Back to top

Search

Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

Displaying 101 - 110 of 132

Inhibitory activity of cranberry extract on the bacterial adhesiveness in the urine of women: an ex-vivo study.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Tempera G, Corsello S, Genovese C, Caruso FE, Nicolosi D
Journal: 
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23(2):611-8.
Abstract: 

Strains of uropathogenic E. coli are responsible for approximately 90% of community-acquired, uncomplicated cystitis, and fimbriae represent the adhesive factors enabling E. coli to be anchored to uroepithelial cells in the first step of the infectious process. Recently, a few studies have shown that a correlation between the consumption of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and prevention of UTI is related to the ability of proanthocyanidins to reduce the bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. In this study we evaluate the inhibitory activity of urine of healthy women treated with tablets containing cranberry extract on the adhesiveness of E. coli to uroepithelial human cells. Two groups of 12 female volunteers each, aged between 18 and 65 years, were enrolled, one group with negative history and one group with positive history of recurrent cystitis. Subjects were treated with the active product or placebo in a random, cross-over, double-blinded sequence for one week in each of the two treatment sequences. Urine samples were collected at the beginning and the end of each study period. Tests of bacterial adhesiveness were performed with two strains of E. coli (ATCC 25922 and ATCC 35218) on HT1376 human bladder carcinoma cells. Significant reductions of bacterial adhesiveness were observed in women who received cranberry extract (-50.9%; p less than 0.0001), regardless of their medical history and the treatment period in the cross-over sequence. No changes were observed with placebo (-0.29%; n.s.). This ex-vivo study showed that the assumption of cranberry extract in suitable amounts can have an anti-adhesive activity on uropathogenic E. coli.

Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz JH, Glynn RJ, Choodnovskiy I, Lipsitz LA
Journal: 
JAMA 271(10):751-754
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of regular intake of cranberry juice beverage on bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women.

DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

SUBJECTS: Volunteer sample of 153 elderly women (mean age, 78.5 years).

INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 300 mL per day of a commercially available standard cranberry beverage or a specially prepared synthetic placebo drink that was indistinguishable in taste, appearance, and vitamin C content but lacked cranberry content.

OUTCOME MEASURES: A baseline urine sample and six clean-voided study urine samples were collected at approximately 1-month intervals and tested quantitatively for bacteriuria and the presence of white blood cells.

RESULTS: Subjects randomized to the cranberry beverage had odds of bacteriuria (defined as organisms numbering > or = 10(5)/mL) with pyuria that were only 42% of the odds in the control group (P = .004). Their odds of remaining bacteriuric-pyuric, given that they were bacteriuric-pyuric in the previous month, were only 27% of the odds in the control group (P = .006).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that use of a cranberry beverage reduces the frequency of bacteriuria with pyuria in older women. Prevalent beliefs about the effects of cranberry juice on the urinary tract may have microbiologic justification.

Urinary ionized calcium in urolithiasis. Effect of cranberry juice.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Light I, Gursel E, Zinnser HH
Journal: 
Urology 1(1):67-70
Abstract: 

Abstract: Urinary ionized calcium was determined by a calcium activity electrode in 32 normal persons and in 54 patients with calcium-containing renal stones and without urinary tract infection. It was found to be 38 per cent higher in patients with calcium-containing renal stone in comparison to normal persons. However, this was not statistically significant. No consistant change in total or ionized calcium excretion was produced in normal volunteers by the administration of as much as 5 pints of cranberry juice. In patients with renal stones, the urinary ionized calcium was reduced during the cranberry juice ingestion by 50 per cent, which was statistically highly significant.

In-vitro and in-vivo evidence of dose-dependent decrease of uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence after consumption of commercial Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) capsules.

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Lavigne JP, Bourg G, Combescure C, Botto H, Sotto A
Journal: 
Clin Microbiol Infect 14(4):350-355
Abstract: 

This study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the consumption of cranberry capsules vs. placebo in the urine of healthy volunteers. A first double-blind, randomised, crossover trial involved eight volunteers who had followed three regimens, with or without cranberry, with a wash-out period of at least 6 days between each regimen. Twelve hours after consumption of cranberry or placebo hard capsules, the first urine of the morning was collected. Different Escherichia coli strains were cultured in the urine samples. Urinary antibacterial adhesion activity was measured in vitro using the human T24 epithelial cell-line, and in vivo using the Caenorhabditis elegans killing model. With the in-vitro model, 108 mg of cranberry induced a significant reduction in bacterial adherence to T24 cells as compared with placebo (p

Spinal-injured neuropathic bladder antisepsis (SINBA) trial

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Lee BB, Haran MJ, Hunt LM, Simpson JM, Marial O, Rutkowski SB, Middleton JW, Kotsiou G, Tudehope M, Cameron ID
Journal: 
Spinal Cord 45(8):542-50
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Methenamine Hippurate (MH) or cranberry tablets prevent urinary tract infections (UTI) in people with neuropathic bladder following spinal cord injury (SCI).

STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind factorial-design randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 2 year recruitment period from November 2000 and 6 month follow-up.

SETTING: In total, 543 eligible predominantly community dwelling patients were invited to participate in the study, of whom 305 (56%) agreed.

METHODS: Eligible participants were people with SCI with neurogenic bladder and stable bladder management. All regimens were indistinguishable in appearance and taste. The dose of MH used was 1 g twice-daily. The dose of cranberry used was 800 mg twice-daily. The main outcome measure was the time to occurrence of a symptomatic UTI.

RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that patients randomized to MH did not have a significantly longer UTI-free period compared to placebo (HR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.68-1.35, P=0.75). Patients randomized to cranberry likewise did not have significantly longer UTI-free period compared to placebo (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.67-1.31, P=0.70).

CONCLUSION: There is no benefit in the prevention of UTI from the addition of MH or cranberry tablets to the usual regimen of patients with neuropathic bladder following SCI.

A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Stothers L
Journal: 
Can J Urol 9(3):1558-62
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: To determine, from a societal perspective, the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of concentrated cranberry tablets, versus cranberry juice, versus placebo used as prophylaxis against lower urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult women.MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty sexually active women aged 21 through 72 years were randomized for one year to one of three groups of prophylaxis: placebo juice + placebo tablets versus placebo juice + cranberry tablets, versus cranberry juice + placebo tablets. Tablets were taken twice daily, juice 250 ml three times daily. Outcome measures were: (1) a >50% decrease in symptomatic UTI's per year (symptoms + >or= 100 000 single organisms/ml) and (2) a >50% decrease in annual antibiotic consumption. Cost effectiveness was calculated as dollar cost per urinary tract infection prevented. Stochastic tree decision analytic modeling was used to identify specific clinical scenarios for cost savings.RESULTS: Both cranberry juice and cranberry tablets statistically significantly decreased the number of patients experiencing at least 1 symptomatic UTI/year (to 20% and 18% respectively) compared with placebo (to 32%) (p2 symptomatic UTI's per year (assuming 3 days antibiotic coverage) and had >2 days of missed work or required protective undergarments for urgency incontinence. Total antibiotic consumption was less annually in both treatment groups compared with placebo. Cost effectiveness ratios demonstrated cranberry tablets were twice as cost effective as organic juice for prevention.CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry tablets provided the most cost-effective prevention for UTI.

Efficacy of cranberry capsules in prevention of urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Mazokopakis EE
Journal: 
J Altern Complement Med 15(11):1155
Abstract: 

No abstract - Purpose: The aim of our correspondence is to submit the results of a small study (the first in a Greek population to our knowledge) about administering cranberries in the form of capsules to healthy postmenopausal women with recurrent UTIs.

Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Linsenmeyer TA, Harrison B, Oakley A, Kirshblum S, Stock JA, Millis SR
Journal: 
J Spinal Cord Med 27(1):29-34
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of cranberry supplement at preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

PARTICIPANTS: 21 individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to SCI.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Favorable or unfavorable response of cranberry supplement vs placebo on urinary bacterial counts and white blood cell (WBC) counts and the combination of bacterial and WBC counts.

METHODS: Individuals with neurogenic bladders due to SCI were recruited and randomly assigned to standardized 400-mg cranberry tablets or placebo 3 times a day for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks and an additional 1-week ""washout period,"" participants were crossed over to the other group. Participants were seen weekly, during which a urine analysis was obtained. UTI was defined as significant bacterial or yeast colony counts in the urine and elevated WBC counts (WBC count > or = 10 per high power field) in centrifuged urine. Participants with symptomatic infections were treated with appropriate antibiotics for 7 days and restarted on the cranberry tablet/ placebo after a 7-day washout period. Urinary pH between the cranberry and placebo groups was compared weekly. Data were analyzed using the Ezzet and Whitehead's random effect approach.

RESULTS: There was no statistically significant treatment (favorable) effect for cranberry supplement beyond placebo when evaluating the 2 treatment groups for bacterial count, WBC count, or WBC and bacterial counts in combination. Urinary pH did not differ between the placebo and cranberry groups.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry tablets were not found to be effective at changing urinary pH or reducing bacterial counts, urinary WBC counts, or UTIs in individuals with neurogenic bladders. Further long-term studies evaluating specific types of bladder management and UTIs will help to determine whether there is any role for the use of cranberries in individuals with neurogenic bladders.

Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
McHarg T, Rodgers A, Charlton K.
Journal: 
BJU Int 92(7):765-8
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential influence of cranberry juice on urinary biochemical and physicochemical risk factors associated with the formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones, as this product might affect the chemical composition of urine.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Urinary variables were assessed in a randomized cross-over trial in 20 South African men (students) with no previous history of kidney stones. The first group of 10 subjects drank 500 mL of cranberry juice diluted with 1500 mL tap water for 2 weeks, while the second group drank 2000 mL of tap water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week 'washout' period before the two groups crossed over. During the experimental phase subjects kept a 3-day food diary to assess their dietary and fluid intakes; 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and on day 14 of the trial periods, and analysed using modern laboratory techniques. Urine analysis data were used to calculate the relative urinary supersaturations of calcium oxalate, uric acid and calcium phosphate. Data were assessed statistically by analysis of variance.

RESULTS: The ingestion of cranberry juice significantly and uniquely altered three key urinary risk factors. Oxalate and phosphate excretion decreased while citrate excretion increased. In addition, there was a decrease in the relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate, which tended to be significantly lower than that induced by water alone.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry juice has antilithogenic properties and, as such, deserves consideration as a conservative therapeutic protocol in managing calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in women receiving maintenance antifungal therapy: results of a prospective cohort study.

Posted: 
November 7, 2010
Authors: 
Patel DA, Gillespie B, Sobel JD, Leaman D, Nyirjesy P, Weitz MV, Foxman B.
Journal: 
Am J Obstet Gynecol 190(3):644-53
Abstract: 

The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors for symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes among women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (defined as >/=4 vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes in 1 year) who were receiving maintenance antifungal therapy.

STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 65 women aged >/=18 years with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis who attended vaginitis clinics in Detroit, Mich, and Philadelphia, Pa.

RESULTS: The 9-month risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrence was 41.8%. Almost two fifths of the women reported activity limitations because of vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes, most or all of the time. Younger women and those women with a history of bacterial vaginosis were at increased risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes. Behavioral factors that were associated significantly with increasing vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrence >/=2- fold included wearing pantyliners or pantyhose and consuming cranberry juice or acidophilus-containing products.

CONCLUSION: The use of pantyliners or pantyhose, consumption of cranberry juice or acidophil-containing products, a history of bacterial vaginosis, and age

Pages