Anti-Escherichia coli adhesin activity of cranberry and blueberry juices
No abstract - Methods: We tested a 5-fold concentrated preparation of the juice to simulate the cranberry concentrate currently available commercially. The concentrate was diluted 1:1 with trypticase soy broth and adjusted to a pH of 7.0 to ensure that the results would not be confounded by the acidity of the medium. We added an inoculum of approximately 104 colony-forming units per milliliter from an overnight culture of a variety of American Type Culture Collectionquality control strains both to plain broth and the broth to which the cranberry juice had been added. Both cultures were incubated at 35°C and bacterial counts performed in duplicate at 90 minutes and 24 hours.
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting oral tissues. The continuous, high production of cytokines by host cells triggered by periodontopathogens is thought to be responsible for the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. Macrophages play a critical role in this host inflammatory response to periodontopathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of non-dialyzable material prepared from cranberry juice concentrate on the pro-inflammatory cytokine response of macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Escherichia coli. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and Regulated on Activation Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) production by macrophages treated with the cranberry fraction prior to stimulation by LPS was evaluated by ELISA. Our results clearly indicate that the cranberry fraction was a potent inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses induced by LPS. This suggests that cranberry constituents may offer perspectives for the development of a new therapeutic approach to the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.
Cranberry juice consumption is often used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but the effect of cranberry juice on heart disease has not been investigated. We evaluated how a cranberry extract containing 1,548 mg gallic acid equivalents/liter (initial pH=2.50) affected low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation induced by 10 micromolar cupric sulfate. When LDL oxidation took place in the presence of diluted cranberry extracts, the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LDL electrophoretic mobility were reduced. LDL electrophoretic migration was also reduced when the cranberry extract had a pH of 7.00 prior to dilution. This study suggests that cranberry extracts have the ability to inhibit the oxidative modification of LDL particles.
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major aetiological agent of periodontitis, a destructive disease affecting the tooth-supporting tissues. Recent reports have indicated that high-molecular-weight molecules from cranberry juice concentrate can prevent the attachment of human pathogens to host tissues.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of non-dialysable material (NDM) prepared from cranberry juice concentrate on growth, biofilm formation and adherence properties of P. gingivalis.
METHODS: The effect of cranberry NDM on biofilm formation was studied using a polystyrene microplate assay and by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of cranberry NDM on the attachment properties of P. gingivalis was evaluated by a microplate assay in which mammalian proteins were immobilized into wells.
RESULTS: Our results indicated that cranberry NDM is a potent inhibitor of biofilm formation by P. gingivalis. However, it has no effect on growth and viability of bacteria. Cranberry NDM also prevented significantly the attachment of P. gingivalis to surfaces coated with type I collagen, fibrinogen or human serum.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that cranberry constituents may have a beneficial effect for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis by reducing the capacity of P. gingivalis to colonize periodontal sites.
Dental plaque stability depends on bacterial adhesion to acquired pellicle, and on interspecies adhesion (or coaggregation). A high-molecular-weight cranberry constituent at 0.6 to 2.5 milligrams per milliliter reversed the coaggregation of 49 (58 percent) of 84 coaggregating bacterial pairs tested. It acted preferentially on pairs in which one or both members are gram-negative anaerobes frequently involved in periodontal diseases. Thus, the anticoaggregating cranberry constituent has the potential for altering the subgingival microbiota, resulting in conservative control of gingival and periodontal diseases. However, the high dextrose and fructose content of the commercially available cranberry juice makes it unsuitable for oral hygiene use, and the beneficial effect of the high-molecular-weight constituent requires animal and clinical studies.
A high-molecular-weight constituent of cranberry juice has been found to inhibit the sialyllactose specific adhesion of Helicobacter pylori strains to immobilized human mucus, erythrocytes, and cultured gastric epithelial cells. Different isolates of H. pylori differ in their affinity to the cranberry juice constituent. Cranberry juice may also inhibit adhesion of bacteria to the stomach in vivo, and may prove useful for the prevention of stomach ulcer that is caused by H. pylori.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontal diseases are a group of inflammatory disorders that are initiated by specific gram-negative bacteria and lead to connective tissue destruction. Proteolytic enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and elastase, produced by resident and inflammatory cells in response to periodontopathogens and their products, play a major role in gingival tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high-molecular-weight fraction prepared from cranberry juice concentrate on MMP-3, MMP-9 and elastase activities, as well as on MMP production by human cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: MMP-3 and MMP-9 production by gingival fibroblasts and macrophages treated with the cranberry fraction and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MMP-3, MMP-9 and elastase activities in the presence of the cranberry fraction were evaluated using colorimetric or fluorogenic substrates. The changes in expression and phosphorylation state of fibroblast intracellular signaling proteins induced by A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide and the cranberry fraction were characterized by antibody microarrays.
RESULTS: The lipopolysaccharide-induced MMP-3 and MMP-9 responses of fibroblasts and macrophages were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the cranberry fraction. This fraction was found to inhibit fibroblast intracellular signaling proteins, a phenomenon that may lead to a down-regulation of activating protein-1 activity. MMP-3, MMP-9 and elastase activities were also efficiently inhibited by the cranberry fraction, even when it was used at low concentrations.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that cranberry compounds offer promising perspectives for the development of novel host-modulating strategies for an adjunctive treatment of periodontitis.
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola are three major aetiological agents of chronic periodontitis. The strong proteolytic activities of these bacteria are critical to their survival since their energy source is obtained from peptides and amino acids derived from proteins. In addition, proteases are important factors contributing to periodontal tissue destruction by a variety of mechanisms, including direct tissue degradation and modulation of host inflammatory responses.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of non-dialysable material (NDM) prepared from cranberry juice concentrate on the proteolytic activities of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola.
METHODS: The effect of NDM on gingipain and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities of P. gingivalis, trypsin-like activity of T. forsythia and chymotrypsin-like activity of T. denticola was evaluated using synthetic chromogenic peptides. In addition, the capacity of P. gingivalis to degrade fluorescein-labelled type I collagen and fluorescein-labelled transferrin in the presence of NDM was evaluated by fluorometry.
RESULTS: NDM dose-dependently inhibited the proteinases of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola as well as type I collagen and transferrin degradation by P. gingivalis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that NDM has the potential to reduce either the proliferation of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola in periodontal pockets or their proteinase-mediated destructive process occurring in periodontitis.
Inhibition of bacterial adherence to bladder cells has been assumed to account for the beneficial action ascribed to cranberry juice and cranberry juice cocktail in the prevention of urinary tract infections (A. E. Sobota, J. Urol. 131:1013-1016, 1984). We have examined the effect of the cocktail and juice on the adherence of Escherichia coli expressing surface lectins of defined sugar specificity to yeasts, tissue culture cells, erythrocytes, and mouse peritoneal macrophages. Cranberry juice cocktail inhibited the adherence of urinary isolates expressing type 1 fimbriae (mannose specific) and P fimbriae [specific for alpha-D-Gal(1----4)-beta-D-Gal] but had no effect on a diarrheal isolate expressing a CFA/I adhesin. The cocktail also inhibited yeast agglutination by purified type 1 fimbriae. The inhibitory activity for type 1 fimbriated E. coli was dialyzable and could be ascribed to the fructose present in the cocktail; this sugar was about 1/10 as active as methyl alpha-D-mannoside in inhibiting the adherence of type 1 fimbriated bacteria. The inhibitory activity for the P fimbriated bacteria was nondialyzable and was detected only after preincubation of the bacteria with the cocktail. Cranberry juice, orange juice, and pineapple juice also inhibited adherence of type 1 fimbriated E. coli, most likely because of their fructose content. However, the two latter juices did not inhibit the P fimbriated bacteria. We conclude that cranberry juice contains at least two inhibitors of lectin-mediated adherence of uropathogens to eucaryotic cells. Further studies are required to establish whether these inhibitors play a role in vivo.