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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Review

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A Review of Nonantibiotic Agents to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Gill CM; Hughes MA; LaPlante KL.
Journal: 
J AM MED DIR ASSOC 10.1016/j.jamda.2019.04.018 [doi]
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: This article provides a comprehensive literature review on nonantibiotic agents used for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women >=45 years of age.DESIGN: A structured review was performed by conducting a literature search to identify relevant studies pertaining to the use of nonantibiotic agents to prevent UTIs in women who were perimenopausal through postmenopausal. Recommendations were made for or against the use of each nonantibiotic agent, unless data were unavailable. Levels of evidence were assigned to each recommendation made.SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Studies on the prevention of UTIs with women subjects >=45 years of age in the community, inpatient, and long-term care settings were considered for inclusion.MEASURE: The efficacy and safety of using ascorbic acid, cranberry products, d-mannose, estrogens, lactobacilli, and methenamine hippurate for prevention of UTIs was assessed.RESULTS: There is evidence to support use of estrogens (A-I) in postmenopausal women, and cranberry capsules (C-I) in women >=45 years of age for the prevention of UTIs. There was a lack of evidence to make recommendations for or against the use of ascorbic acid, cranberry juice, cranberry capsules with high proanthocyanidin (PAC) content, d-mannose, lactobacillus, and methenamine hippurate in this population.CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Current studies support that estrogens and cranberry capsules may have a role in preventing UTIs in women >=45 years of age. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of these nonantibiotic agents and how they may be used to decrease antibiotic use.

Cranberries - Potential Benefits in Patients with Chronic Kidney disease

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
de Almeida Alvarenga L; Borges NA; Moreira LSG; Resende Teixeira KT; Carraro-Eduardo JC; Dai L; Stenvinkel P; Lindholm B; Mafra D.
Journal: 
Food & Function. 10(6):3103-3112
Abstract: 

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) present many complications that potentially could be linked to increased cardiovascular mortality such as inflammation, oxidative stress, cellular senescence and gut dysbiosis. There is growing evidence suggesting that nutritional strategies may reduce some of these complications. Clinical studies suggest that supplementation of cranberries may have beneficial effects on human health such as prevention of urinary tract infections. More recently, the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects as well as modulation of gut microbiota provided by cranberry phytochemicals have drawn more attention. A better understanding of possible effects and mechanisms of action of cranberry supplementation in humans could inform researchers about warranted future directions for clinical studies targeting these complications in CKD patients by applying nutritional strategies involving cranberry supplementation.

Update on Associated Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Children.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Khan A; Jhaveri R; Seed PC; Arshad M.
Journal: 
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Societ. 8(2):152-159
Abstract: 

Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) continues to challenge pediatric care providers. The diagnosis of an rUTI can be difficult, especially in young febrile children. Antibiotic resistance rates continue to rise, which limits oral treatment options. Prophylactic antibiotics are used commonly to manage rUTI, but their use increases the risk of rUTI with antibiotic-resistant strains without significantly reducing renal scarring. Alternative therapies for rUTI include probiotics and anthocyanidins (eg, cranberry extract) to reduce gut colonization by uropathogens and prevent bacterial adhesion to uroepithelia, but efficacy data for these treatments are sparse. The future of rUTI care rests in addressing the following contemporary issues: best diagnostic practices, risk factors associated with rUTI, and the prevention of recurrent infection. In this review, we summarize the state of the art for each of these issues and highlight future studies that will aim to take an alternative approach to managing rUTI.

Cranberry Consumption Against Urinary Tract Infections: Clinical Stateof- the-Art and Future Perspectives.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Mantzorou M, Giaginis C.
Journal: 
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018;19(13):1049-1063. doi: 10.2174/1389201020666181206104129
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION:Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common and costly public health issue. The bacterium Escherichia coli is mainly responsible for most uncomplicated UTIs. Cranberry antibacterial effects have extensively been studied in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of action of its bioactive components and their clinical benefits against UTIs. In this respect, the present review aims to critically analyze the current clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy of supplementing cranberry products against UTIs in different subpopulations.METHODS:PubMed database was comprehensively searched, using relative keywords in order to identify clinical trials exploring the efficacy of cranberry supplementation against UTIs.RESULTS:Current clinical evidence clearly indicates a possible benefit overall from the use of cranberries against UTIs. Cranberry consumption may prevent bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells, reducing UTI related symptoms. Cranberry consumption could also decrease UTI related symptoms by suppressing inflammatory cascades as an immunologic response to bacterial invasion. The existing clinical trials have supported substantial evidence that the beneficial effects of cranberry against UTIs seem to be prophylactic by preventing infections recurrence; however, they exert low effectiveness in populations at increased risk for contracting UTIs. Moreover, a lack of cost-effectiveness for cranberry supplementation has been highlighted.CONCLUSIONS:Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized cranberry products for long study periods are strongly recommended in order to determine the efficiency of cranberry on the prevention of UTIs in susceptible populations. At present, cranberry supplementation can safely be suggested as complementary therapy in women with recurrent UTIs.

A Review of Cranberry Use for Preventing Urinary Tract Infections in Older Adults.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Luczak T; Swanoski M.
Journal: 
Consultant Pharmacist. 33(8):450-453,
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one the of the most common types of infections in adults older than 65 years of age. Preventing UTIs with prophylactic antibiotics increases the risk of side effects and microbial resistance, and is costly. Cranberry fruit and juices contain the compound proanthrocyanidins (PACs), specifically proanthrocyanidin-A, which exerts antiadhesion characteristics against bacteria. Cranberry products therefore have been an attractive, nonantibiotic preventative option for UTIs; however, the current literature supporting cranberry use in older adults is controversial. This could be multifactorial owing to the heterogeneity of the older population as well as inconsistencies in the recommended dose of PAC in the current literature. Evidence supports that cranberry may be beneficial in preventing UTIs in specific populations such as catheterassociated UTI and postradiotherapy prostate cancer. The cost of daily capsules versus the cost of preventing a UTI in older adults is an important consideration for initiating therapy.

A Systematic Review of Non-Antibiotic Measures for the Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Ghouri F; Hollywood A; Ryan K.
Journal: 
BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth. 18(1):99
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnancy and account for the highest proportion of primary care antibiotic prescriptions issued to pregnant women in the UK. It is well known that antibiotic use is associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and therefore measures to minimise antibiotic use for UTI prevention have been studied. The efficacy and safety of these measures in pregnancy have not been addressed and therefore the aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify and evaluate potential measures to prevent UTIs in pregnant women. METHODS: Ten databases (EMBASE, AMED, BNI, CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Trials, Scopus and Science Direct) were systematically searched in July 2017 for studies reporting non-antibiotic measures to prevent UTIs in pregnancy. The terms ("urinary tract infection" or UTI or bacteriuria or cystitis) AND (prevention) AND (pregnan*) were used. The quality of the publications was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists for cohort study, case-control study and randomised controlled trial. The results were synthesised using a textual narrative approach. RESULTS: Search results yielded 3276 publications and after reviewing titles and removing duplicates, 57 full text articles were assessed for eligibility and eight were included in the review. Five different approaches (hygiene measures, cranberry juice, immunisation, ascorbic acid and Canephron N) have been identified, all of which are reported to be safe in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The quality of the evidence varied considerably and only hygiene measures were supported by evidence to be recommended in practice. Future work needs to concentrate on strengthening the evidence base through improved design and reporting of studies with a focus on immunisation, ascorbic acid and Canephron N.

Cranberry Antioxidant Power on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Mitochondrial Damage.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Caldas, APS; Coelho, OGL; Bressan J.
Journal: 
International Journal of Food Properties, 21:1, 582-592, DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2017.1409758
Abstract: 

The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is one of the fruits containing antioxidants in great quantity and of high quality. From recent research, it is evident that both cranberry and its products, when consumed chronically or acutely, boost the antioxidant effect. Likewise, most studies revealed the anti-inflammatory potential of the cranberry polyphenols. Both effects exert direct action mechanisms, revealed by the ability of the polyphenols to remove the reactive oxygen species, as well as indirect effects, represented by the action of these phytochemicals on the cell signaling pathways and genetic expression. A limited number of articles that evaluated the effects of cranberry on mitochondrial damages are available. However, an enhancement in the functions of this organelle was confirmed by the increased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, further studies are required to demonstrate the benefits credited to the use of cranberry, as well as to describe the action mechanisms of the polyphenols.

The Hospital-Acquired Conditions (HAC) Reduction Program: Using Cranberry Treatment to Reduce Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections and Avoid Medicare Payment Reduction Penalties.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Saitone TL; Sexton RJ; Sexton Ward A.
Journal: 
Journal of Medical Economics. 21(1):97-106
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) established the Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) established a total HAC scoring methodology to rank hospitals based upon their HAC performance. Hospitals that rank in the lowest quartile based on their HAC score are subject to a 1% reduction in their total Medicare reimbursements. In FY 2017, 769 hospitals incurred payment reductions totaling $430 million. This study analyzes how improvements in the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), based on the implementation of a cranberry-treatment regimen, impact hospitals' HAC scores and likelihood of avoiding the Medicare-reimbursement penalty. METHODS: A simulation model is developed and implemented using public data from the CMS' Hospital Compare website to determine how hospitals' unilateral and simultaneous adoption of cranberry to improve CAUTI outcomes can affect HAC scores and the likelihood of a hospital incurring the Medicare payment reduction, given results on cranberry effectiveness in preventing CAUTI based on scientific trials. The simulation framework can be adapted to consider other initiatives to improve hospitals' HAC scores. RESULTS: Nearly all simulated hospitals improved their overall HAC score by adopting cranberry as a CAUTI preventative, assuming mean effectiveness from scientific trials. Many hospitals with HAC scores in the lowest quartile of the HAC-score distribution and subject to Medicare reimbursement reductions can improve their scores sufficiently through adopting a cranberry-treatment regimen to avoid payment reduction. LIMITATIONS: The study was unable to replicate exactly the data used by CMS to establish HAC scores for FY 2018. The study assumes that hospitals subject to the Medicare payment reduction were not using cranberry as a prophylactic treatment for their catheterized patients, but is unable to confirm that this is true in all cases. The study also assumes that hospitalized catheter patients would be able to consume cranberry in either juice or capsule form, but this may not be true in 100% of cases. CONCLUSION: Most hospitals can improve their HAC scores and many can avoid Medicare reimbursement reductions if they are able to attain a percentage reduction in CAUTI comparable to that documented for cranberry-treatment regimes in the existing literature.

Cranberry for Urinary Tract Infection: From Bench to Bedside.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Nabavi SF; Sureda A; Daglia M; Izadi M; Nabavi SM.
Journal: 
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 17(3):331-339
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections are common infectious diseases which can occur in any part of the urinary tract such as bladder, kidney, ureters, and urethra. They are commonly caused by bacteria that enter through the urethra. Urinary tract infections commonly develop in the bladder and spread to renal tissues. Up to now, there are different antimicrobial agents which have beneficial role on urinary tract infections. However, most of them cause different adverse effects and therefore, much attention has been paid to the search for effective therapeutic agents with negligible adverse effects. Cranberry is known as one of the most important edible plants, which possesses potent antimicrobial effects against the bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections. Growing evidence has shown that cranberry suppresses urinary tract infections and eradicates the bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study is to critically review the available literature regarding the antimicrobial activities of cranberry against urinary tract infection microorganisms. In addition, we discuss etiology, epidemiology, risk factors, and current drugs of urinary tract infections to provide a more complete picture of this disease.

Cranberry Reduces the Risk of Urinary Tract Infection Recurrence in Otherwise Healthy Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Posted: 
April 4, 2018
Authors: 
Fu Z, Liska D, Talan D, Chung M
Journal: 
Journal of Nutrition. 147(12):2282-2288
Abstract: 

Background: Cranberry (Vaccinium spp.) has been advocated for treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI); however, its efficacy is controversial. Women have a 50% risk of UTI over their lifetime, and ~20-30% experience a subsequent UTI recurrence.Objective: We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the effect of cranberry on the risk of UTI recurrence in otherwise healthy women.Methods: Literature published before January 2011 was obtained from 2 published systematic reviews, and we conducted updated searches in EMBASE and MEDLINE (through July 2017). We included randomized controlled trials that were conducted in generally healthy nonpregnant women aged >=18 y with a history of UTI, compared cranberry intervention to a placebo or control, and reported the outcome as the number of participants experiencing a UTI. Two researchers conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias assessments independently, and discrepancies were resolved by group consensus. Meta-analyses were performed by using Stata SE software (version 13). We employed a fixed-effect model using the Mantel-Haenszel method to estimate the summary risk if the heterogeneity was low to moderate (I2 300 participants.Conclusion: These results suggest that cranberry may be effective in preventing UTI recurrence in generally healthy women; however, larger high-quality studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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