Back to top

Search

Cardiovascular Health & Anti-inflammatory Benefits: Animal

Displaying 1 - 10 of 23

Cranberry Anthocyanin as an Herbal Medicine Lowers Plasma Cholesterol by Increasing Excretion of Fecal Sterols.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Wang L, Zhu H, Zhao Y, Jiao R, Lei L, Chen J, Wang X, Zhang Z, Huang Y, Wang T, Chen ZY.
Journal: 
Phytomedicine; 38:98-106
Abstract: 

Background: Interest in using herbal medicines to treat the hypercholesterolemia is increasing. Cranberry extract could decrease plasma cholesterol, however, the active ingredients and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Hypothesis: The present study was to test the hypothesis that cranberry anthocyanins (CrA) were at least one of the active ingredients responsible for the cholesterol-lowering activity of cranberry fruits via a mechanism of increasing fecal sterol excretion. Methods: Forty-four hamsters were randomly divided into five groups and fed one of the five diets, namely a non-cholesterol control diet (NCD), a high-cholesterol control diet (HCD), a HCD diet supplemented with a low dose of 1% CrA (CL), a HCD diet supplemented with a high dose of 2% CrA (CH), and a HCD diet supplemented with 0.5% cholestyramine as a positive control drug (P-CTL), respectively, for six weeks. Plasma lipoprotein cholesterol was quantified using the enzymatic kits, while the gene expressions of transporters, enzymes and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism were quantified using the quantitative RT-PCR. Fecal sterols were quantified using gas chromatography (GC). Results: Plasma total cholesterol and aorta atherosclerotic plaque decreased dose-dependently with the increasing amounts of CrA added into diets. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in excretion of both neutral and acidic sterols. CrA had no effect on the mRNA levels of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein (NPC1 L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP binding cassette transporter 5 (ABCG5) as well as hepatic cholesterol-7 alpha -hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase (HMG-CoA-R), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), LDL receptor (LDL-R), and Liver X receptor alpha (LXR alpha ). Conclusion: CrA as an herbal medicine could favorably modify the lipoprotein profile in hamsters fed a high cholesterol diet by enhancing excretion of fecal neutral and acidic sterols, most likely not mediated by interaction with genes of transporters, enzymes and proteins involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism

Synergistic Effect of Cranberry Extract and Losartan Against Aluminium Chloride-Induced Hepatorenal Damage Associated Cardiomyopathy in Rats.

Posted: 
September 4, 2018
Authors: 
Galal SM; Hasan HF; Abdel-Rafei MK; El Kiki SM.
Journal: 
Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry. 1-10, 10.1080/13813455.2018.1465437 [doi]
Abstract: 

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (CRAN) and/or losartan (LOS) against aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced hepatorenal damage associated cardiomyopathy in rats. To induce hepatorenal and cardiotoxicity, animals were received (AlCl3; 70mg/kg i.p.) for 8weeks day after day and treated with CRAN (100mg/kg b.wt.) orally daily for 4weeks started after 4weeks from AlCl3 injection accompanied with an administration of LOS (5mg/kg i.p.) three times weekly for 4weeks. Our data revealed that, compared to AlCl3, administration of CRAN extract and LOS produced a significant improvement which was evidenced by a significant amelioration in myocardial and vascular indices, kidney and liver markers, lipid profile and oxidative stress indices. Furthermore, histopathological and immunohistochemical examination reinforced the previous results. It could be concluded that combination of CRAN extract and LOS hindered AlCl3 induced hepatorenal damage complicated cardiomyopathy in rats.

Cranberry Extract Attenuates Hepatic Inflammation in High-Fat-Fed Obese Mice

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Glisan SL, Ryan C, Neilson AP, Lambert JD
Journal: 
J Nutr Biochem 37:60-66
Abstract: 

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) consumption has been associated with health beneficial effects. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a comorbidity of obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CBE) on hepatic inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. Following dietary treatment with 0.8% CBE for 10 weeks, we observed no change in body weight or visceral fat mass in CBE-supplemented mice compared to HF-fed control mice. We did observe a significant decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase (31%) and histological severity of NAFLD (33% decrease in area of involvement, 29% decrease in lipid droplet size) compared to HF-fed controls. Hepatic protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and C-C chemokine ligand 2 were reduced by 28% and 19%, respectively, following CBE supplementation. CBE significantly decreased hepatic mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, 63%) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B, 24%), as well as a number of genes related to the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasome. In conclusion, CBE reduced NAFLD and hepatic inflammation in HF-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. These effects appear to be related to mitigation of TLR4-NF kappa B related signaling; however, further studies into the underlying mechanisms of these hepatoprotective effects are needed.

Polyphenol Extracts Interfere with Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Vitro and Decrease Postprandial Endotoxemia in Human Volunteers

Posted: 
March 1, 2017
Authors: 
Wong X, Madrid AM, Tralma K, Castillo R, Carrasco-Pozo C, Navarrete P, Beltran C, Pastene E, Gotteland M
Journal: 
Journal of Functional Foods; 2016. 26:406-417
Abstract: 

The intestinal absorption of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dietary fat has been implicated in the development of metabolic endotoxemia. This study first compared the ability of polyphenol extracts from grape, cranberry, avocado and apple to interfere with pancreatic lipase and LPS in vitro. The grape extract displayed a higher inhibitory activity of lipase (IC50=8.6+or-1.1 mg/ml) and LPS binding (IC50=90+or-1.1 micro g/ml). Then, a study was carried out in 12 normal weight and 17 overweight/obese subjects to determine the effect of this extract on the postprandial changes in plasma triacylglycerols, LPS and IL-6. The presence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), in which higher levels of bacteria and eventually LPS are present in the upper intestine, i.e. where dietary fat absorption occurs, was also evaluated. Compared with placebo, the grape extract did not affect postprandial triacylglycerolemia but decreased plasma LPS, without affecting the IL-6-associated inflammatory response. SIBO did not affect these variables.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Berry Fruits in Mice Model of Inflammation is Based on Oxidative Stress Modulation

Posted: 
August 22, 2016
Authors: 
Nardi GM; Farias Januario AG; Freire CG; Megiolaro F; Schneider K; Perazzoli MR; Do Nascimento SR; Gon AC; Mariano LN; Wagner G; Niero R; Locatelli C
Journal: 
Pharmacognosy Research. 8(Suppl 1):S42-9
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Many fruits have been used as nutraceuticals because the presence of bioactive molecules that play biological activities. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of methanolic extracts of Lycium barbarum (GOJI), Vaccinium macrocarpon (CRAN) and Vaccinium myrtillus (BLUE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mices were treated with extracts (50 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.), twice a day through 10 days. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antioxidant activity was determine by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, reducing power, lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by paw edema followed by determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and TBARS. RESULTS: High amount of phenolic compounds, including rutin, were identified in all berries extracts. However, quercetin was observed only in BLUE and CRAN. GOJI presents higher scavenging activity of DPPH radical and reducing power than BLUE and CRAN. The extracts improved antioxidant status in liver; BLUE showed the largest reduction (75.3%) in TBARS when compared to CRAN (70.7%) and GOJI (65.3%). Nonetheless, CAT activity was lower in BLUE group. However, hepatic concentrations of GSH were higher in animals treated with GOJI rather than CRAN and BLUE. Despite all fruits caused a remarkable reduction in paw edema and TBARS, only BLUE and CRAN were able to reduce MPO. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that quercetin, rutin, or other phenolic compound found in these berry fruits extracts could produce an anti-inflammatory response based on modulation of oxidative stress in paw edema model. SUMMARY: Within fruits broadly consumed because of its nutraceuticals properties include, Lycium barbarum (Goji berry), Vaccinium myrtillus (Blueberry or Bilberry) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry)The objectives of this study were the investigation and comparison of chemical composition, antioxidant activity "in vitro" and "in vivo" and anti inflammatory property of berry fruits bought dry form.In summary, two main findings can be addressed with this study: (1) Berry fruits presented antioxidant and anti inflammatory activities "in vitro" and "in vivo"; (2) the extracts of GOJI, CRAN, and BLUE modulate the inflammatory process by different mechanisms.

Cranberry flavonoids prevent toxic rat liver mitochondrial damage in vivo and scavenge free radicals in vitro.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Lapshina EA, Zamaraeva M, Cheshchevik VT, Olchowik-Grabarek E, Sekowski S, Zukowska I, Golovach NG, Burd VN, Zavodnik IB
Journal: 
Cell Biochem Funct 33(4):202-10
Abstract: 

The present study was undertaken for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid biological activity, focusing on the antioxidative and protective effects of cranberry flavonoids in free radical-generating systems and those on mitochondrial ultrastructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication. Treatment of rats with cranberry flavonoids (7mg/kg) during chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication led to prevention of mitochondrial damage, including fragmentation, rupture and local loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In radical-generating systems, cranberry flavonoids effectively scavenged nitric oxide (IC50 =4.4+/-0.4micro g/ml), superoxide anion radicals (IC50 =2.8+/-0.3micro g/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50 =53+/-4micro g/ml). The IC50 for reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) was 2.2+/-0.3micro g/ml. Flavonoids prevented to some extent lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes and glutathione oxidation in erythrocytes treated with UV irradiation or organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased the rigidity of the outer leaflet of the liposomal membranes. The hepatoprotective potential of cranberry flavonoids could be due to specific prevention of rat liver mitochondrial damage. The mitochondria-addressed effects of flavonoids might be related both to radical-scavenging properties and modulation of various mitochondrial events.

Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

Posted: 
September 28, 2015
Authors: 
Auger C, Pollet B, Arnold C, Marx C, Schini-Kerth VB
Journal: 
J Med Food 18(1):128-36
Abstract: 

Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

Cranberry proanthocyanidins improve intestinal sIgA during elemental enteral nutrition.

Posted: 
July 25, 2014
Authors: 
Pierre JF, Heneghan AF, Feliciano RP, Shanmuganayagam D, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Kudsk KA
Journal: 
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 38(1):107-14
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) decreases gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) function, including fewer Peyer's patch lymphocytes and lower levels of the tissue T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines and mucosal transport protein polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), leading to lower luminal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels. Since we recently demonstrated that cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) maintain the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 when added to EEN, we hypothesized the addition of PACs to EEN would normalize other GALT parameters and maintain luminal levels of sIgA.

METHODS: Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomized (12/group) to receive chow, EEN, or EEN + PACs (100 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days, starting 2 days after intragastric cannulation. Ileum tissue was collected to measure IL-4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, pIgR by Western blot, and phosphorylated STAT-6 by microarray. Intestinal wash fluid was collected to measure sIgA by Western blot.

RESULTS: Compared with chow, EEN significantly decreased tissue IL-4, phosphorylated STAT-6, and pIgR. The addition of PACs to EEN prevented these alterations. Compared with chow, EEN resulted in significantly lower levels of luminal sIgA. The addition of PACs to EEN increased luminal sIgA levels compared with EEN alone.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the addition of PACs to EEN may support GALT function and maintain intestinal sIgA levels compared with EEN administration alone.

Chronic cranberry juice consumption restores cholesterol profiles and improves endothelial function in ovariectomized rats.

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Yung LM, Tian XY, Wong WT, Leung FP, Yung LH, Chen ZY, Lau CW, Vanhoutte PM, Yao X, Huang Y
Journal: 
Eur J Nutr 52(3):1145-55
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: Postmenopausal women experience higher risks for cardiovascular diseases than age-matched men and pre-menopausal women. There is a need for better treatment strategy for estrogen-deficient-related cardiovascular complications. We and others have recently reported that activated renin-angiotensin system and the associated oxidative stress impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in ovariectomized rat, while angiotensin receptor blocker rescues endothelial dysfunction. Dietary supplements and lifestyle modifications provide an alternative way to improve cardiovascular health. The present study tests the hypothesis that chronic cranberry juice consumption improves cholesterol profiles and vascular functions in estrogen-deficient animal model. The effect of cranberry consumption on expression and activity of renin-angiotensin system in the vasculature will be determined.
METHODS: Ovariectomized rats were treated daily with commercial cranberry juice at 7 mg/kg for 8 weeks, a dosage comparable to recent clinical studies. Serum was collected for measuring cholesterol levels while aorta was isolated for isometric force assay and expression studies.
RESULTS: Cranberry juice consumption reduced circulating levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, HDL, nHDL, and nHDL/HDL ratio. Meanwhile, cranberry juice consumption improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in aorta of ovariectomized rats by restoring p-eNOS level (endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylated at ser-1177), reversing the up-regulated levels of renin-angiotensin system markers (angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor), and normalizing the elevated NAD(P)H oxidase expression and oxidative stress.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the novel cardiovascular benefits of cranberry juice consumption in improving both vascular functions and cholesterol profiles, providing insight into developing cranberry products into useful dietary supplements for postmenopausal women.

Cranberry Proanthocyanidins Improve Intestinal sIgA During Elemental Enteral Nutrition

Posted: 
September 15, 2013
Authors: 
Pierre JF, Heneghan AF, Feliciano RP, Shanmuganayagam D, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Kudsk KA
Journal: 
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr DOI: 10.1177/0148607112473654
Abstract: 

Background: Elemental enteral nutrition (EEN) decreases gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) function, including fewer Peyer's patch lymphocytes and lower levels of the tissue T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines and mucosal transport protein polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), leading to lower luminal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels. Since we recently demonstrated that cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) maintain the Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 when added to EEN, we hypothesized the addition of PACs to EEN would normalize other GALT parameters and maintain luminal levels of sIgA. Methods: Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomized (12/group) to receive chow, EEN, or EEN + PACs (100 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days, starting 2 days after intragastric cannulation. Ileum tissue was collected to measure IL-4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, pIgR by Western blot, and phosphorylated STAT-6 by microarray. Intestinal wash fluid was collected to measure sIgA by Western blot. Results: Compared with chow, EEN significantly decreased tissue IL-4, phosphorylated STAT-6, and pIgR. The addition of PACs to EEN prevented these alterations. Compared with chow, EEN resulted in significantly lower levels of luminal sIgA. The addition of PACs to EEN increased luminal sIgA levels compared with EEN alone. Conclusions: This study suggests the addition of PACs to EEN may support GALT function and maintain intestinal sIgA levels compared with EEN administration alone.

Pages