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Adherence Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Strains to HEp-2 Cells by Mannan Oligosaccharides and a High-Molecular-Weight Component of Cranberry Extract.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Ramirez-Hernandez A, Rupnow J, Hutkins RW
Journal: 
J Food Prot 78(8):1496-505
Abstract: 

Campylobacter infections are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are a major cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world. Colonization and subsequent infection and invasion of Campylobacter require that the bacteria adhere to the surface of host cells. Agents that inhibit adherence could be used prophylactically to reduce Campylobacter carriage and infection. Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) have been used as a feed supplement in livestock animals to improve performance and to replace growth-promoting antibiotics. However, MOS and other nondigestible oligosaccharides may also prevent pathogen colonization by inhibiting adherence in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, plant extracts, including those derived from cranberries, have been shown to have antiadherence activity against pathogens. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of MOS and cranberry fractions to serve as antiadherence agents against strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Adherence experiments were performed using HEp-2 cells. Significant reductions in adherence of C. jejuni 29438, C. jejuni 700819, C. jejuni 3329, and C. coli 43485 were observed in the presence of MOS (up to 40 mg/ml) and with a high-molecular-weight fraction of cranberry extract (up to 3 mg/ml). However, none of the tested materials reduced adherence of C. coli BAA-1061. No additive effect in adherence inhibition was observed for an MOS-cranberry blend. These results suggest that both components, MOS and cranberry, could be used to reduce Campylobacter colonization and carriage in livestock animals and potentially limit human exposure to this pathogen.

Adhesion of Asaia Bogorensis to Glass and Polystyrene in the Presence of Cranberry Juice.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Antolak H, Kregiel D, Czyzowska A
Journal: 
J Food Prot 78(6):1186-90
Abstract: 

The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion abilities of the acetic acid bacterium Asaia bogorensis to glass and polystyrene in the presence of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice. The strain of A. bogorensis used was isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored drinking water. The cranberry juice was analyzed for polyphenols, organic acids, and carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The adhesive abilities of bacterial cells in culture medium supplemented with cranberry juice were determined using luminometry and microscopy. The viability of adhered and planktonic bacterial cells was determined by the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. This strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties that were dependent upon the type of surface. The highest level of cell adhesion was found on the polystyrene. However, in the presence of 10% cranberry juice, attachment of bacterial cells was three times lower. Chemical analysis of juice revealed the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins, which were identified as galactosides, glucosides, and arabinosides of cyanidin and peonidin. A-type proanthocyanidins responsible for the antiadhesion properties of V. macrocarpon also were detected.

Antioxidant Activity and Polyphenol Content of Cranberries (Vaccinium Macrocarpon).

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Kalin P, Gulcin I, Goren AC
Journal: 
Rec Nat Prod 9(4):496-502
Abstract: 

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contain many bioactive compounds and have some biological activities and beneficial health properties. In the study, antioxidant effects of lyophilized aqueous extract of cranberry (LAEC) and quantity of some its polyphenolic compounds were determined. For this purpose, we performed DPPH., DMPD.+, ABTS.+ and O2.- radicals scavenging activities, inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity by thiocyanate method, Cu2+ and Fe3+ reducing abilities, FRAP assay and Fe2+ binding activity. At the 10 micro g/mL concentration, LAEC inhibited 52.4% lipid peroxidation produced by linoleic acid emulsion. Also, alpha -tocopherol, BHA, trolox, and BHT had 52.5, 89.9, 93.1 and 94.9% inhibition value at 30 micro g/mL concentration, respectively. Quantitative amounts of some phenolic compounds in LAEC were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). p-Hydroxy benzoic acid was found as the most abundant phenolic compound (55 mg/kg extract) in LAEC.

Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Skrovankova S, Sumczynski D, Mlcek J, Jurikova T, Sochor J
Journal: 
Int J Mol Sci 16(10):24673-706
Abstract: 

Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

Cranberry Anthocyanin Extract Prolongs Lifespan of Fruit Flies

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Wang L, Li YM, Lei L, Liu Y, Wang X, Ma KY, Chen ZY
Journal: 
Exp Gerontol 69:189-95
Abstract: 

Cranberry is an excellent source of dietary antioxidants. The present study investigated the effect of cranberry anthocyanin (CrA) extract on the lifespan of fruit flies with focus on its interaction with aging-related genes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), methuselah (MTH), insulin receptor (InR), target of rapamycin (TOR), hemipterus (Hep), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Results showed that diet containing 20mg/mL CrA could significantly prolong the mean lifespan of fruit flies by 10% compared with the control diet. This was accompanied by up-regulation of SOD1 and down-regulation of MTH, InR, TOR and PEPCK. The stress resistance test demonstrated that CrA could reduce the mortality rate induced by H2O2 but not by paraquat. It was therefore concluded that the lifespan-prolonging activity of CrA was most likely mediated by modulating the genes of SOD1, MTH, InR, TOR and PEPCK.

Cranberry Extract-Enriched Diets Increase NAD(P)H:quinone Oxidoreductase and Catalase Activities in Obese but not in Nonobese Mice

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Bousova I, Bartikova H, Matouskova P, Lnenickova K, Zappe L, Valentova K, Szotakova B, Martin J, Skalova L
Journal: 
Nutr Res 35(10):901-9
Abstract: 

Consumption of antioxidant-enriched diets is 1 method of addressing obesity, which is associated with chronic oxidative stress and changes in the activity/expression of various enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and redox status through a cranberry extract (CBE)-enriched diet would differ between obese and nonobese mice. The CBE used in this study was obtained from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ericaceae), a popular constituent of dietary supplements that is a particularly rich source of (poly)phenols and has strong antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to test and compare the in vivo effects of 28-day consumption of a CBE-enriched diet (2%) on the antioxidant status of nonobese mice and mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and small intestine were studied concurrently to obtain more complex information. The specific activities, protein, and messenger RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as the levels of malondialdehyde and thiol (SH) groups were analyzed. Cranberry extract treatment increased the SH group content in plasma and the glutathione S-transferase activity in the erythrocytes of the obese and nonobese mice. In addition, in the obese animals, the CBE treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content in erythrocytes and increased
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (liver) and catalase (erythrocytes and small intestine) activities. The elevation of hepatic
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding messenger RNA levels. The effects of CBE on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and redox status were more pronounced in the obese mice compared with the nonobese mice.

Cranberry Flavonoids Modulate Cariogenic Properties of Mixed-Species Biofilm through Exopolysaccharides-Matrix Disruption

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Kim D, Hwang G, Liu Y, Wang Y, Singh AP, Vorsa N, Koo H
Journal: 
PLoS ONE 10(12):e0145844
Abstract: 

The exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Streptococcus mutans-derived glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) are essential virulence factors associated with the initiation of cariogenic biofilms. EPS forms the core of the biofilm matrix-scaffold, providing mechanical stability while facilitating the creation of localized acidic microenvironments. Cranberry flavonoids, such as A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) and myricetin, have been shown to inhibit the activity of Gtfs and EPS-mediated bacterial adhesion without killing the organisms. Here, we investigated whether a combination of cranberry flavonoids disrupts EPS accumulation and S. mutans survival using a mixed-species biofilm model under cariogenic conditions. We also assessed the impact of cranberry flavonoids on mechanical stability and the in situ pH at the biofilm-apatite interface. Topical application of an optimized combination of PACs oligomers (100-300 muM) with myricetin (2 mM) twice daily was used to simulate treatment regimen experienced clinically. Treatments with cranberry flavonoids effectively reduced the insoluble EPS content (>80% reduction vs. vehicle-control; p

Effect of Dried Powder Preparation Process on Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.).

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Oszmianski J, Kolniak-Ostek J, Lachowicz S, Gorzelany J, Matlok N
Journal: 
Ind Crop Prod 77:658-665.
Abstract: 

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the degree of fragmentation of cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fruit powders and lyophilized pomace and juices. In analyzed samples, the basic chemical composition, total polyphenolics and antioxidant capacity were determined. Thirty-nine polyphenolic compounds, including 9 phenolic acids, 7 anthocyanins, 9 flavan-3-ols and 14 flavonols, were identified. Polyphenolic concentrations in pomaces ranged from 16 038.74 mg/100 g DW in samples from whole fruits to 17 802.52 mg/100 g DW in samples from crushed fruits. In juices, phenolic concentrations ranged from 873.12 mg/100 g DW in products from whole fruits to 3177.87 mg/100 g DW in products from crushed fruits. Antioxidant capacities were higher in dry products than in juices. The highest DPPH, ABTS and FRAP values were determined in dry pomaces obtained from crushed fruits (156.94, 275.22 and 71.47 micro mol/g DW, respectively).

Modulatory Effects of a Cranberry Extract Co-Supplementation with Bacillus Subtilis CU1 Probiotic on Phenolic Compounds Bioavailability and Gut Microbiota Composition in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Dudonne S, Varin TV, Forato Anhe F, Dube P, Roy D, Pilon G, Marette A, Levy E, Jacquot C, Urdaci M, Desjardins Y
Journal: 
PharmaNutrition [doi: 10.1016/j.phanu.2015.04.002]
Abstract: 

Cranberry consumption has been demonstrated to improve features of the metabolic syndrome, therefore providing an alternative strategy to prevent obesity and type-2 diabetes. Moreover, gut dysbiosis is now considered as a key factor in metabolic disorders. In order to understand the involvement of phenolic compounds in the health-improving effects of cranberry, this study aimed to investigate their bioavailability after oral administration of a cranberry extract (CE) to high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) fed mice, and to explore a possible modulation of gut microbiota composition following a co-supplementation with spores of Bacillus subtilis CU1 probiotic (CE/P). Phenolic metabolites were extracted and characterized from plasma using μSPE-UHPLC-MS/MS, and a metagenomic analysis was performed on feces to assess gut bacterial composition. 22 circulating metabolites were identified, mainly microbial degradation products of native cranberry phenolic compounds. Plasma concentration of 3 microbial metabolites was significantly increased with the CE/P co-treatment: p-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (+53%, +103% and +70%, respectively). Associated to this modulation, we reported significant differences in the proportion of Barnesiella and Oscillibacter genera in CE/P treated mice in comparison with control animals. This study thus highlights the impact of an altered gut microbiota on phenolic compounds degradation and bioavailability in mice.

Nano-Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Phenolic Profiling: a Case Study in Cranberry Syrups

Posted: 
March 23, 2016
Authors: 
Contreras Mdel M, Arraez-Roman D, Fernandez-Gutierrez A, Segura-Carretero A
Journal: 
Talanta 132:929-38
Abstract: 

A new method based on nano-liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano-LC-TOF-MS) using lock-mass calibration was developed to facilitate the accurate and routine characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds. Thus, it was applied to study cranberry syrups, in which, using negative ionization mode, a total of nine phenolic compounds were unequivocally identified using standards and 38 tentatively taking into account their retention time, accurate mass (errors

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