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Urinary Tract Health and Antibacterial Benefits: Human

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Effect of cranberry drink on bacterial adhesion in vitro and vaginal microbiota in healthy females

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Jass J and Reid G
Journal: 
Can J Urol 16(6):4901-7
Abstract: 

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE: Cranberries have been shown to produce urinary metabolites that influence uropathogen adhesion and prevent urinary tract infections. This study was designed to determine if consuming reconstituted, unsweetened cranberry drink from extract retained its bioactive properties by reducing uropathogen adhesion without adversely affecting urinary calcium, magnesium and the vaginal microflora. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized crossover study was undertaken in 12 healthy women consuming reconstituted unsweetened cranberry drink, CranActin or water. The urine was collected at 4 hours and 1 week of consumption and evaluated for antiadhesive properties and urinary pH, calcium and magnesium. Vaginal swabs were collected after 1 week of treatment to assess the vaginal microbiota by DGGE. RESULTS: The resultant urine produced by subjects who consumed 500 ml reconstituted cranberry extract twice per day, significantly reduced the adherence to epithelial cells of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli and showed a tendency towards significance for two E. coli strains expressing fimbriae and an Enterococcus faecalis isolate. The cranberry drink treatment did not alter urinary pH, but reduced calcium and magnesium concentrations compared to water, although not to statistical significance. The reconstituted cranberry drink had no apparent detrimental effect on the vaginal microbiota. However, consuming twice daily resulted in an apparent loss of a potential pathogen from the vagina in 42% subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that reconstituted cranberry drink may retain the ability to reduce the risk of UTI by inhibiting pathogen adhesion while not detrimentally affecting urinary pH or vaginal microbiota, or the risk of calculi

Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Shmuely H, Yahav J, Samra Z, Chodick G, Koren R, Niv Y, Ofek I
Journal: 
Mol Nutr Food Res 51(6):746-51
Abstract: 

Cranberry constituents are known to exert anti-adhesion activity on H. pylori in vitro. To determine their possible additive effect to triple therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin (OAC), a double-blind randomized clinical study was carried out. One-hundred-seventy-seven patients with H. pylori infection treated with OAC for 1 week were randomly allocated to receive 250 mL of either cranberry juice (cranberry-OAC, n = 89) or placebo beverage (placebo-OAC, n = 88) twice daily and only cranberry juice or placebo beverage for the next 2 weeks. Treatment outcome was determined with the(13)C urea breath test ((13)C-UBT). An additional control group consisted of patients referred to the same center during the same period who were treated with OAC alone for 1 week (non-placebo-OAC, n = 712). Overall, the rate of H. pylori eradication ((13)C-UBT

Effect of feeding tube properties and three irrigants on clogging rates.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Metheny N, Eisenberg P and McSweeney M
Journal: 
Nurs Res 37(3):165-9
Abstract: 

An experimental study was conducted on 3 consecutive 12-hour days to determine if selected physical properties of feeding tubes (material and diameter) affect tube clogging. Effectiveness of three irrigant fluids (cranberry juice, Coca-Cola, and water) in preventing tube clogging was studied. One hundred eight tubes were connected to gravity flow feeding bags containing isotonic enteral formula; 54 polyurethane and 54 silicone tubes were equally divided as to external diameters of 8 French (Fr), 10 Fr, and 12 Fr. At 4-hour intervals, flow regulators on the feeding bags were adjusted to a rate of 50 ml/hour. Fluid volumes delivered per minute were measured for each tube at 2-hour intervals. One set of tubes at each station was irrigated periodically with cranberry juice, Coca-Cola, or water. On each of the 3 days, analyses revealed significant, p less than .05, effects for tube material, cranberry juice contrasted with Coca-Cola and water as irrigants, and time. Polyurethane was consistently superior to silicone as a tube material, and cranberry juice was consistently inferior to both Coca-Cola and water as an irrigant. Tube diameter had no significant effect on the incidence of tube clogging.

Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infections

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Sobota AE
Journal: 
J Urol 131(5):1013-6
Abstract: 

Cranberry juice has been widely used for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and is reputed to give symptomatic relief from these infections. Attempts to account for the potential benefit derived from the juice have focused on urine acidification and bacteriostasis. In this investigation it is demonstrated that cranberry juice is a potent inhibitor of bacterial adherence. A total of 77 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli were tested. Cranberry juice inhibited adherence by 75 per cent or more in over 60 per cent of the clinical isolates. Cranberry cocktail was also given to mice in the place of their normal water supply for a period of 14 days. Urine collected from these mice inhibited adherence of E. coli to uroepithelial cells by approximately 80 per cent. Antiadherence activity could also be detected in human urine. Fifteen of 22 subjects showed significant antiadherence activity in the urine 1 to 3 hours after drinking 15 ounces of cranberry cocktail. It is concluded that the reported benefits derived from the use of cranberry juice may be related to its ability to inhibit bacterial adherence.

Inhibitory activity of cranberry extract on the bacterial adhesiveness in the urine of women: an ex-vivo study.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Tempera G, Corsello S, Genovese C, Caruso FE, Nicolosi D
Journal: 
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23(2):611-8.
Abstract: 

Strains of uropathogenic E. coli are responsible for approximately 90% of community-acquired, uncomplicated cystitis, and fimbriae represent the adhesive factors enabling E. coli to be anchored to uroepithelial cells in the first step of the infectious process. Recently, a few studies have shown that a correlation between the consumption of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and prevention of UTI is related to the ability of proanthocyanidins to reduce the bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. In this study we evaluate the inhibitory activity of urine of healthy women treated with tablets containing cranberry extract on the adhesiveness of E. coli to uroepithelial human cells. Two groups of 12 female volunteers each, aged between 18 and 65 years, were enrolled, one group with negative history and one group with positive history of recurrent cystitis. Subjects were treated with the active product or placebo in a random, cross-over, double-blinded sequence for one week in each of the two treatment sequences. Urine samples were collected at the beginning and the end of each study period. Tests of bacterial adhesiveness were performed with two strains of E. coli (ATCC 25922 and ATCC 35218) on HT1376 human bladder carcinoma cells. Significant reductions of bacterial adhesiveness were observed in women who received cranberry extract (-50.9%; p less than 0.0001), regardless of their medical history and the treatment period in the cross-over sequence. No changes were observed with placebo (-0.29%; n.s.). This ex-vivo study showed that the assumption of cranberry extract in suitable amounts can have an anti-adhesive activity on uropathogenic E. coli.

Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz JH, Glynn RJ, Choodnovskiy I, Lipsitz LA
Journal: 
JAMA 271(10):751-754
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of regular intake of cranberry juice beverage on bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women.

DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

SUBJECTS: Volunteer sample of 153 elderly women (mean age, 78.5 years).

INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 300 mL per day of a commercially available standard cranberry beverage or a specially prepared synthetic placebo drink that was indistinguishable in taste, appearance, and vitamin C content but lacked cranberry content.

OUTCOME MEASURES: A baseline urine sample and six clean-voided study urine samples were collected at approximately 1-month intervals and tested quantitatively for bacteriuria and the presence of white blood cells.

RESULTS: Subjects randomized to the cranberry beverage had odds of bacteriuria (defined as organisms numbering > or = 10(5)/mL) with pyuria that were only 42% of the odds in the control group (P = .004). Their odds of remaining bacteriuric-pyuric, given that they were bacteriuric-pyuric in the previous month, were only 27% of the odds in the control group (P = .006).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that use of a cranberry beverage reduces the frequency of bacteriuria with pyuria in older women. Prevalent beliefs about the effects of cranberry juice on the urinary tract may have microbiologic justification.

Urinary ionized calcium in urolithiasis. Effect of cranberry juice.

Posted: 
November 10, 2010
Authors: 
Light I, Gursel E, Zinnser HH
Journal: 
Urology 1(1):67-70
Abstract: 

Abstract: Urinary ionized calcium was determined by a calcium activity electrode in 32 normal persons and in 54 patients with calcium-containing renal stones and without urinary tract infection. It was found to be 38 per cent higher in patients with calcium-containing renal stone in comparison to normal persons. However, this was not statistically significant. No consistant change in total or ionized calcium excretion was produced in normal volunteers by the administration of as much as 5 pints of cranberry juice. In patients with renal stones, the urinary ionized calcium was reduced during the cranberry juice ingestion by 50 per cent, which was statistically highly significant.

In-vitro and in-vivo evidence of dose-dependent decrease of uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence after consumption of commercial Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) capsules.

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Lavigne JP, Bourg G, Combescure C, Botto H, Sotto A
Journal: 
Clin Microbiol Infect 14(4):350-355
Abstract: 

This study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the consumption of cranberry capsules vs. placebo in the urine of healthy volunteers. A first double-blind, randomised, crossover trial involved eight volunteers who had followed three regimens, with or without cranberry, with a wash-out period of at least 6 days between each regimen. Twelve hours after consumption of cranberry or placebo hard capsules, the first urine of the morning was collected. Different Escherichia coli strains were cultured in the urine samples. Urinary antibacterial adhesion activity was measured in vitro using the human T24 epithelial cell-line, and in vivo using the Caenorhabditis elegans killing model. With the in-vitro model, 108 mg of cranberry induced a significant reduction in bacterial adherence to T24 cells as compared with placebo (p

Spinal-injured neuropathic bladder antisepsis (SINBA) trial

Posted: 
November 9, 2010
Authors: 
Lee BB, Haran MJ, Hunt LM, Simpson JM, Marial O, Rutkowski SB, Middleton JW, Kotsiou G, Tudehope M, Cameron ID
Journal: 
Spinal Cord 45(8):542-50
Abstract: 

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Methenamine Hippurate (MH) or cranberry tablets prevent urinary tract infections (UTI) in people with neuropathic bladder following spinal cord injury (SCI).

STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind factorial-design randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 2 year recruitment period from November 2000 and 6 month follow-up.

SETTING: In total, 543 eligible predominantly community dwelling patients were invited to participate in the study, of whom 305 (56%) agreed.

METHODS: Eligible participants were people with SCI with neurogenic bladder and stable bladder management. All regimens were indistinguishable in appearance and taste. The dose of MH used was 1 g twice-daily. The dose of cranberry used was 800 mg twice-daily. The main outcome measure was the time to occurrence of a symptomatic UTI.

RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that patients randomized to MH did not have a significantly longer UTI-free period compared to placebo (HR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.68-1.35, P=0.75). Patients randomized to cranberry likewise did not have significantly longer UTI-free period compared to placebo (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.67-1.31, P=0.70).

CONCLUSION: There is no benefit in the prevention of UTI from the addition of MH or cranberry tablets to the usual regimen of patients with neuropathic bladder following SCI.

A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women

Posted: 
November 8, 2010
Authors: 
Stothers L
Journal: 
Can J Urol 9(3):1558-62
Abstract: 

PURPOSE: To determine, from a societal perspective, the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of concentrated cranberry tablets, versus cranberry juice, versus placebo used as prophylaxis against lower urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult women.MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty sexually active women aged 21 through 72 years were randomized for one year to one of three groups of prophylaxis: placebo juice + placebo tablets versus placebo juice + cranberry tablets, versus cranberry juice + placebo tablets. Tablets were taken twice daily, juice 250 ml three times daily. Outcome measures were: (1) a >50% decrease in symptomatic UTI's per year (symptoms + >or= 100 000 single organisms/ml) and (2) a >50% decrease in annual antibiotic consumption. Cost effectiveness was calculated as dollar cost per urinary tract infection prevented. Stochastic tree decision analytic modeling was used to identify specific clinical scenarios for cost savings.RESULTS: Both cranberry juice and cranberry tablets statistically significantly decreased the number of patients experiencing at least 1 symptomatic UTI/year (to 20% and 18% respectively) compared with placebo (to 32%) (p2 symptomatic UTI's per year (assuming 3 days antibiotic coverage) and had >2 days of missed work or required protective undergarments for urgency incontinence. Total antibiotic consumption was less annually in both treatment groups compared with placebo. Cost effectiveness ratios demonstrated cranberry tablets were twice as cost effective as organic juice for prevention.CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry tablets provided the most cost-effective prevention for UTI.

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