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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Review

Displaying 1 - 10 of 48

American cranberries and health benefits - an evolving story of 25 years.

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Zhao ShaoMin; Liu HaiYan; Gu LiWei.
Journal: 
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture; 2020. 100(14):5111-5116
Abstract: 

Cranberries contain various types of bioactive components. Scientists have been studying cranberries' beneficial effects on urinary tract health since the 20th century. In the 21st century, the protection provided by cranberry phytochemicals against cancer and vascular diseases has drawn more attention from researchers. Anthocyanins, procyanidins, and flavonols in cranberries were all documented to have potential effects on cancer prevention. The cardiometabolic effects of cranberries have been investigated in several clinical trials. It was found that cranberries positively affect atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles and that they reduced several cardiometabolic risk factors. Nowadays, growing evidence suggests other important roles of cranberries in maintaining digestive health. Cranberry juice or cranberries have been shown to inhibit the colonization of H. pylori in stomach, and protect against intestinal inflammation. For future research, clinical trials with improved study design are urgently needed to demonstrate cranberries' benefits on urinary tract health and cardiometabolic diseases. Hypothesis-driven studies using animals or cell culture are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of cranberries' effects on digestive health

Cranberry polyphenols and prevention against urinary tract infections: relevant considerations

Posted: 
March 2, 2021
Authors: 
Gonzalez de Llano, D.; Moreno-Arribas, M. V.; Bartolome, B..
Journal: 
Molecules; 2020. 25(15).
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a distinctive source of polyphenols as flavonoids and phenolic acids that has been described to display beneficial effects against urinary tract infections (UTIs), the second most common type of infections worldwide. UTIs can lead to significant morbidity, especially in healthy females due to high rates of recurrence and antibiotic resistance. Strategies and therapeutic alternatives to antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment against UTIs are continuously being sought after. Different to cranberry, which have been widely recommended in traditional medicine for UTIs prophylaxis, probiotics have emerged as a new alternative to the use of antibiotics against these infections and are the subject of new research in this area. Besides uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common bacteria causing uncomplicated UTIs, other etiological agents, such as Klebsiellapneumoniae or Gram-positive bacteria of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus genera, seem to be more widespread than previously appreciated. Considerable current effort is also devoted to the still-unraveled mechanisms that are behind the UTI-protective effects of cranberry, probiotics and their new combined formulations. All these current topics in the understanding of the protective effects of cranberry against UTIs are reviewed in this paper. Further progresses expected in the coming years in these fields are also discussed..

Cranberries for Women with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection: a Meta-Analysis.

Posted: 
March 20, 2020
Authors: 
Tambunan, M. P. Rahardjo, H. E.
Journal: 
Medical Journal of Indonesia; 2019. 28(3):268-275.
Abstract: 

Background: Cranberries are the most widely used nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) in women; however, their efficacy still remains uncertain. Hence, this meta-analysis was aimed to assess the effectiveness, safety, and adherence of cranberry as a prophylactic drug for treating rUTI. Methods: Literature search was conducted using PubMed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar. Studies were screened for duplication, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and then reviewed by two authors independently. This included all randomized controlled trials of cranberry derivatives versus placebo and antibiotic prophylaxis. Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tools were used to evaluate the quality of the study. Quantitative analysis was performed using the Review Manager 5.0 software. Results: Nine studies were included. Among 1,542 participants, cranberry consumption reduced incidence of rUTI in women compared with placebo (p=0.02). The subgroup analysis revealed that only cranberry capsules were superior to placebo (relative risk [RR]=0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.45-0.98), but not for cranberry juice (RR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.7-1.04). Antibiotics had better outcome than cranberry for rUTI (RR=0.83, 95% CI=0.70-0.98). Most of the participants experienced minor adverse events such as rash and gastrointestinal symptoms. There was also a good adherence rate, ranging from 90.3-99% monthly dose. Conclusion: Cranberry, especially cranberry capsule consumption, had a significant effect in reducing the incidence of rUTI compared with placebo, with good adherence rates, and minor adverse events. In contrast, although antibiotic use had a greater efficacy, it was associated with a higher risk of severe adverse events.

A Review of Nonantibiotic Agents to Prevent Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Gill CM; Hughes MA; LaPlante KL.
Journal: 
J AM MED DIR ASSOC 10.1016/j.jamda.2019.04.018 [doi]
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: This article provides a comprehensive literature review on nonantibiotic agents used for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women >=45 years of age.DESIGN: A structured review was performed by conducting a literature search to identify relevant studies pertaining to the use of nonantibiotic agents to prevent UTIs in women who were perimenopausal through postmenopausal. Recommendations were made for or against the use of each nonantibiotic agent, unless data were unavailable. Levels of evidence were assigned to each recommendation made.SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Studies on the prevention of UTIs with women subjects >=45 years of age in the community, inpatient, and long-term care settings were considered for inclusion.MEASURE: The efficacy and safety of using ascorbic acid, cranberry products, d-mannose, estrogens, lactobacilli, and methenamine hippurate for prevention of UTIs was assessed.RESULTS: There is evidence to support use of estrogens (A-I) in postmenopausal women, and cranberry capsules (C-I) in women >=45 years of age for the prevention of UTIs. There was a lack of evidence to make recommendations for or against the use of ascorbic acid, cranberry juice, cranberry capsules with high proanthocyanidin (PAC) content, d-mannose, lactobacillus, and methenamine hippurate in this population.CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Current studies support that estrogens and cranberry capsules may have a role in preventing UTIs in women >=45 years of age. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of these nonantibiotic agents and how they may be used to decrease antibiotic use.

Cranberries - Potential Benefits in Patients with Chronic Kidney disease

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
de Almeida Alvarenga L; Borges NA; Moreira LSG; Resende Teixeira KT; Carraro-Eduardo JC; Dai L; Stenvinkel P; Lindholm B; Mafra D.
Journal: 
Food & Function. 10(6):3103-3112
Abstract: 

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) present many complications that potentially could be linked to increased cardiovascular mortality such as inflammation, oxidative stress, cellular senescence and gut dysbiosis. There is growing evidence suggesting that nutritional strategies may reduce some of these complications. Clinical studies suggest that supplementation of cranberries may have beneficial effects on human health such as prevention of urinary tract infections. More recently, the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects as well as modulation of gut microbiota provided by cranberry phytochemicals have drawn more attention. A better understanding of possible effects and mechanisms of action of cranberry supplementation in humans could inform researchers about warranted future directions for clinical studies targeting these complications in CKD patients by applying nutritional strategies involving cranberry supplementation.

Update on Associated Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Children.

Posted: 
August 29, 2019
Authors: 
Khan A; Jhaveri R; Seed PC; Arshad M.
Journal: 
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Societ. 8(2):152-159
Abstract: 

Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) continues to challenge pediatric care providers. The diagnosis of an rUTI can be difficult, especially in young febrile children. Antibiotic resistance rates continue to rise, which limits oral treatment options. Prophylactic antibiotics are used commonly to manage rUTI, but their use increases the risk of rUTI with antibiotic-resistant strains without significantly reducing renal scarring. Alternative therapies for rUTI include probiotics and anthocyanidins (eg, cranberry extract) to reduce gut colonization by uropathogens and prevent bacterial adhesion to uroepithelia, but efficacy data for these treatments are sparse. The future of rUTI care rests in addressing the following contemporary issues: best diagnostic practices, risk factors associated with rUTI, and the prevention of recurrent infection. In this review, we summarize the state of the art for each of these issues and highlight future studies that will aim to take an alternative approach to managing rUTI.

Cranberry Consumption Against Urinary Tract Infections: Clinical Stateof- the-Art and Future Perspectives.

Posted: 
February 19, 2019
Authors: 
Mantzorou M, Giaginis C.
Journal: 
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018;19(13):1049-1063. doi: 10.2174/1389201020666181206104129
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION:Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common and costly public health issue. The bacterium Escherichia coli is mainly responsible for most uncomplicated UTIs. Cranberry antibacterial effects have extensively been studied in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of action of its bioactive components and their clinical benefits against UTIs. In this respect, the present review aims to critically analyze the current clinical studies that have evaluated the efficacy of supplementing cranberry products against UTIs in different subpopulations.METHODS:PubMed database was comprehensively searched, using relative keywords in order to identify clinical trials exploring the efficacy of cranberry supplementation against UTIs.RESULTS:Current clinical evidence clearly indicates a possible benefit overall from the use of cranberries against UTIs. Cranberry consumption may prevent bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells, reducing UTI related symptoms. Cranberry consumption could also decrease UTI related symptoms by suppressing inflammatory cascades as an immunologic response to bacterial invasion. The existing clinical trials have supported substantial evidence that the beneficial effects of cranberry against UTIs seem to be prophylactic by preventing infections recurrence; however, they exert low effectiveness in populations at increased risk for contracting UTIs. Moreover, a lack of cost-effectiveness for cranberry supplementation has been highlighted.CONCLUSIONS:Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized cranberry products for long study periods are strongly recommended in order to determine the efficiency of cranberry on the prevention of UTIs in susceptible populations. At present, cranberry supplementation can safely be suggested as complementary therapy in women with recurrent UTIs.

A Review of Cranberry Use for Preventing Urinary Tract Infections in Older Adults.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Luczak T; Swanoski M.
Journal: 
Consultant Pharmacist. 33(8):450-453,
Abstract: 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one the of the most common types of infections in adults older than 65 years of age. Preventing UTIs with prophylactic antibiotics increases the risk of side effects and microbial resistance, and is costly. Cranberry fruit and juices contain the compound proanthrocyanidins (PACs), specifically proanthrocyanidin-A, which exerts antiadhesion characteristics against bacteria. Cranberry products therefore have been an attractive, nonantibiotic preventative option for UTIs; however, the current literature supporting cranberry use in older adults is controversial. This could be multifactorial owing to the heterogeneity of the older population as well as inconsistencies in the recommended dose of PAC in the current literature. Evidence supports that cranberry may be beneficial in preventing UTIs in specific populations such as catheterassociated UTI and postradiotherapy prostate cancer. The cost of daily capsules versus the cost of preventing a UTI in older adults is an important consideration for initiating therapy.

A Systematic Review of Non-Antibiotic Measures for the Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnancy.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Ghouri F; Hollywood A; Ryan K.
Journal: 
BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth. 18(1):99
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnancy and account for the highest proportion of primary care antibiotic prescriptions issued to pregnant women in the UK. It is well known that antibiotic use is associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and therefore measures to minimise antibiotic use for UTI prevention have been studied. The efficacy and safety of these measures in pregnancy have not been addressed and therefore the aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify and evaluate potential measures to prevent UTIs in pregnant women. METHODS: Ten databases (EMBASE, AMED, BNI, CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Trials, Scopus and Science Direct) were systematically searched in July 2017 for studies reporting non-antibiotic measures to prevent UTIs in pregnancy. The terms ("urinary tract infection" or UTI or bacteriuria or cystitis) AND (prevention) AND (pregnan*) were used. The quality of the publications was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists for cohort study, case-control study and randomised controlled trial. The results were synthesised using a textual narrative approach. RESULTS: Search results yielded 3276 publications and after reviewing titles and removing duplicates, 57 full text articles were assessed for eligibility and eight were included in the review. Five different approaches (hygiene measures, cranberry juice, immunisation, ascorbic acid and Canephron N) have been identified, all of which are reported to be safe in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The quality of the evidence varied considerably and only hygiene measures were supported by evidence to be recommended in practice. Future work needs to concentrate on strengthening the evidence base through improved design and reporting of studies with a focus on immunisation, ascorbic acid and Canephron N.

Cranberry Antioxidant Power on Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Mitochondrial Damage.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Caldas, APS; Coelho, OGL; Bressan J.
Journal: 
International Journal of Food Properties, 21:1, 582-592, DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2017.1409758
Abstract: 

The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is one of the fruits containing antioxidants in great quantity and of high quality. From recent research, it is evident that both cranberry and its products, when consumed chronically or acutely, boost the antioxidant effect. Likewise, most studies revealed the anti-inflammatory potential of the cranberry polyphenols. Both effects exert direct action mechanisms, revealed by the ability of the polyphenols to remove the reactive oxygen species, as well as indirect effects, represented by the action of these phytochemicals on the cell signaling pathways and genetic expression. A limited number of articles that evaluated the effects of cranberry on mitochondrial damages are available. However, an enhancement in the functions of this organelle was confirmed by the increased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, further studies are required to demonstrate the benefits credited to the use of cranberry, as well as to describe the action mechanisms of the polyphenols.

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