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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Hess MJ, Hess PE, Sullivan MR, Nee M, Yalla SV
Journal: 
Spinal Cord 46(9):622-6
Abstract: 

STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial with a crossover design.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients.

SETTING: Spinal Cord Injury Unit of a Veterans Administration Hospital, MA, USA.

METHODS: Subjects with spinal cord injury and documentation of neurogenic bladder were randomized to receive 6 months of cranberry extract tablet or placebo, followed by the alternate preparation for an additional 6 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of UTI.

RESULTS: Forty-seven subjects completed the trial. We found a reduction in the likelihood of UTI and symptoms for any month while receiving the cranberry tablet (P

CONCLUSION: Cranberry extract tablets should be considered for the prevention of UTI in SCI patients with neurogenic bladder. Patients with a high GFR may receive the most benefit.

The antifungal activity of urine after ingestion of cranberry products.

Posted: 
November 4, 2010
Authors: 
Lee YL, Owens J, Thrupp L, Barron S, Shanbrom E, Cesario T, Najm WI
Journal: 
J Altern Complement Med 15(9):957-8
Abstract: 

No abstract - Introduction: Cranberry (Vacinicum macrocarpon) is traditionally used in folk medicine for treatment of urinary tract infections. In a recent study, we established that in addition to the antiadhesion effects, concentrated cranberry juice had a direct antimicrobial effect in vitro. We were also able to confirm a direct antimicrobial activity in vitro against a strain of Klebsiella
pneumoniae, in the urine of subjects after ingestion of a commercial cranberry product. While bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infections, frequent or prolonged antimicrobial therapy, use of catheters, severely ill patients, high plasma glucose, and invasive procedures can often lead to candiduria. A review of the literature identified one study (Swartz and Medrek 1968), which reported that cranberry juice (40%) in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar had minimal effect on the growth of Candida albicans compared to 0.087% benzoic acid. In this study, we evaluate the anti-Candida activity of urine specimens after ingestion of cranberry.

Can a concentrated cranberry extract prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women? A pilot study.

Posted: 
November 2, 2010
Authors: 
Bailey DT, Dalton C, Joseph Daugherty F, Tempesta MS
Journal: 
Phytomedicine 14(4):237-41
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are extremely prevalent and despite treatment with antibiotics, reoccurrences are common causing frustration in the patient and the potential for developing antibiotic resistance. The use of cranberry products to prevent UTIs has recently become popular and more clinical studies are needed to explore this use.

OBJECTIVE: This open label pilot study examined the ability of a concentrated cranberry preparation to prevent UTIs in women with a history of recurrent infections.

SUBJECTS: Women between the ages of 25 and 70 years old were included with a history of a minimum of 6 UTIs in the proceeding year.

INTERVENTION: The women took one capsule twice daily for 12 weeks containing 200 mg of a concentrated cranberry extract standardized to 30% phenolics.

DESIGN: A questionnaire was used initially to determine the patient's medical history and they were asked at monthly intervals if any of the information had changed. All of the women in the study had urinalysis within 24h before starting on the study preparation and once a month after that for 4 months. Subjects were followed-up approximately 2 years later.

RESULTS: All 12 subjects participated in the 12-week study and were available for follow up 2 years later. During the study none of the women had a UTI. No adverse events were reported. Two years later, eight of the women who continue to take cranberry, continue to be free from UTIs.

CONCLUSION: A cranberry preparation with a high phenolic content may completely prevent UTIs in women who are subject to recurrent infections.

PMID: 17296290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Can cranberry juice be a substitute for cefaclor prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux?

Posted: 
November 2, 2010
Authors: 
Nishizaki N, Someya T, Hirano D, Fujinaga S, Ohtomo Y, Shimizu T and Kaneko K
Journal: 
Pediatr Int 51(3):433-4
Abstract: 

No abstract - Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common childhood infection. In 30–50% of children with UTI the infections occur recurrently, especially in those with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), resulting in hospitalizations, and long-term health problems, such as renal scars, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. To reduce the likelihood of recurrent UTI for children with VUR, antibiotics prophylaxis has been regarded as the therapeutic standard for many years. However, the disadvantage of long-term antibiotic therapy is the potential for development of resistant organisms in the host.

Although cranberry juice prophylaxis was found to reduce the frequency of bacteriuria with pyuria in older women, no studies have yet been reported in the literature on children with VUR. The purpose of this study was to examine whether cranberry juice can be substituted for antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of UTI in children with VUR.

Increased salicylate concentrations in urine of human volunteers after consumption of cranberry juice.

Posted: 
November 2, 2010
Authors: 
Duthie GG, Kyle JA, Jenkinson AM, Duthie SJ, Baxter GJ, Paterson JR
Journal: 
J Agric Food Chem 53(8):2897-2900
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to assess whether regular consumption of cranberry juice results in elevations in urinary salicylate concentrations in persons not taking salicylate drugs. Two groups of healthy female subjects (11/group) matched for age, weight, and height consumed 250 mL of either cranberry juice or a placebo solution three times a day (i.e., 750 mL/day) for 2 weeks. At weekly intervals, salicylic acid and salicyluric acid (the major urinary metabolite of salicylic acid) concentrations were determined in urine by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Concentrations of salicylic acid in plasma were also determined. Consumption of cranberry juice was associated with a marked increase (p

Consumption of sweetened dried cranberries versus unsweetened raisins for inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion in human urine: a pilot study

Posted: 
November 1, 2010
Authors: 
Greenberg JA, Newmann SJ and Howell AB
Journal: 
J Altern Complement Med 11(5):875-8
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of sweetened dried cranberries elicits urinary anti-adherence properties against Escherichia coli as previously demonstrated with cranberry juice and/or sweetened cranberry juice cocktail, compared to unsweetened raisins.

DESIGN: Uropathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained from five women with culture-confirmed urinary tract infections (UTIs). Four urine samples were collected from each subject. The first urine sample was collected before any study intervention. The second urine sample was collected 2-5 hours after consumption of one box (42.5 g) of raisins. The third urine sample was collected 5-7 days later. The final urine sample was collected 2-5 hours after consumption of approximately 42.5 g of dried cranberries.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: E. coli isolates were incubated separately in each of the four urine samples collected from the five subjects. Bacteria were harvested from the urine and tested for the ability to prevent adhesion of P-fimbriated E. coli bacteria using a mannose-resistant hemagglutination assay with human red blood cells (A1, Rh+).

RESULTS: Of the urine samples collected after dried cranberry consumption, one demonstrated 50% antiadherence activity, two demonstrated 25% activity, and two did not show any increased activity. None of the control urine samples and none of the postraisin consumption samples demonstrated any inhibitory activity.

CONCLUSIONS: Data from this pilot study on only five subjects suggest that consumption of a single serving of sweetened dried cranberries may elicit bacterial antiadhesion activity in human urine, whereas consumption of a single serving of raisins does not. Further studies are needed to verify the antiadhesion effect of sweetened dried cranberries. In addition, dose-response and pharmacokinetics of the active compounds in the dried cranberries need to be determined. If clinical research is positive, dried cranberries could potentially be a viable alternative to cranberry juice consumption for prevention of UTIs.

Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections? a randomized controlled trial in older women

Posted: 
November 1, 2010
Authors: 
McMurdo ME, Argo I, Phillips G, Daly F, Davey P
Journal: 
J Antimicrob Chemother 63(2):389-95
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of cranberry extract with low-dose trimethoprim in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven women with two or more antibiotic-treated UTIs in the previous 12 months were randomized to receive either 500 mg of cranberry extract or 100 mg of trimethoprim for 6 months.

RESULTS: Thirty-nine of 137 participants (28%) had an antibiotic-treated UTI (25 in the cranberry group and 14 in the trimethoprim group); difference in proportions relative risk 1.616 (95% CI: 0.93, 2.79) P = 0.084. The time to first recurrence of UTI was not significantly different between the groups (P = 0.100). The median time to recurrence of UTI was 84.5 days for the cranberry group and 91 days for the trimethoprim group (U = 166, P = 0.479). There were 17/137 (12%) withdrawals from the study, 6/69 (9%) from the cranberry group and 11/68 (16%) from the trimethoprim group (P = 0.205), with a relative risk of withdrawal from the cranberry group of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.19, 1.37).

CONCLUSIONS: Trimethoprim had a very limited advantage over cranberry extract in the prevention of recurrent UTIs in older women and had more adverse effects. Our findings will allow older women with recurrent UTIs to weigh up with their clinicians the inherent attractions of a cheap, natural product like cranberry extract whose use does not carry the risk of antimicrobial resistance or super-infection with Clostridium difficile or fungi.

Dosage effect on uropathogenic escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study

Posted: 
November 1, 2010
Authors: 
Howell AB, Botto H, Combescure C, Blanc-Potard A-B, Gausa L, Matsumoto T, Tenke P, Sotto A, Lavigne JP
Journal: 
BMC Infect Dis 10:94
Abstract: 

BACKGROUND: Ingestion of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) has traditionally been utilized for prevention of urinary tract infections. The proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry, in particular the A-type linkages have been implicated as important inhibitors of primarily P-fimbriated E. coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Additional experiments were required to investigate the persistence in urine samples over a broader time period, to determine the most effective dose per day and to determine if the urinary anti-adhesion effect following cranberry is detected within volunteers of different origins.

METHODS: Two separate bioassays (a mannose-resistant hemagglutination assay and an original new human T24 epithelial cell-line assay) have assessed the ex-vivo urinary bacterial anti-adhesion activity on urines samples collected from 32 volunteers from Japan, Hungary, Spain and France in a randomized, double-blind versus placebo study. An in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans model was used to evaluate the influence of cranberry regimen on the virulence of E. coli strain.

RESULTS: The results indicated a significant bacterial anti-adhesion activity in urine samples collected from volunteers that consumed cranberry powder compared to placebo (p

CONCLUSIONS: Administration of PAC-standardized cranberry powder at dosages containing 72 mg of PAC per day may offer some protection against bacterial adhesion and virulence in the urinary tract. This effect may offer a nyctohemeral protection.

Predictors of urinary tract infection after menopause: a prospective study

Posted: 
November 1, 2010
Authors: 
Jackson SL, Boyko EJ, Scholes D, Abraham L, Gupta K, Fihn SD
Journal: 
Am J Med 117(12):903-911
Abstract: 

Purpose: To describe the incidence of and risk factors for acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women.
Methods:We conducted a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1017 postmenopausal women, aged 55 to 75 years, who were enrolled in a health maintenance organization and followed for 2 years. A wide range of behavioral and physiologic exposures were assessed at baseline interview and follow-up clinic visits; the main outcome measure was microbiologically confirmed acute symptomatic cystitis. Follow-up was 87% at 12 months and 81% at 24 months.
Results:During 1773 person-years of follow-up, 138 symptomatic urinary tract infections occurred (incidence, 0.07 per person-year). Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 7.0) and a lifetime history of urinary tract infection (HR for six or more infections = 6.9; 95% CI: 3.5 to 13.6). Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the last month (HR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0 to 3.4), a history of kidney stones (HR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0 to 3.7), and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline (HR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.9 to 3.5). Sexual activity, urinary incontinence, parity, postcoital urination, vaginal dryness, use of cranberry juice, vaginal bacterial flora, and postvoid residual bladder volume were not associated with incident acute cystitis after multivariable adjustment.
Conclusion:Insulin-treated diabetes is a potentially modifiable risk factor for incident acute cystitis among postmenopausal women, whereas a lifetime history of urinary tract infection was the strongest predictor. Use of oral or vaginal estrogen was not protective, and a wide range of behavioral and physiologic factors was not associated with acute cystitis episodes in this generally healthy sample.

Cranberry juice and adhesion of antibiotic-resistant uropathogens

Posted: 
October 31, 2010
Authors: 
Howell AB and Foxman B
Journal: 
JAMA 287(23):3082-3
Abstract: 

No abstract - Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for more than 11 million physician visits annually in the United States and have become increasingly resistant to first-line antibiotic therapy. Recent evidence suggests that consumption of cranberry juice beverages is effective at preventing UTIs, although further studies are needed to validate potential treatment effects. While early research focused on a mechanism of urinary acidification, the largest clinical trial to date found no evidence to support this. Recent studies suggest that cranberry proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) may inhibit P-fimbriated Escherichia coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells, the initial step in development of UTI. The effectiveness of cranberry proanthocyanidins and cranberry beverages against antibiotic-resistant E coli, however, has not been previously tested. We assessed whether consumption of cranberry juice cocktail prevents adhesion of antibiotic-resistant uropathogenic P-fimbriated E coli to the uroepithelium.

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