tissues (skin and peeled fruit). Products examined included cranberry juices (commercial and prepared from concentrate), cranberry sauces (commercial and homemade), and sweetened-dried cranberries (commercial). Freeze-drying resulted in no detectable losses of anthocyanins or proanthocyanidins from cranberry
fruits. Anthocyanins were localized in the skin. Proanthocyanins were higher in the skin than in the flesh, with the exception of procyanidin A-2 dimer which was concentrated in the flesh. Anthocyanins were significantly higher in not-from-concentrate juice than in reconstituted juice from concentrate (8.3 mg and 4.2 mg/100 mL, respectively). Similarly, proanthocyanidins were markedly higher in not-from-concentrate juice compared to juice from concentrate (23.0 mg and 8.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Homemade sauce contained far higher anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (15.9 and 87.9 mg/100 g, respectively) than canned sauces processed with whole berries (9.6 and 54.4 mg/100 g, respectively) or jelled-type (1.1 and 16 mg/100 g, respectively). Sweetened-dried cranberries were quite low in anthocyanins
(7.9 mg/100 g), but they still retained considerable proanthocyanidins (64.2 mg/100 g). Commercially processed products contained significantly lower levels of polyphenols as compared to fresh and home-processed preparations. Anthocyanins were more sensitive to degradation than proanthocyanidins.

Cranberry components for the therapy of infectious disease

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Shmuely H, Ofek I, Weiss EI, Rones Z, Houri-Haddad Y
Journal: 
Curr Opin Biotechnol 23(2):148-52
Abstract: 

Summary of the in vitro data support a beneficial effect of cranberry or its proanthocyanin constituents by blocking adhesion to and biofilm formation on target tissues of pathogens. In vivo data partially support these beneficial effects. Consumption of various cranberry products benefited young and elderly females in preventing urinary tract infections, and in conjunction with antibiotic treatment in eradicating Helicobacter pylori infections in women. Mouthwash supplemented with an isolated cranberry derivative reduced significantly the caryogenic mutans streptococci. None of the mice infected intranasal with lethal dose of influenza virus and treated with cranberry fraction died after two weeks. Further studies should focus on the active cranberry component as supplement for food and other products especially where whole juice or powder cannot be used.

Investigation on the Protective Effects of Cranberry Against the DNA Damage Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Madrigal-Santillán E, Fragoso-Antonio S, Valadez-Vega C, Solano-Solano G, Pérez CZ, Sánchez-Gutiérrez M, Izquierdo-Vega JA, Gutiérrez-Salinas J, Esquivel-Soto J, Esquivel-Chirino C, Sumaya-Martínez T, Fregoso-Aguilar T, Mendoza-Pérez J, Morales-González J
Journal: 
Molecules 17(4):4435-51.
Abstract: 

There are few reports that demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of cranberries. Although the types of berry fruits consumed worldwide are many, this paper focuses on cranberries that are commonly consumed in Mexico (Vaccinium macrocarpon species). The purpose of the present study is to determine whether cranberry ethanolic extract (CEE) can prevent the DNA damage produced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using an in vivo mouse peripheral blood micronucleus assay. The experimental groups were organized as follows: a negative control group (without treatment), a positive group treated with B[a]P (200 mg/kg), a group administered with 800 mg/kg of CEE, and three groups treated with B[a]P and CEE (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) respectively. The CEE and benzo[a]pyrene were administered orally for a week, on a daily basis. During this period the body weight, the feed intake, and the determination of antigenotoxic potential were quantified. At the end of this period, we continued with the same determinations for one week more (recovery period) but anymore administration of the substances. The animals treated with B[a]P showed a weight increase after the first week of administration. The same phenomenon was observed in the lots combined with B[a]P and CEE (low and medium doses). The dose of 800 mg/kg of CEE showed similar values to the control group at the end of the treatment period. In the second part of the assay, when the substances were not administered, these experimental groups regained their normal weight. The dose of CEE (800 mg/kg) was not genotoxic nor cytotoxic. On the contrary, the B[a]P increases the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNE) and reduces the rate of polychromatic erythrocytes (PE) at the end of the treatment period. With respect to the combined lots, a significant decrease in the MN rate was observed from the sixth to the eighth day of treatment with the two high doses applied; the highest protection (60%) was obtained with 800 mg/kg of CEE. The same dose showed an anticytotoxic effect which corresponded to an improvement of 62.5% in relation to the animals administered with the B[a]P. In the second period, all groups reached values that have been seen in the control group animals. Our results suggest that the inhibition of clastogenicity of the cranberry ethanolic extract against B[a]P is related to the antioxidant capacity of the combination of phytochemicals present in its chemical composition.

Prolongevity effects of a botanical with oregano and cranberry extracts in Mexican fruit flies: examining interactions of diet restriction and age

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Zou S, Carey JR, Liedo P, Ingram DK, Yu B.
Journal: 
Age (Dordr) 34(2):269-79
Abstract: 

Botanicals rich with phytochemicals have numerous health benefits. Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in diverse species. We previously demonstrated that an oregano-cranberry (OC) mixture can promote longevity in the Mexican Fruit fly (Mexfly, Anastrepha ludens Loew). However, little is known about the interaction between botanicals and DR, and the age-dependent effect of botanicals on lifespan and reproduction. Here we investigated these issues by feeding Mexflies a full or DR diet supplemented with or without 2% OC. Lifespan and daily egg production of individual flies were recorded. The effect of short-term OC supplementation was evaluated by implementing the supplementation at three age intervals-young, middle, and old age. We found that OC increased lifespan of Mexflies on the full or DR diet when compared to their respective controls. OC increased reproduction of females on the full diet and, to a lesser extent, on the DR diet. Short-term OC supplementation was not sufficient to extend lifespan for males at all three age intervals nor for females at young and old age intervals. However, OC supplementation at the middle age interval was sufficient to extend lifespan in females, while only OC supplementation at the young age interval increased reproduction in females. Our findings suggest that OC extends lifespan and promotes reproduction partly through DR-independent pathways, and short-term supplementation have varied impact on longevity and reproduction. This also suggests a positive interaction between non-genetic interventions in promoting longevity and provides guidance for using botanicals as aging interventions in humans.

Transport of Cranberry A-type Procyanidin Dimers, Trimers, and Tetramers across Monolayers of Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells.

Posted: 
April 30, 2012
Authors: 
Ou K, Percival SS, Zou T, Khoo C, Gu L
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 15;60(6):1390-6
Abstract: 

A-type procyanidin oligomers in cranberries are known to inhibit the adhesion of uropathogenic bacteria. B-type procyanidins dimers and trimers are absorbed by humans. The absorption of A-type procyanidins from cranberries in humans has not been demonstrated. This study examined the transport of A-type cranberry procyanidin dimers, trimers, and tetramers on differentiated human intestinal
epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Procyanidins were extracted from cranberries and purified using hromatographic methods. Fraction I contained predominantly A-type procyanidin dimer A2 [epicatechin-(2-O-7, 4-8)-epicatechin]. Fraction II contained primarily A-type trimers and tetramers, with B-type trimers, A-type
pentamers, and A-type hexamers being minor components. Fraction I or II in solution were added onto the apical side of the Caco-2 cell membranes. The media at the basolateral side of the membranes were analyzed using HPLC-MSn after 2 h. Data indicated that procyanidin dimer A2 in fraction I and A-type trimers and tetramers in fraction II traversed across Caco-2 cell monolayers with transport ratio of 0.6%, 0.4%, and 0.2%, respectively. This study demonstrated A-type dimers, trimers, and tetramers were transported across Caco-2 cells at low rates, suggesting they could be absorbed by humans after cranberry consumption.

Characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry of the phenolic fraction in a cranberry syrup used to prevent urinary tract diseases, together with a study of its antibacter

Posted: 
January 17, 2012
Authors: 
Iswaldi I, Gomez-Caravaca AM, Arraez-Roman D, Uberos J, Lardon M, Segura-Carretero A, Fernandez-Gutierrez A.
Journal: 
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 58:34-41
Abstract: 

The phenolic fraction of a commercial cranberry syrup, which is purported to have good properties for the prevention of urinary diseases, has been thoroughly characterized using HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS. A study of its antibacterial activity has also been carried out. For this purpose a new HPLC-DAD-TOF-MS method using negative and positive ionization modes was developed and it was thus possible to identify 34 different compounds, nine of which have been tentatively characterized for the first time in cranberry syrup. It is also important to highlight that different coumarins in this matrix were also determined, which, to our knowledge, have not been found previously in the cranberry. The phenolic fraction obtained by HPLC-DAD was found to be 5.47 mg/mL. Catechin and procyanidins belonging to flavanols were the family of compounds found at the highest concentrations (2.37 mg/mL); flavonols were at a concentration of 1.91 mg/mL and phenolic-acid derivatives were found at the lowest concentration (0.15 mg/mL). With regard to antibacterial activity, the incubation of Escherichia coli with cranberry syrup was found to reduce surface hydrophobicity as a function of the concentration of the extract.

GC-MS determination of flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic acids in human plasma after consumption of cranberry juice

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Zhang K, Zuo Y
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 52(2):222-7
Abstract: 

A GC-MS method was developed for the determination of various flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic acids in human plasma. The procedure involved the extraction of flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic acids with ethyl acetate, followed by the derivatization of the phenolic and benzoic compounds with BSTFA (N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide) + TMCS (trimethylchlorosilane) reagent. The trimethylsilyl derivatives formed were separated and quantitated using GC-MS. Twenty flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic compounds have been well separated in the spiked human plasma without any interference. The average recovery was 79.3%. Several phenolic acids such as o-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, ferulic, sinapic, and benzoic acid were identified and quantified in human plasma after consumption of a cranberry juice. This developed method provides a simple, specific, and sensitive technique for the simultaneous determination of flavonoids and phenolic and benzoic acids in human plasma and is suitable for bioavailability and pharmacokinetic studies.

Inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli by cranberry juice: a new antiadherence assay

Posted: 
November 5, 2010
Authors: 
Turner A, Chen SN, Joike MK, Pendland SL, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 53(23):8940-7
Abstract: 

A combination of microplate technology and turbidity assessment for testing the adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to human uroepithelial cell line T24, validated with the addition of the known inhibitor 4-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-alpha-D-galactopyranose (galabiose), resulted in a high-throughput, biologically relevant assessment of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). P-fimbriated ATCC E. coli strains 25922, 29194, and 49161 were inhibited by galabiose. ATCC 29194, a representative urine isolate containing the papGII allele (Class II fimbrial adhesin) and demonstrating the most significant inhibition in the presence of galabiose, was chosen for further testing. In this assay, a low-polarity fraction of cranberry juice cocktail demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of E. coli adherence. Reported here, for the first time in V. macrocarpon, are 1-O-methylgalactose, prunin, and phlorizin, identified in an active fraction of cranberry juice concentrate. This in vitro assay will be useful for the standardization of cranberry dietary supplements and is currently being used for bioassay-guided fractionation of cranberry juice concentrate.

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